托管元数据简介Introduction to managed metadata

元数据是有关信息的信息。Metadata is information about information. 例如,书籍的标题和作者是元数据。For example, a book's title and author is metadata. 元数据可以是许多类型的信息--一个位置、一个日期或一个目录项编号。Metadata can be many kinds of information -- a location, a date, or a catalog item number. 使用 SharePoint 产品时,可以集中管理元数据。When you use SharePoint products, you can manage the metadata centrally. 可以有意义的方式在业务中组织元数据,并使用元数据更轻松地找到所需内容。You can organize the metadata in a way that makes sense in your business and use the metadata to make it easier to find what you want.

本文介绍了托管元数据的一些重要术语,并提供了如何在 SharePoint 中使用工具来管理元数据的快速讨论。This article describes some important terminology of managed metadata, and gives you a quick look at how you can use the tools in SharePoint to manage metadata.

重要术语Important terminology

本节包含一些关键术语的定义。This section contains definitions of some key terminology. 这些术语和概念经常出现在有关托管元数据的文章中。These terms and concepts appear frequently in articles about managed metadata.

分类Taxonomy

分类是正式的分类系统。A taxonomy is a formal classification system. 分类对描述内容的词、标签和术语进行分组,然后将组排列到一个层次结构中。A taxonomy groups the words, labels, and terms that describe something, and then arranges the groups into a hierarchy.

用户可构建几乎任何种类的信息的分类,从生物系统到组织结构。People construct taxonomies for almost any kind of information, from biological systems to organizational structures. 例如,biologists 组生活中的机体分为四个主要分类:宠物、植物、fungus 和 microbe。For example, biologists group living organisms into four major classifications: animal, plant, fungus, and microbe. 这些主要组中的每一个都有多个细分。Each of these major groups has many subdivisions. 同时,整个系统是一个分类。Together, the whole system is a taxonomy.

组织创建分类的方式过多,无法列出。Organizations create taxonomies in too many ways to list. 他们创建了会计科目表分类,以管理会计系统、组织图表和工作分类,以管理员工、产品目录等。They create Chart of Accounts taxonomies to manage accounting systems, organization charts and job classifications to manage employees, product catalogs and so on. 所有这些分类都是信息的结构化层次结构;帮助人员处理信息的正式分类系统。All these taxonomies are structured hierarchies of information; formal classification systems that help people handle information.

大众分类Folksonomy

大众分类是非正式分类系统。A folksonomy is an informal classification system. 随着网站用户对网站上的字词、标签和术语进行协作,它会逐步演变。It evolves gradually as web site users collaborate on words, labels, and terms on a site. 最初,分众是从热门应用程序(如书签)开发而来。Originally, folksonomies developed from popular applications such as bookmarking.

如果您曾在网站上看到标记云,则您已看到大众分类的可视化效果。If you have ever seen a tag cloud on a website, then you have seen a visualization of a folksonomy. 下图显示了 SharePoint 网站上的标记云。The following figure shows a tag cloud on a SharePoint site.

标记云

元数据的基于大众分类的方法可能很有用。A folksonomy-based approach to metadata can be useful. 它创建了一种共享网站用户知识和专业知识的方法。It creates a way to share the knowledge and expertise of site users. 通过使用大众分类,可以将内容分类与不断变化的业务需求和用户兴趣一起发展。By using a folksonomy, content classification can evolve together with changing business needs and user interests.

术语集Term Set

术语集是一组相关术语。A Term set is a group of related terms.

术语集可以具有不同的作用域,具体取决于您创建术语集的位置。Terms sets can have different scope, depending on where you create the term set.

  • 在网站集的上下文中创建本地术语集,并且仅可供该网站集的用户使用(且可见)。Local term sets are created within the context of a site collection, and are available for use (and visible) only to users of that site collection. 例如,当您为列表或库中的元数据列创建术语集时,术语集是本地的。For example, when you create a term set for a metadata column in a list or library, then the term set is local. 它仅适用于包含此列表或库的网站集。It is available only in the site collection that contains this list or library. 例如,媒体库可能具有一个元数据列,其中显示媒体的种类(图表、照片、屏幕截图、视频等)。For example, a media library might have a metadata column that shows the kind of media (diagram, photograph, screen shot, video, etc.). 允许的术语列表仅与此库相关,并可在库中使用。The list of permitted terms is relevant only to this library, and available for use in the library.

  • 全局术语集可在订阅特定 Managed Metadata Service 应用程序的所有网站中使用。Global term sets are available for use across all sites that subscribe to a specific Managed Metadata Service application. 例如,组织可以创建一个术语集,用于列出组织中的业务单位的名称,例如人力资源、市场营销、信息技术等。For example, an organization might create a term set that lists names of business units in the organization, such as Human Resources, Marketing, Information Technology, and so on.

此外,还可以将术语集配置为 "已关闭" 或 "开放"。In addition, you can configure a term set as closed or open. 在已关闭的术语集中,用户不能添加新的术语,除非他们拥有适当的权限。In a closed term set, users can't add new terms unless they have appropriate permissions. 在打开的术语集中,用户可以在映射到术语集的列中添加新的术语。In an open term set, users can add new terms in a column that is mapped to the term set.

TermsTerms

术语是与 SharePoint 网站上的项相关联的特定字词或短语。A term is a specific word or phrase that you associated with an item on a SharePoint site. 它是术语集中的单个项目。It is a single item in a term set. 术语具有唯一 ID,并且可以具有多个文本标签(同义词)。A term has a unique ID and it can have many text labels (synonyms). 如果您在多语言网站上工作,则术语可以具有不同语言的标签。If you work on a multilingual site, the term can have labels in different languages.

有两种类型的术语:There are two types of terms:

  • 托管术语托管术语是预先定义的术语。Managed terms Managed terms are terms that are pre-defined. 术语库管理员将托管术语组织为分层术语集。Term Store administrators organize managed terms into a hierarchical term set.

  • 企业关键字企业关键字是用户添加到 SharePoint 网站上的项目中的单词或短语。Enterprise keywords An enterprise keyword is a word or phrase that a user adds to items on a SharePoint site. 企业关键字的集合称为关键字集。The collection of enterprise keywords is known as the Keywords set. 通常情况下,用户可以将任何单词或短语作为关键字添加到项目中。Typically, users can add any word or phrase to an item as a keyword. 这意味着您可以使用企业关键字进行大众分类标记。This means that you can use enterprise keywords for folksonomy-style tagging. 有时,术语库管理员将企业关键字移动到特定的托管术语集。Sometimes, Term Store administrators move enterprise keywords into a specific managed term set. 如果它们是托管术语集的一部分,则关键字在该术语集的上下文中将变为可用。When they are part of a managed term set, keywords become available in the context of that term set.

若要了解有关如何创建和管理术语的详细信息,请参阅在术语集中创建和管理术语To learn more about how to create and manage terms, see Create and manage terms in a term set.

GroupGroup

在 SharePoint 产品中,组是一项安全术语。In SharePoint products, group is a security term. 对于托管元数据,组是一组所有共享常见安全要求的术语集。With respect to managed metadata, a group is a set of term sets that all share common security requirements. 只有对特定组具有 "参与者" 权限的用户才可以管理属于该组的术语集或在其中创建新的术语集。Only users who have contributor permissions for a specific group can manage term sets that belong to the group or create new term sets within it. 组织应为术语集创建组,这些组将具有独特的访问或安全需求。Organizations should create groups for term sets that will have unique access or security needs.

若要了解有关如何为术语集创建组的详细信息,请参阅为术语集设置新组To learn more about how to create a group for term sets, see Set up a new group for term sets.

术语库管理工具Term Store management tool

术语库管理工具是管理分类的人员用来创建或管理术语集以及这些术语集内的术语的工具。The Term Store management tool is the tool that people who manage taxonomies use to create or manage term sets and the terms within them. 术语库管理工具显示所有全局术语集和任何可用于访问术语库管理工具的网站集的本地术语集。The Term Store management tool displays all the global term sets and any local term sets available for the site collection from which you access the Term Store management tool.

托管元数据列Managed Metadata column

托管元数据列是一种特殊类型的列,可以将其添加到列表或库中。A Managed Metadata column is a special kind of column that you can add to lists or libraries. 它使网站用户能够从特定的术语集中选择术语。It enables site users to select terms from a specific term set. 托管元数据列可以映射到现有术语集,也可以为该列创建专用的本地术语集。A Managed Metadata column can map to an existing term set, or you can create a local term set specifically for the column.

若要了解如何使用托管元数据列,请参阅创建托管元数据列To learn how to work with a Managed Metadata column, see Create a managed metadata column

企业关键字列Enterprise Keywords column

"企业关键字" 列是可添加到内容类型、列表或库中的一列,可使用户能够使用他们选择的单词或短语标记项目。The enterprise Keywords column is a column that you can add to content types, lists, or libraries to enable users to tag items with words or phrases that they choose. 默认情况下,它是一个多值列。By default, it is a multi-value column. 当用户在列中键入字词或短语时,SharePoint 会提供类型提前建议。When users type a word or phrase into the column, SharePoint presents type-ahead suggestions. "预类型" 建议可能包含来自托管术语集和关键字术语集的项目。Type-ahead suggestions might include items from managed term sets and the Keywords term set. 用户可以选择现有值,也可以输入一些新值。Users can select an existing value, or enter something new.

列表或库所有者可以通过更新列表或库的企业元数据和关键字设置来启用或禁用元数据发布。List or library owners can enable or disable metadata publishing by updating the Enterprise Metadata and Keywords Settings for a list or library.

若要了解如何添加特殊关键字列,请参阅向列表或库添加企业关键字列To learn how to add a special keywords column, see Add an enterprise keywords column to a list or library.

Tagging

在一般意义上,标记指将托管元数据应用于项目的操作。In a general sense, tagging refers to the act of applying managed metadata to an item.

元数据方案:从分类法到分众Metadata scenarios: from taxonomies to folksonomies

SharePoint 元数据管理支持各种元数据的方法,从正规分类法到用户驱动的分众。SharePoint metadata management supports a range of approaches to metadata, from formal taxonomies to user-driven folksonomies. 您可以通过托管术语和术语集来实施正式分类。You can implement formal taxonomies through managed terms and term sets. 您还可以使用企业关键字,让网站用户能够使用他们选择的关键字标记内容。You can also use enterprise keywords which enable site users to tag content with keywords that they choose.

此外,SharePoint 产品还提供了灵活性。In addition, SharePoint products offer flexibility. 可以选择使用元数据的结构和控制的多少,并且可以选择控制范围和结构。You can choose how much structure and control to use with metadata, and you can choose the scope of control and structure. 例如:For example:

  • 您可以在网站中全局应用控件,或将本地应用于特定网站。You can apply control globally across sites, or make local to specific sites.

  • 您可以将术语集配置为关闭或打开以进行用户发布。You can configure term sets to be closed or open to user contributions.

  • 您可以选择将企业关键字用于托管术语,也可以不使用。You can choose to use enterprise keywords with managed terms, or not.

SharePoint 产品使组织能够将正式的托管分类法的优势与以自定义方式用户驱动的标记的动态优势结合在一起。SharePoint products enable organizations to combine the advantages of formal, managed taxonomies with the dynamic benefits of user-driven tagging in customized ways.

下图显示了不同的要求如何使用不同级别的范围和控制。The following diagram shows how different requirements might use different levels of scope and control.

灵活的托管元数据配置

托管元数据的好处Benefits of managed metadata

在组织中跨网站使用托管元数据有以下几个优点:There are several advantages to using managed metadata across the sites in an organization:

元数据的一致使用Consistent use of metadata

利用 SharePoint 产品中的托管元数据功能,您可以控制用户向内容添加元数据的方式。The managed metadata features in SharePoint products enable you to control how users add metadata to content. 例如,通过使用术语集和托管术语,可以控制用户可以向内容中添加的条款,还可以控制可添加新术语的用户。For example, by using term sets and managed terms, you can control which terms users can add to content, and you can control who can add new terms. 您还可以通过将关键字术语集配置为 "已关闭" 来将企业关键字限制为特定列表。You can also limit enterprise keywords to a specific list by configuring the Keywords term set as closed.

在跨网站一致使用相同的术语时,可以更轻松地构建依赖元数据的可靠流程或解决方案。When the same terms are used consistently across sites, it is easier to build robust processes or solutions that rely on metadata. 此外,网站用户可以更轻松地将元数据统一应用于其内容。Additionally, it is easier for site users to apply metadata consistently to their content.

改进的内容发现功能Improved content discoverability

当组织中的各个网站的内容具有一致的元数据时,使用 search 查找业务信息和数据会更加容易。When the content across sites in an organization has consistent metadata, it is easier to find business information and data by using search. 搜索功能(如精简面板)显示在搜索结果页的左侧,使用户能够根据元数据筛选搜索结果。Search features such as the refinement panel, which displays on the left-hand side of the search results page, enable users to filter search results based on metadata.

精简面板显示可用于筛选搜索结果的元数据。

网站的元数据导航Metadata navigation for sites

网站的元数据导航使网站管理员能够基于元数据术语创建导航元素。Metadata navigation for sites enables a site administrator to create navigation elements based on metadata terms. 有关详细信息(包括性能建议),请参阅SharePoint 的导航选项For more information including performance recommendations, see Navigation options for SharePoint.

列表和库的元数据导航Metadata navigation for lists and libraries

元数据导航使用户能够根据特定的元数据字段动态创建信息的视图。Metadata navigation enables users to create views of information dynamically, based on specific metadata fields. 然后,用户可以使用文件夹或使用元数据透视查找库,并使用其他密钥筛选器来优化结果。Then, users can locate libraries by using folders or by using metadata pivots, and refine the results by using additional Key Filters. 若要了解如何对此进行设置,请参阅为列表或库设置元数据导航使用分组修改 SharePoint 视图To learn how to set this up, see Set up metadata navigation for a list or library and Use grouping to modify a SharePoint view.

提高了灵活性Increased flexibility

托管元数据使术语库管理员在业务需求发展时能够更轻松地维护和改编元数据。Managed metadata makes it easier for Term Store Administrators to maintain and adapt your metadata as business needs evolve. 您可以轻松地更新术语集。You can update a term set easily. 并且,在将托管元数据列与术语集关联时,新的或更新的术语将自动变为可用。And, new or updated terms automatically become available when you associate a Managed Metadata column with that term set. 例如,如果将多个术语合并到一个术语中,则用这些术语标记的内容将自动更新以反映此更改。For example, if you merge multiple terms into one term, content that is tagged with these terms is automatically updated to reflect this change. 您可以为单个术语指定多个同义词(或标签)。You can specify multiple synonyms (or labels) for individual terms. 如果您的网站是多语言的,则还可以为单个术语指定多语言标签。If your site is multilingual, you can also specify multilingual labels for individual terms.

管理元数据Managing metadata

有效地管理元数据需要仔细思考和规划。Managing metadata effectively requires careful thought and planning. 考虑您想要管理列表和库内容的信息类型,并考虑这些信息在组织中的使用方式。Think about the kind of information that you want to manage the content of lists and libraries, and think about the way that the information is used in the organization. 您可以为大量不同的信息创建元数据术语的术语集。You can create term sets of metadata terms for lots of different information.

例如,您可能有一个文档的内容类型。For example, you might have a single content type for a document. 每个文档都可以有标识有关它的许多相关事实的元数据,如以下示例所示:Each document can have metadata that identifies many of the relevant facts about it, such as these examples:

  • 文档用途–是否为销售建议?Document purpose - Is it a sales proposal? 工程规范?An engineering specification? 人力资源过程?A Human Resources procedure?

  • 文档作者和更改人员的姓名Document author, and names of people who changed it

  • 创建日期、审批日期、最近修改日期Date of creation, date of approval, date of most recent modification

  • 负责文档的任何预算影响的部门Department responsible for any budgetary implications of the document

  • 受众Audience

以下是管理元数据涉及的一些重要活动:Here are some important activities that are involved with managing metadata:

  • 规划和配置Planning and configuring

  • 管理术语、术语集和组Managing terms, term sets, and groups

  • 指定元数据的属性Specifying properties for metadata

规划和配置托管元数据Planning and configuring managed metadata

您的组织可能希望在开始使用托管元数据之前进行周密的规划。Your organization may want to do careful planning before you start to use managed metadata. 您必须执行的规划量取决于您的分类的形式。The amount of planning that you must do depends on how formal your taxonomy is. 它还取决于您希望对元数据施加多少控制。It also depends on how much control that you want to impose on metadata.

如果你想让用户帮助开发你的分类,你可以只让用户将关键字添加到项目中,然后根据需要将这些关键字组织到术语集中。If you want to let users help develop your taxonomy, then you can just have users add keywords to items, and then organize these into term sets as necessary.

如果您的组织想要使用托管术语集来实施正式分类,则在规划和开发过程中涉及关键利益干系人非常重要。If your organization wants to use managed term sets to implement formal taxonomies, then it is important to involve key stakeholders in planning and development. 在组织中的主要利益干系人同意所需的术语集之后,您可以使用术语库管理工具导入或创建术语集。After the key stakeholders in the organization agree upon the required term sets, you can use the Term Store management tool to import or create your term sets. 若要了解如何访问该工具,请参阅打开术语库管理工具To learn how to access the tool, see Open the Term Store management tool

管理术语、术语集和组Managing terms, term sets, and groups

术语库管理工具提供可用于执行大多数任务的树控件。The Term Store management tool provides a tree control that you can use to perform most tasks. 您的此工具的用户角色将决定您可以执行的任务。Your user role for this tool determines the tasks that you can perform. 若要在术语库管理工具中使用全局术语,您必须是 Microsoft 365 中的全局管理员或 SharePoint 管理员或 SharePoint 中的术语库管理员。To work on global terms in the Term Store management tool, you must be a global admin or SharePoint admin in Microsoft 365, or a Term Store Administrator in SharePoint. 若要处理网站的术语,可以是指定的组管理员或术语集的参与者。To work on terms for a site, you can be a designated Group Manager or Contributor for term sets.

有关详细信息,请参阅创建和管理组和术语集For more information, see Create and manage groups and term sets.

若要对层次结构中的项目执行操作,请执行以下步骤。To take actions on an item in the hierarchy, follow these steps.

  1. 指向要更改的 Managed Metadata Service 应用程序、组、术语集或术语的名称,然后单击出现的箭头。Point to the name of the Managed Metadata Service application, group, term set, or term that you want to change, and then click the arrow that appears.

  2. 从菜单中选择所需的操作。Select the actions that you want from the menu.

例如,如果您是术语库管理员或组管理员,则可以在组中创建、导入或删除术语集。For example, if you are a Term Store Administrator or a Group Manager you can create, import, or delete term sets in a group. 术语集参与者可以创建新的术语集。Term set contributors can create new term sets.

术语库管理工具在每个层次结构级别都有一个级别适当的菜单

术语和术语集的属性Properties for terms and term sets

在层次结构的每个级别上,可以使用术语库管理工具中的 "属性" 窗格配置组、术语集或术语的特定属性。At each level of the hierarchy, you can configure specific properties for a group, term set, or term by using the properties pane in the Term Store management tool. 例如,如果要配置术语集,则可以在 "常规" 选项卡上的 "" 窗格中指定 "名称"、"说明"、"所有者"、"联系人" 和 "利益干系人" 等信息。您还可以指定是否希望术语集为打开或关闭,以供来自用户的新提交。For example, if you are configuring a term set, you can specify information such as Name, Description, Owner, Contact, and Stakeholders in pane available on the General tab. You can also specify whether you want a term set to be open or closed to new submissions from users. 或者,可以选择 "预期使用情况" 选项卡,并指定术语集是否应可用于标记或站点导航。Or, you can choose the Intended Use tab, and specify whether the term set should be available for tagging or site navigation.

术语库属性允许您配置设置(如标记)

另请参阅See also

SharePoint Server 中的托管元数据简介Introduction to managed metadata in SharePoint Server

为列表或库设置元数据导航Set up metadata navigation for a list or library

为列表或库配置元数据导航Configure metadata navigation for a list or library

向列表或库中添加企业关键字列Add an enterprise keywords column to a list or library

创建托管元数据列Create a Managed Metadata column

导入术语集Import term sets