Windows Server 安装和升级Windows Server installation and upgrade

适用于:Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2008 R2、Windows Server 2008Applies to: Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008

寻找 Windows Server 2019?Looking for Windows Server 2019? 请参阅安装、升级或迁移到 Windows Server 2019See Install, upgrade, or migrate to Windows Server 2019.

重要

对 Windows Server 2008 R2 和 Windows Server 2008 的外延支持将于 2020 年 1 月结束。Extended support for Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 ends in January 2020. 了解升级选项Learn about your upgrade options.

是时候移动到较新版本的 Windows Server 了吗?Is it time to move to a newer version of Windows Server? 根据你现在正在运行的内容,你有很多选择来实现这一点。Depending on what you are running now, you have lots of options to get there.

安装Installation

如果你想要在同一硬件上移动到较新版本的 Windows Server,始终有效的一种方法是干净安装,通过该方法,你只需在同一硬件上的旧操作系统上直接安装较新的操作系统,便可删除旧操作系统。If you want to move to a newer version of Windows Server on the same hardware, one way that always works is a clean installation, where you just install the newer operating system directly over the old one on the same hardware, thus deleting the previous operating system. 这是最简单的方法,但需要先备份数据,并计划重新安装应用程序。That is the simplest way, but you will need to back up your data first and plan to reinstall your applications. 要注意几个方面,例如系统要求,因此务必查看有关 Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 的详细信息。There are a few things to be aware of, such as system requirements, so be sure to check the details for Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, and Windows Server 2012.

从任何预发布版本(如 Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview) 移动到已发布版本 (Windows Server 2016) 始终需要进行干净安装。Moving from any pre-release version (such as Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview) to the released version (Windows Server 2016) always requires a clean installation.

Windows Server 迁移文档可帮助你每次从运行 Windows Server 的源计算机将一个角色或功能迁移到运行相同或更高版本的 Windows Server 的目标计算机。Windows Server migration documentation helps you migrate one role or feature at a time from a source computer that is running Windows Server to another destination computer that is running Windows Server, either the same or a newer version. 出于这些目的,迁移被定义为将一个角色或功能及其数据移动到其他计算机,而不是在同一计算机上升级此功能。For these purposes, migration is defined as moving one role or feature and its data to a different computer, not upgrading the feature on the same computer. 这是将现有工作负荷和数据移动到较新 Windows Server 版本的建议方式。This is the recommended manner in which to move your existing workload and data to a more recent version of Windows Server. 若要开始操作,请查看针对 Windows Server 的服务器角色升级和迁移矩阵To get started, check the server role upgrade and migration matrix for Windows Server.

群集操作系统滚动升级Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade

群集操作系统滚动升级是 Windows Server 2016 中的新增功能,管理员利用此功能可以将群集节点的操作系统从 Windows Server 2012 R2 升级到 Windows Server 2016,而无需停止 Hyper-V 或横向扩展文件服务器工作负荷。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is a new feature in Windows Server 2016 that enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 利用此功能可以避免出现可能影响服务级别协议的故障时间。This feature allows you to avoid downtime which could impact Service Level Agreements. 群集操作系统滚动升级 中对这一新增功能进行了更详细地讨论。This new feature is discussed in more detail at Cluster operating system rolling upgrade.

许可证转换License Conversion

在某些操作系统发行版中,可以使用简单的命令和相应的许可证密钥,通过一个步骤将发行版的特定版本转换成同一发行版的另一个版本。In some operating system releases, you can convert a particular edition of the release to another edition of the same release in a single step with a simple command and the appropriate license key. 这称为许可证转换This is called license conversion. 例如,如果服务器正在运行 Windows Server 2016 Standard,可以将其转换为 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter。For example, if your server is running Windows Server 2016 Standard, you can convert it to Windows Server 2016 Datacenter. 在某些 Windows Server 发行版中,还可使用相同的命令和相应的密钥在 OEM、批量许可和零售版本之间自由地转换。In some releases of Windows Server, you can also freely convert among OEM, volume-licensed, and retail versions with the same command and the appropriate key.

升级Upgrade

如果你想保留相同硬件以及你已设置的所有服务器角色,同时不平展服务器,则可选择升级 - 可通过多种方式进行升级。If you want to keep the same hardware and all the server roles you have set up without flattening the server, upgrading is an option—and there are lots of ways to do it. 在典型升级中,可从较低版本的操作系统升级到较高版本的操作系统,并且使设置、服务器角色和数据保持不变。In the classic upgrade, you go from an older operating system to a newer one, keeping your settings, server roles, and data intact. 例如,如果服务器运行的是 Windows Server 2012 R2,可以将它升级到 Windows Server 2016。For example, if your server is running Windows Server 2012 R2, you can upgrade it to Windows Server 2016. 但是,并非每个较低版本的操作系统都拥有升级到每个较高版本的操作系统的路径。However, not every older operating system has a pathway to every newer one.

备注

升级最适合用于虚拟机,其中进行成功升级不需要特定 OEM 硬件驱动程序。Upgrade works best in virtual machines where specific OEM hardware drivers are not needed for a successful upgrade.

可以从操作系统评估版升级到零售版,从早期的零售版升级到较新版本,在某些情况下,还可以从操作系统批量授权版升级到普通零售版。You can upgrade from an evaluation version of the operating system to a retail version, from an older retail version to a newer version, or, in some cases, from a volume-licensed edition of the operating system to an ordinary retail edition.

开始升级之前,先看看此页面上的表,了解如何从现有版本升级到预期版本。Before you get started with an upgrade, have a look at the tables on this page to see how to get from where you are to where you want to be.

有关适用于 Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 的安装选项之间的差异,包括每个选项安装的功能以及安装后可用的管理选项,请参阅 Windows Server 2016For information about the differences between the installation options available for Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview, including the features that are installed with each option and the management options available after installation, see Windows Server 2016.

备注

每当迁移到或升级到任何版本的 Windows Server 时,都应查看并了解支持生命周期策略以及该版本的时间范围,并且作出相应的计划。Whenever you migrate or upgrade to any version of Windows Server, you should review and understand the support lifecycle policy and timeframe for that version and plan accordingly. 你可以搜索生命周期信息,以便了解你感兴趣的特定 Windows server 版本。You can search for the lifecycle information for the particular Windows Server release that you are interested in.

升级到 Windows Server 2016Upgrading to Windows Server 2016

有关详细信息,包括重要注意事项和升级限制、Windows Server 2016 版本之间的许可证转换,以及评估版到零售版的转换,请参阅 Windows Server 2016 的受支持升级路径For details, including important caveats and limitations on upgrade, license conversion between editions of Windows Server 2016, and conversion of evaluation editions to retail, see Supported Upgrade Paths for Windows Server 2016.

备注

注意:不支持从“服务器核心安装”切换到“带桌面安装的服务器”的升级(反之亦然)。Note: Upgrades that switch from a Server Core installation to a Server with a Desktop installation (or vice versa) are not supported. 如果正在升级或转换的较低版本操作系统是服务器核心安装,则结果仍将是较高版本操作系统的服务器核心安装。If the older operating system you are upgrading or converting is a Server Core installation, the result will still be a Server Core installation of the newer operating system.

从较低的 Windows Server 零售版到 Windows Server 2016 零售版的受支持升级路径的快速参考表:Quick reference table of supported upgrade paths from older Windows Server retail editions to Windows Server 2016 retail editions:

如果正在运行这些版本:If you are running these versions and editions: 可以升级到这些版本:You can upgrade to these versions and editions:
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Windows Server 2016 Standard 或 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Standard or Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard Windows Server 2016 Standard 或 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Standard or Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter
Hyper-V Server 2012 R2Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V Server 2016(使用群集操作系统滚动升级功能)Hyper-V Server 2016 (using Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade feature)
Windows Server 2012 R2 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 R2 Essentials Windows Server 2016 EssentialsWindows Server 2016 Essentials
Windows Storage Server 2012 StandardWindows Storage Server 2012 Standard Windows Storage Server 2016 StandardWindows Storage Server 2016 Standard
Windows Storage Server 2012 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2012 Workgroup Windows Storage Server 2016 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2016 Workgroup
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Storage Server 2012 R2 Standard Windows Storage Server 2016 StandardWindows Storage Server 2016 Standard
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2012 R2 Workgroup Windows Storage Server 2016 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2016 Workgroup

许可证转换License conversion

可以将 Windows Server 2016 Standard(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2016 Standard (retail) to Windows Server 2016 Datacenter (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2016 Essentials(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2016 Standard(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2016 Essentials (retail) to Windows Server 2016 Standard (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2016 Standard 的评估版转换为 Windows Server 2016 Standard(零售版)或 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert the evaluation version of Windows Server 2016 Standard to either Windows Server 2016 Standard (retail) or Datacenter (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 评估版转换为 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert the evaluation version of Windows Server 2016 Datacenter to Windows Server 2016 Datacenter (retail).

升级到 Windows Server 2012 R2Upgrading to Windows Server 2012 R2

有关详细信息,包括重要注意事项和升级限制、Windows Server 2012 R2 版本之间的许可证转换,以及评估版到零售版的转换,请参阅 Windows Server 2012 R2 的升级选项For details, including important caveats and limitations on upgrade, license conversion between editions of Windows Server 2012 R2, and conversion of evaluation editions to retail, see Upgrade Options for Windows Server 2012 R2.

从较低的 Windows Server 零售版到 Windows Server 2012 R2 零售版的受支持升级路径的快速参考表:Quick reference table of supported upgrade paths from older Windows Server retail editions to Windows Server 2012 R2 retail editions:

如果运行的是:If you are running: 可以升级到这些版本:You can upgrade to these editions:
带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter with SP1 Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 EnterpriseWindows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise with SP1 Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard or Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 StandardWindows Server 2008 R2 Standard with SP1 Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard or Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
带有 SP1 的 Windows Web Server 2008 R2Windows Web Server 2008 R2 with SP1 Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard
Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard or Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
Hyper-V Server 2012Hyper-V Server 2012 Hyper-V Server 2012 R2Hyper-V Server 2012 R2

许可证转换License conversion

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2012 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail) to Windows Server 2012 Datacenter (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Essentials(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2012 Essentials (retail) to Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Standard 评估版转换为 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)或 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert the evaluation version of Windows Server 2012 Standard to either Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail) or Datacenter (retail).

升级到 Windows Server 2012Upgrading to Windows Server 2012

有关详细信息,包括重要注意事项和升级限制,以及评估版到零售版的转换,请参阅 Windows Server 2012 的评估版和升级选项For details, including important caveats and limitations on upgrade, and conversion of evaluation editions to retail, see Evaluation Versions and Upgrade Options for Windows Server 2012.

从较低的 Windows Server 零售版到 Windows Server 2012 零售版的受支持升级路径的快速参考表:Quick reference table of supported upgrade paths from older Windows Server retail editions to Windows Server 2012 retail editions:

如果运行的是:If you are running: 可以升级到这些版本:You can upgrade to these editions:
带有 SP2 的 Windows Server 2008 Standard 或带有 SP2 的 Windows Server 2008 EnterpriseWindows Server 2008 Standard with SP2 or Windows Server 2008 Enterprise with SP2 Windows Server 2012 Standard、Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Standard, Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
带有 SP2 的 Windows Server 2008 DatacenterWindows Server 2008 Datacenter with SP2 Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008Windows Web Server 2008 Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard
带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard 或带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 EnterpriseWindows Server 2008 R2 Standard with SP1 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise with SP1 Windows Server 2012 Standard、Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Standard, Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
带有 SP1 的 Windows Server 2008 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter with SP1 Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008 R2Windows Web Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard

许可证转换License conversion

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2012 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail) to Windows Server 2012 Datacenter (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Essentials(零售版)转换为 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)。You can convert Windows Server 2012 Essentials (retail) to Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail).

可以将 Windows Server 2012 Standard 评估版转换为 Windows Server 2012 Standard(零售版)或 Datacenter(零售版)。You can convert the evaluation version of Windows Server 2012 Standard to either Windows Server 2012 Standard (retail) or Datacenter (retail).

从 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008 升级Upgrading from Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008

升级 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 中所述,对 Windows Server 2008 R2/Windows Server 2008 的外延支持将于 2020 年 1 月结束。As described in Upgrade Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the extended support for Windows Server 2008 R2/Windows Server 2008 ends in January of 2020. 为确保支持不受中断,需升级到受支持的 Windows Server 版本,或者迁移到专用的 Windows Server 2008 R2 VM 以在 Azure 中重新托管。To ensure no gap in support, you need to upgrade to a supported version of Windows Server, or rehost in Azure by moving to specialized Windows Server 2008 R2 VMs. 请查看 Windows Server 迁移指南,了解有关规划迁移/升级的信息和注意事项。Check out the Migration Guide for Windows Server for information and considerations for planning your migration/upgrade.

对于本地服务器,没有从 Windows Server 2008 R2 到 Windows Server 2016 或更高版本的直接升级路径,For on-premises servers, there is no direct upgrade path from Windows Server 2008 R2 to Windows Server 2016 or later. 而是先升级到 Windows Server 2012 R2,然后再升级到 Windows Server 2016Instead, upgrade first to Windows Server 2012 R2, and then upgrade to Windows Server 2016.

规划升级时,需注意有关升级到 Windows Server 2012 R2 的中间步骤的以下指导原则。As you are planning your upgrade, be aware of the following guidelines for the middle step of upgrading to Windows Server 2012 R2.

  • 不能从 32 位体系结构就地升级到 64 位体系结构,也不能从一种内部版本类型就地升级到另一种内部版本类型(例如,fre 到 chk)。You can't do an in-place upgrade from a 32-bit to 64-bit architectures or from one build type to another (fre to chk, for example).

  • 就地升级仅支持相同的语言。In-place upgrades are only supported in the same language. 不能从一种语言升级到另一种语言。You can't upgrade from one language to another.

  • 不能从 Windows Server 2008 服务器核心安装迁移到具有服务器 GUI 的 Windows Server 2012 R2(在 Windows Server 中称为“具有完整桌面的服务器”)。You can't migrate from a Windows Server 2008 server core installation to Windows Server 2012 R2 with the Server GUI (called "Server with Full Desktop" in Windows Server). 可以将已升级的服务器核心安装切换到具有完整桌面的服务器,但仅限于 Windows Server 2012 R2。You can switch your upgraded server core installation to Server with Full Desktop, but only on Windows Server 2012 R2. Windows Server 2016 及更高版本支持从服务器核心切换到完整桌面,因此请在升级到 Windows Server 2016 之前进行切换。Windows Server 2016 and later do not support switching from server core to Full Desktop, so make that switch before you upgrade to Windows Server 2016.

有关详细信息,请查看 Windows Server 2012 的评估版和升级选项,其中包括特定于角色的升级详细信息。For more information, check out Evaluation Versions and Upgrade Options for Windows Server 2012, which includes role-specific upgrade details.