规划 Windows Server 2016 中的 HYPER-V 可伸缩性Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016

适用于:Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2016

本文提供有关可以添加和删除的 HYPER-V 主机或其虚拟机,例如虚拟处理器或检查点上的组件的最大配置的详细信息。This article gives you details about the maximum configuration for components you can add and remove on a Hyper-V host or its virtual machines, such as virtual processors or checkpoints. 规划你的部署,请考虑将应用于每个虚拟机,以及那些适用于 HYPER-V 主机的最大配置。As you plan your deployment, consider the maximums that apply to each virtual machine, as well as those that apply to the Hyper-V host.

有关内存和逻辑处理器的最大值是从 Windows Server 2012 的最大增加到请求,以支持较新方案,例如机器学习和数据分析的响应中。Maximums for memory and logical processors are the biggest increases from Windows Server 2012, in response to requests to support newer scenarios such as machine learning and data analytics. Windows Server 博客最近发布的虚拟机的 5.5 万亿字节的内存和 128 个虚拟处理器运行 4 TB 内存中数据库的性能结果。The Windows Server blog recently published the performance results of a virtual machine with 5.5 terabytes of memory and 128 virtual processors running 4 TB in-memory database. 性能   95%的物理服务器的性能。Performance was greater than 95% of the performance of a physical server. 有关详细信息,请参阅内存中事务处理的 Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 大规模 VM 性能For details, see Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V large-scale VM performance for in-memory transaction processing. 其他数字是类似于适用于 Windows Server 2012。Other numbers are similar to those that apply to Windows Server 2012. (适用于 Windows Server 2012 R2 的最大值是为 Windows Server 2012 相同的。)(Maximums for Windows Server 2012 R2 were the same as Windows Server 2012.)

备注

有关 System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 的信息,请参阅 Virtual Machine ManagerFor information about System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM), see Virtual Machine Manager. VMM 是单独出售的用于管理虚拟化数据中心的 Microsoft 产品。VMM is a Microsoft product for managing a virtualized data center that is sold separately.

为虚拟机的最大值Maximums for virtual machines

这些最大值适用于每个虚拟机。These maximums apply to each virtual machine. 并非所有组件都均位于这两个代虚拟机。Not all components are available in both generations of virtual machines. 代的比较,请参阅应在 HYPER-V 中创建第 1 或 2 代虚拟机?For a comparison of the generations, see Should I create a generation 1 or 2 virtual machine in Hyper-V?

组件Component 最多Maximum 说明Notes
检查点Checkpoints 5050 实际数量可能较少,这取决于可用的存储。The actual number may be lower, depending on the available storage. 每个检查点存储为.avhd 文件使用的物理存储。Each checkpoint is stored as an .avhd file that uses physical storage.
内存Memory 有关第 2 代; 12 TB12 TB for generation 2;
1 TB 的第 1 代1 TB for generation 1
复查特定操作系统的要求,以确定最小数量和推荐的数量。Review the requirements for the specific operating system to determine the minimum and recommended amounts.
串行 (COM) 端口Serial (COM) ports 22 无。None.
直接连接到虚拟机的物理磁盘的大小Size of physical disks attached directly to a virtual machine 变化不定Varies 最大大小由来宾操作系统决定。Maximum size is determined by the guest operating system.
虚拟光纤通道适配器Virtual Fibre Channel adapters 44 作为最佳实践,我们建议你将每个虚拟光纤通道适配器连接到不同的虚拟 SAN。As a best practice, we recommended that you connect each virtual Fibre Channel Adapter to a different virtual SAN.
虚拟软盘设备Virtual floppy devices 1 个虚拟软盘驱动器1 virtual floppy drive 无。None.
虚拟硬盘容量Virtual hard disk capacity 64 TB 的 VHDX 格式;64 TB for VHDX format;
VHD 格式的的 2040 GB2040 GB for VHD format
每个虚拟硬盘都将作为 .vhdx 或 .vhd 文件存储在物理媒体上,具体取决于虚拟硬盘所使用的格式。Each virtual hard disk is stored on physical media as either a .vhdx or a .vhd file, depending on the format used by the virtual hard disk.
虚拟 IDE 磁盘Virtual IDE disks 44 启动磁盘 (有时称为启动磁盘) 必须附加到 IDE 设备之一。The startup disk (sometimes called the boot disk) must be attached to one of the IDE devices. 启动盘可以是虚拟硬盘,也可以是与虚拟机直接相连的物理磁盘。The startup disk can be either a virtual hard disk or a physical disk attached directly to a virtual machine.
虚拟处理器Virtual processors 240,第 2 代;240 for generation 2;
对于生成 1; 为 6464 for generation 1;
320 供主机操作系统 (根分区)320 available to the host OS (root partition)
来宾操作系统支持的虚拟处理器数量可能会减少。The number of virtual processors supported by a guest operating system might be lower. 有关详细信息,请参阅针对特定操作系统发布的信息。For details, see the information published for the specific operating system.
虚拟 SCSI 控制器Virtual SCSI controllers 44 使用虚拟 SCSI 设备都需要集成服务,可用于受支持的来宾操作系统。Use of virtual SCSI devices requires integration services, which are available for supported guest operating systems. 支持操作系统的详细信息,请参阅支持的 Linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机支持 Windows 来宾操作系统For details on which operating systems are supported, see Supported Linux and FreeBSD virtual machines and Supported Windows guest operating systems.
虚拟 SCSI 磁盘Virtual SCSI disks 256256 各 SCSI 控制器最多可支持 64 个磁盘,这意味着各虚拟机可具有多达 256 个虚拟 SCSI 磁盘的配置。Each SCSI controller supports up to 64 disks, which means that each virtual machine can be configured with as many as 256 virtual SCSI disks. (4 个控制器 x 64 个磁盘/控制器)(4 controllers x 64 disks per controller)
虚拟网络适配器Virtual network adapters 总共 12 个:12 total:
-8 的 HYPER-V 特定网络适配器- 8 Hyper-V specific network adapters
-4 个旧版网络适配器- 4 legacy network adapters
HYPER-V 特定网络适配器提供了更好的性能,需要包含 integration services 中的驱动程序。The Hyper-V specific network adapter provides better performance and requires a driver included in integration services. 有关详细信息,请参阅规划 Windows Server 中的 HYPER-V 网络For more information, see Plan for Hyper-V networking in Windows Server.

对于 HYPER-V 主机的最大值Maximums for Hyper-V hosts

这些最大值将应用到每个 HYPER-V 主机。These maximums apply to each Hyper-V host.

组件Component 最多Maximum 说明Notes
逻辑处理器Logical processors 512512 必须在固件中启用这两种:Both of these must be enabled in the firmware:

-硬件辅助虚拟化- Hardware-assisted virtualization
-硬件强制的数据执行保护 (DEP)- Hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP)

主机操作系统 (根分区) 将只看到最大 320 个逻辑处理器The host OS (root partition) will only see maximum 320 logical processors
 
内存Memory 24 TB24 TB 无。None.
网络适配器组(NIC 组合)Network adapter teams (NIC Teaming) Hyper-V 无限制。No limits imposed by Hyper-V. 有关详细信息,请参阅NIC 组合For details, see NIC Teaming.
物理网络适配器Physical network adapters Hyper-V 无限制。No limits imposed by Hyper-V. 无。None.
每台服务器的正在运行的虚拟机Running virtual machines per server 10241024 无。None.
存储Storage 受限制的主机操作系统支持的功能。Limited by what is supported by the host operating system. Hyper-V 无限制。No limits imposed by Hyper-V. 注意: 使用 SMB 3.0 时,Microsoft 支持网络连接存储 (NAS)。Note: Microsoft supports network-attached storage (NAS) when using SMB 3.0. 不支持基于 NFS 的存储。NFS-based storage is not supported.
每服务器的虚拟网络开关端口Virtual network switch ports per server 视情况而定;Hyper-V 无任何限制。Varies; no limits imposed by Hyper-V. 实际限制取决于可用的计算资源。The practical limit depends on the available computing resources.
每个逻辑处理器的虚拟处理器数Virtual processors per logical processor Hyper-V 无比率。No ratio imposed by Hyper-V. 无。None.
每台服务器的虚拟处理器Virtual processors per server 20482048 无。None.
虚拟存储区域网络 (SAN)Virtual storage area networks (SANs) Hyper-V 无限制。No limits imposed by Hyper-V. 无。None.
虚拟交换机Virtual switches 视情况而定;Hyper-V 无任何限制。Varies; no limits imposed by Hyper-V. 实际限制取决于可用的计算资源。The practical limit depends on the available computing resources.

故障转移群集和 Hyper-VFailover Clusters and Hyper-V

此表列出了使用 HYPER-V 和故障转移群集时,适用的最大配置。This table lists the maximums that apply when using Hyper-V and Failover Clustering. 请务必执行容量规划以确保将硬件资源不足,无法在群集环境中运行的所有虚拟机。It's important to do capacity planning to ensure that there will be enough hardware resources to run all the virtual machines in a clustered environment.

若要了解有关更新故障转移群集,包括新功能对于虚拟机,请参阅What's New in Windows Server 2016 中故障转移群集To learn about updates to Failover Clustering, including new features for virtual machines, see What's New in Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2016.

组件Component 最多Maximum 说明Notes
每群集的节点Nodes per cluster 6464 请考虑为故障转移及为维护任务(如应用更新)保留的节点数量。Consider the number of nodes you want to reserve for failover, as well as maintenance tasks such as applying updates. 我们建议你计划使用足够的资源为故障转移保留 1 个节点,即在另一个节点故障转移到该节点之前,该节点一直保持空闲。We recommend that you plan for enough resources to allow for 1 node to be reserved for failover, which means it remains idle until another node is failed over to it. (这有时被称为被动节点。)如果你希望保留更多节点,则可以增加此数量。(This is sometimes referred to as a passive node.) You can increase this number if you want to reserve additional nodes. 没有推荐的比率或倍数保留节点到活动节点;唯一要求是在群集中的节点总数不能超过 64 个最大值。There is no recommended ratio or multiplier of reserved nodes to active nodes; the only requirement is that the total number of nodes in a cluster can't exceed the maximum of 64.
每个群集中和每个节点上运行的虚拟机数Running virtual machines per cluster and per node 每个群集 8,000 个8,000 per cluster 以下几个因素会影响虚拟机,你可以运行在同一时间在一个节点上,如实数:Several factors can affect the real number of virtual machines you can run at the same time on one node, such as:
-正在使用的每个虚拟机的物理内存量。- Amount of physical memory being used by each virtual machine.
-网络和存储带宽。- Networking and storage bandwidth.
-磁盘主轴数量,这会影响磁盘 I/O 性能。- Number of disk spindles, which affects disk I/O performance.