針對 SharePoint Server 中的搜尋來組織內容的最佳做法Best practices for organizing content for search in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解如何組織 SharePoint Server 2016 和 SharePoint Server 2013 內容和中繼資料,使該內容更容易尋找。Summary: Learn how to organize SharePoint Server 2016 and SharePoint Server 2013 content and metadata to make the content easier to find.

這些組織 SharePoint Server 內容及應用實用中繼資料的最佳作法,將有助於確保搜尋索引包含正確的內容,並確保搜尋結果中已傳回正確的內容。These best practices for organizing SharePoint Server content and applying useful metadata will help make sure that the right content is included in the search index and that the right content is returned in search results.

將您最重要的內容保存在 SharePointKeep your most important content in SharePoint

若是可以,請將您最重要的內容保存在 SharePoint,並盡可能為付費內容進行編目及索引。如果無法為內容進行編目及索引,請考慮將其他資源的同盟結果運用至您的本機搜尋結果。If possible, keep your most important content in SharePoint, and crawl and index as much premium content as possible. If you cannot crawl and index the content, consider federating results from other sources into your local search results.

請嘗試使用類似的值與重要性將內容組織在鄰近的網站結構中。搜尋系統將自動推斷其相對重要性,不過,您也可以直接透過定義代表性頁面來影響網站的重要性。如需詳細資訊,請參閱指定代表性頁面章節。Try to organize content with similar value and importance into nearby site structures. The search system will automatically infer the relative importance, but you can also influence the importance of sites directly by defining authoritative pages. For more information, see the section Specify authoritative pages.

請務必了解要進行編目以及包含在搜尋索引中的內容,同時也務必了解 不要 進行編目的內容。舉例來說,即使您不針對備份檔案共用進行編目及索引,仍須為封存過時內容建立例行作業以刪除低品質的內容,並鼓勵使用者將到期日新增至宣告。It is important to know what content to crawl and include in the search index, but it is also important to know what content not to crawl. For example, you do not want to crawl and index backup file shares. You should also establish routines for archiving obsolete content, deleting low-quality content and encourage users to add expiration dates to announcements.

組織階層中的內容以及使用自然語言Organize content in hierarchies and use natural language

藉由以 自然階層 方式組織 SharePoint 的內容,您不僅可讓使用者更容易了解在哪裡可以找到內容並進行歸檔,也讓搜尋系統更容易針對內容進行排名,並提供更貼近使用者需要的搜尋結果。By organizing SharePoint content in natural hierarchies, you not only make it is easier for users to understand where they can find and file their content, but you also make it easier for the search system to rank the content and return search results that better match the user's intent.

平面結構Flat structure 包含階層的結構Structure with hierarchy
http://Europe
http://Asia
http://sales
http://sales/Europe
http://sales/Asia

URL 與檔案的其他中繼資料 (如:檔案名稱) 是透過搜尋系統以語言方式進行分析。如果您針對 URL 與中繼資料使用的是自然語言,那麼搜尋系統將更能了解網站或檔案內的資訊,並在結果中提供適當的排名。對於搜尋系統 (以及使用者) 而言,相較於了解 http://sales/Europe/presentations/phones.ppt,了解名稱如 http://slseur/p_phones.ppt 的 URL 和檔案名稱更為容易。URLs and other metadata of files, such as file names, are analyzed linguistically by the search system. If you use natural language for URLs and for metadata, the search system can more easily understand what information is in the site or file and give it an appropriate ranking in the results. It is much easier for the search system (and users) to understand a URL and file name like http://sales/Europe/presentations/phones.ppt than it is to make sense of http://slseur/p_phones.ppt.

鼓勵使用者針對網站與內容輸入豐富又一致的中繼資料Encourage users to enter rich and consistent metadata for their sites and content

中繼資料是提供有關網站與內容之一個或多個方面的額外資訊的資料,例如:內容或網站的建立者、建立的時間,以及內容或網站的建立目的。一致又豐富的中繼資料可提升內容本身的品質,也讓搜尋系統更容易探索內容彼此間的關係,並提供更具針對性與相關性的搜尋結果。Metadata is data that provides additional information about one or more aspects of sites and content, such as who created the content or site, when was it created, and what the purpose of the content or the site is. Consistent and rich metadata increases the quality of the content itself, and it also enables the search system to more easily discover relationships between content, and to provide more targeted and relevant search results.

這些是您應鼓勵使用者提供的重要中繼資料範例:These are some examples of important metadata that you should encourage users to provide:

  • 文件標題Title of a document

  • 網站描述Description of a site

  • 文件作者The author(s) of a document

  • 內容建立日期The date the content was created

針對某些檔案類型,如 PowerPoint 和 Word,搜尋系統擷取額外的中繼資料 (例如內容中的標題和子標題),並使用此資訊傳回正確的搜尋結果,以及提供豐富的文件摘要和預覽。For some document types, such as PowerPoint and Word, the search system extracts additional metadata such as headings and subheadings from inside the content, and uses this information to return the right search results and to provide rich document summaries and previews.

如要為人員提供正確的搜尋結果,請務必輸入 我的網站 和使用者設定檔資料,此資料才能在搜尋系統中做為中繼資料使用。To provide the right search results for people, it is also important that My Sites and user profile data is entered so that this information can be used as metadata by the search system.

管理多語系內容Managing multilingual content

搜尋系統會自動偵測大部份內容的語言。這些建議有助於防止搜尋系統偵測錯誤的語言:The search system detects the language of most content automatically. These recommendations help prevent that the search system detects the wrong language:

  • 若是可以,請在不同的網站上以不同的語言保存內容。如果搜尋系統無法偵測特定內容項目的語言,則會假設採用所儲存網站使用的語言。If possible, keep content in different languages on different sites. If the search system cannot detect the language of a particular content item, it assumes that it is in the language of the site where it is stored.

  • 為避免內容及其中繼資料穿插使用不同語言。在中繼資料中,請使用與內容本身相同的語言。Avoid mixing languages in content and that content's metadata. Use the same language in the metadata as the language that is used in the content itself.

  • 避免單一中繼資料穿插使用不同語言。這主要適用於 URL。Avoid mixing languages in a single piece of metadata. This is mostly applicable to URLs.

指定代表性頁面Specify authoritative pages

您可以使用 Search Service 應用程式中的 [代表性頁面]**** 功能來指定包含最具相關性資料的 SharePoint 網站。代表性頁面的搜尋結果在搜尋結果中的排名較高。You can use the Authoritative Pages feature in the Search service application to specify SharePoint sites that contain the most relevant information. Search results from authoritative pages are ranked higher in the search results.

您可以指定三種程度的授權,也可以指定非代表性網站。如果將網站識別為授權網站,則透過超連結連接至代表性頁面的網站,在結果中的排名也會依據其接近代表性頁面的程度而提高。最具代表性頁面將包含或連結至最具相關性的資訊。指定為非代表性的 URL,其排名則會較其他網站低。You can specify three degrees of authority, and you can also specify non-authoritative sites. When you identify a site as an authority, sites that are connected to the authoritative page via hyperlinks are also boosted in the results, based on their proximity to the authoritative page. A most-authoritative page contains or links to the most relevant information. URLs designated as non-authoritative are ranked lower than other sites.

建議您僅指定少量 (4 到 5 個) 代表性頁面。如果您指定許多代表性頁面,將難以預測搜尋結果的排名效果。We recommend that you only specify a small number (four-five) of authoritative pages. If you specify lots of authoritative pages, it is difficult to predict the effects on the ranking of search results.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 中設定代表性頁面For more information, see Configure authoritative pages in SharePoint Server.