流量管理員路由方法Traffic Manager routing methods

Azure 流量管理員支援六種流量路由方法,以決定如何將網路流量路由傳送至不同的服務端點。Azure Traffic Manager supports six traffic-routing methods to determine how to route network traffic to the various service endpoints. 針對任何設定檔,流量管理員會將其相關的流量路由方法套用至它收到的每個 DNS 查詢。For any profile, Traffic Manager applies the traffic-routing method associated to it to each DNS query it receives. 流量路由方法決定 DNS 回應中傳回哪一個端點。The traffic-routing method determines which endpoint is returned in the DNS response.

流量管理員可提供下列流量路由方法:The following traffic routing methods are available in Traffic Manager:

  • 優先順序 如果您想要針對所有流量使用某個主要服務端點,請選取 [優先順序] ,並提供備用方案,以防萬一發生主要端點或備份端點無法使用的情況。Priority: Select Priority when you want to use a primary service endpoint for all traffic, and provide backups in case the primary or the backup endpoints are unavailable.
  • 加權 如果您想要將流量分配給一組端點 (不論是平均分配還是根據您定義的權數),請選取 [加權] 。Weighted: Select Weighted when you want to distribute traffic across a set of endpoints, either evenly or according to weights, which you define.
  • 效能 如果您的端點位於不同的地理位置,而您希望使用者使用「最靠近」(亦即網路延遲最低) 的端點,請選取 [效能] 。Performance: Select Performance when you have endpoints in different geographic locations and you want end users to use the "closest" endpoint in terms of the lowest network latency.
  • 地理 選取 [地理] ,以根據使用者的 DNS 查詢來自哪個地理位置,將使用者導向特定端點 (Azure、外部或巢狀)。Geographic: Select Geographic so that users are directed to specific endpoints (Azure, External, or Nested) based on which geographic location their DNS query originates from. 在必須知道使用者的地理區域,並據以路由傳送使用者的情況下,這可讓流量管理員客戶應付自如。This empowers Traffic Manager customers to enable scenarios where knowing a user’s geographic region and routing them based on that is important. 例如,遵守資料主權規定、內容和使用者經驗的當地語系化,以及測量來自不同區域的流量。Examples include complying with data sovereignty mandates, localization of content & user experience and measuring traffic from different regions.
  • 多值 針對只能將 IPv4/IPv6 位址當作端點的流量管理員設定檔選取 [MultiValue] 。Multivalue: Select MultiValue for Traffic Manager profiles that can only have IPv4/IPv6 addresses as endpoints. 當系統收到此設定檔的查詢時,會傳回所有狀況良好的端點。When a query is received for this profile, all healthy endpoints are returned.
  • 子網路 選取 [子網路] 流量路由方法,以將使用者 IP 位址範圍集對應到流量管理員設定檔中的特定端點。Subnet: Select Subnet traffic-routing method to map sets of end-user IP address ranges to a specific endpoint within a Traffic Manager profile. 當收到要求時,傳回的端點會是對應至該要求來源 IP 位址的端點。When a request is received, the endpoint returned will be the one mapped for that request’s source IP address. 

所有流量管理員設定檔都支援監視端點健康狀態和自動容錯移轉。All Traffic Manager profiles include monitoring of endpoint health and automatic endpoint failover. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 流量管理員端點監視For more information, see Traffic Manager Endpoint Monitoring. 單一「流量管理員」設定檔只能使用一個流量路由方法。A single Traffic Manager profile can use only one traffic routing method. 您可以隨時為您的設定檔選取不同的流量路由方法。You can select a different traffic routing method for your profile at any time. 變更會在 1 分鐘內套用,不會造成任何停機時間。Changes are applied within one minute, and no downtime is incurred. 透過使用巢狀「流量管理員」設定檔可以將流量路由方法加以結合。Traffic-routing methods can be combined by using nested Traffic Manager profiles. 巢狀可讓您建立精密又有彈性的流量路由設定,以滿足更大又複雜的應用程式的需求。Nesting enables sophisticated and flexible traffic-routing configurations that meet the needs of larger, complex applications. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 巢狀流量管理員設定檔For more information, see nested Traffic Manager profiles.

優先順序流量路由方法Priority traffic-routing method

組織通常會部署一或多個備份服務,以防萬一主要服務停止運作時,可確保服務的可靠性。Often an organization wants to provide reliability for its services by deploying one or more backup services in case their primary service goes down. 「優先順序」流量路由方法可讓 Azure 客戶輕鬆實作此容錯移轉模式。The 'Priority' traffic-routing method allows Azure customers to easily implement this failover pattern.

Azure 流量管理員「優先順序」流量路由方法

流量管理員設定檔包含服務端點的優先順序清單。The Traffic Manager profile contains a prioritized list of service endpoints. 根據預設,流量管理員會將所有流量傳送至主要 (最高優先順序) 端點。By default, Traffic Manager sends all traffic to the primary (highest-priority) endpoint. 如果主要端點無法使用,流量管理員會將流量路由傳送至第二個端點。If the primary endpoint is not available, Traffic Manager routes the traffic to the second endpoint. 如果主要和次要端點都無法供使用,系統就會將流量傳送到第三個端點,依此類推。If both the primary and secondary endpoints are not available, the traffic goes to the third, and so on. 端點的可用性是取決於已設定的狀態 (已啟用或已停用) 和持續的端點監視。Availability of the endpoint is based on the configured status (enabled or disabled) and the ongoing endpoint monitoring.

設定端點Configuring endpoints

在 Azure Resource Manager 中,您可以使用「優先順序」屬性來明確設定每個端點的點端優先順序。With Azure Resource Manager, you configure the endpoint priority explicitly using the 'priority' property for each endpoint. 這個屬性的值介於 1 到 1000 之間。This property is a value between 1 and 1000. 值越低代表優先順序越高。Lower values represent a higher priority. 端點無法共用優先順序值。Endpoints cannot share priority values. 設定屬性是選擇性的。Setting the property is optional. 如果省略,則會使用以端點順序為基礎的預設優先順序。When omitted, a default priority based on the endpoint order is used.

加權流量路由方法Weighted traffic-routing method

「加權」流量路由方法可讓您平均分散流量,或使用預先定義的權數。The 'Weighted' traffic-routing method allows you to distribute traffic evenly or to use a pre-defined weighting.

Azure 流量管理員「加權」流量路由方法

在「加權」流量路由方法中,您需要在流量管理員設定檔設定中指派權數給每個端點。In the Weighted traffic-routing method, you assign a weight to each endpoint in the Traffic Manager profile configuration. 權數是從 1 到 1000 的整數。The weight is an integer from 1 to 1000. 這是選擇性參數。This parameter is optional. 如果省略,流量管理員會使用預設權數 '1'。If omitted, Traffic Managers uses a default weight of '1'. 權數越高,優先順序也就越高。The higher weight, the higher the priority.

針對每個收到的 DNS 查詢,流量管理員會隨機選擇可用的端點。For each DNS query received, Traffic Manager randomly chooses an available endpoint. 選擇端點的機率是根據指派給所有可用端點的權數。The probability of choosing an endpoint is based on the weights assigned to all available endpoints. 所有端點都使用相同的權數會形成平均的流量分配。Using the same weight across all endpoints results in an even traffic distribution. 在特定端點上使用較高或較低的權數會導致 DNS 回應中較經常或較不常傳回這些端點。Using higher or lower weights on specific endpoints causes those endpoints to be returned more or less frequently in the DNS responses.

加權方法支援一些實用的案例︰The weighted method enables some useful scenarios:

  • 應用程式逐步升級:配置要路由傳送到新端點的流量百分比,並隨時間逐漸增加流量到 100%。Gradual application upgrade: Allocate a percentage of traffic to route to a new endpoint, and gradually increase the traffic over time to 100%.
  • 應用程式移轉至 Azure:建立包含 Azure 和外部端點的設定檔。Application migration to Azure: Create a profile with both Azure and external endpoints. 調整端點的權數來優先使用新的端點。Adjust the weight of the endpoints to prefer the new endpoints.
  • 雲端高載以取得額外的容量:將內部部署放在流量管理員設定檔後面,以將它快速擴充到雲端。Cloud-bursting for additional capacity: Quickly expand an on-premises deployment into the cloud by putting it behind a Traffic Manager profile. 當您需要在雲端中增加額外容量時,您可以新增或啟用更多的端點並指定進入每個端點的流量比例。When you need extra capacity in the cloud, you can add or enable more endpoints and specify what portion of traffic goes to each endpoint.

除了使用 Azure 入口網站之外,您可以使用 Azure PowerShell、CLI 和 REST API 來設定加權。In addition to using the Azure portal, you can configure weights using Azure PowerShell, CLI, and the REST APIs.

請務必了解用戶端和用戶端用來解析 DNS 名稱的遞迴 DNS 伺服器會快取 DNS 回應。It is important to understand that DNS responses are cached by clients and by the recursive DNS servers that the clients use to resolve DNS names. 此快取可能會影響加權的流量分配。This caching can have an impact on weighted traffic distributions. 有大量用戶端和遞迴 DNS 伺服器時,流量分配會正常運作。When the number of clients and recursive DNS servers is large, traffic distribution works as expected. 不過,如果只有少量用戶端或遞迴 DNS 伺服器,則快取可能會大幅扭曲流量分配。However, when the number of clients or recursive DNS servers is small, caching can significantly skew the traffic distribution.

常見使用案例包括:Common use cases include:

  • 開發與測試環境Development and testing environments
  • 應用程式間通訊Application-to-application communications
  • 以較小的使用者群為對象的應用程式,有共同的遞迴 DNS 基礎結構 (例如,透過 Proxy 連接的公司員工)Applications aimed at a narrow user-base that share a common recursive DNS infrastructure (for example, employees of company connecting through a proxy)

這些 DNS 快取效果對所有 DNS 型流量路由系統來說很常見,不僅限於「Azure 流量管理員」。These DNS caching effects are common to all DNS-based traffic routing systems, not just Azure Traffic Manager. 在某些情況下,明確清除 DNS 快取也許是一種因應措施。In some cases, explicitly clearing the DNS cache may provide a workaround. 在其他情況下,使用替代的流量路由方法可能更為合適。In other cases, an alternative traffic-routing method may be more appropriate.

效能流量路由方法Performance traffic-routing method

如果將端點部署在全球的兩個或更多個位置,然後將流量路由傳送至「最靠近」您的位置,即可改善許多應用程式的回應速度。Deploying endpoints in two or more locations across the globe can improve the responsiveness of many applications by routing traffic to the location that is 'closest' to you. 「效能」流量路由方法提供這項功能。The 'Performance' traffic-routing method provides this capability.

Azure 流量管理員「效能」流量路由方法

「最靠近」的端點不一定是地理距離測量上最靠近的端點。The 'closest' endpoint is not necessarily closest as measured by geographic distance. 「效能」流量路由方法會測量網路延遲,以決定最靠近的端點。Instead, the 'Performance' traffic-routing method determines the closest endpoint by measuring network latency. 流量管理員會維護「網際網路延遲資料表」,以追蹤 IP 位址範圍與每個 Azure 資料中心之間的往返時間。Traffic Manager maintains an Internet Latency Table to track the round-trip time between IP address ranges and each Azure datacenter.

流量管理員會在「網際網路延遲資料表」中查閱傳入 DNS 要求的來源 IP 位址。Traffic Manager looks up the source IP address of the incoming DNS request in the Internet Latency Table. 接著,流量管理員會在 Azure 資料中心內選擇該 IP 位址範圍內延遲最低的可用端點,並在 DNS 回應中傳回該端點。Traffic Manager then chooses an available endpoint in the Azure datacenter that has the lowest latency for that IP address range, and returns that endpoint in the DNS response.

流量管理員的運作方式中所述,流量管理員不會直接從用戶端接收 DNS 查詢。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager does not receive DNS queries directly from clients. 相反地,DNS 查詢是來自用戶端已設定使用的遞迴 DNS 服務。Rather, DNS queries come from the recursive DNS service that the clients are configured to use. 因此,用來判斷「最靠近」端點的 IP 位址不是用戶端的 IP 位址,而是遞迴 DNS 服務的 IP 位址。Therefore, the IP address used to determine the 'closest' endpoint is not the client's IP address, but it is the IP address of the recursive DNS service. 實際上,此 IP 位址是用戶端的理想 Proxy。In practice, this IP address is a good proxy for the client.

流量管理員會定期更新「網際網路延遲資料表」,以反映全球網際網路的變動和新的 Azure 區域。Traffic Manager regularly updates the Internet Latency Table to account for changes in the global Internet and new Azure regions. 不過,隨著網際網路上即時的負載變化,應用程式效能會改變。However, application performance varies based on real-time variations in load across the Internet. 效能流量路由不會監視特定服務端點上的負載。Performance traffic-routing does not monitor load on a given service endpoint. 不過,如果端點變得無法使用,流量管理員就不會將它加入 DNS 查詢回應中。However, if an endpoint becomes unavailable, Traffic Manager does not include it in DNS query responses.

注意事項:Points to note:

  • 如果您的設定檔中有多個端點在相同的 Azure 區域,則流量管理員會將流量平均分散至該區域中可用的端點。If your profile contains multiple endpoints in the same Azure region, then Traffic Manager distributes traffic evenly across the available endpoints in that region. 如果您在某個區域內偏好採用不同的流量分配,您可以使用巢狀流量管理員設定檔If you prefer a different traffic distribution within a region, you can use nested Traffic Manager profiles.
  • 如果最接近的 Azure 區域中所有啟用的端點都降級,流量管理員會將流量移到下一個最接近的 Azure 區域中的端點。If all enabled endpoints in the closest Azure region are degraded, Traffic Manager moves traffic to the endpoints in the next closest Azure region. 如果您想要定義慣用的容錯移轉順序,請使用巢狀流量管理員設定檔If you want to define a preferred failover sequence, use nested Traffic Manager profiles.
  • 對外部端點或巢狀端點使用「效能」流量路由方法時,您必須指定這些端點的位置。When using the Performance traffic routing method with external endpoints or nested endpoints, you need to specify the location of those endpoints. 選擇最接近部署的 Azure 區域。Choose the Azure region closest to your deployment. 這些區域是「網際網路延遲資料表」所支援的值。Those locations are the values supported by the Internet Latency Table.
  • 端點的選擇演算法具有決定性。The algorithm that chooses the endpoint is deterministic. 來自同一個用戶端的重複 DNS 查詢會導向同一個端點。Repeated DNS queries from the same client are directed to the same endpoint. 一般而言,用戶端在漫遊時會使用不同的遞迴 DNS 伺服器。Typically, clients use different recursive DNS servers when traveling. 用戶端可能會路由傳送至不同的端點。The client may be routed to a different endpoint. 「網際網路延遲資料表」的更新也會影響路由。Routing can also be affected by updates to the Internet Latency Table. 因此,效能流量路由方法不保證用戶端一定會路由傳送至相同的端點。Therefore, the Performance traffic-routing method does not guarantee that a client is always routed to the same endpoint.
  • 當「網際網路延遲資料表」變更時,您可能會發現某些用戶端導向不同的端點。When the Internet Latency Table changes, you may notice that some clients are directed to a different endpoint. 只要取得最新的延遲資料,此路由變更會更精確。This routing change is more accurate based on current latency data. 隨著網際網路的持續發展,這些更新對於維護「效能」流量路由的精確度也變得不可或缺。These updates are essential to maintain the accuracy of Performance traffic-routing as the Internet continually evolves.

地理流量路由方法Geographic traffic-routing method

流量管理員設定檔可以設定成使用地理路由方法,以根據使用者的 DNS 查詢來自哪個地理位置,將使用者導向特定端點 (Azure、外部或巢狀)。Traffic Manager profiles can be configured to use the Geographic routing method so that users are directed to specific endpoints (Azure, External or Nested) based on which geographic location their DNS query originates from. 在必須知道使用者的地理區域,並據以路由傳送使用者的情況下,這可讓流量管理員客戶應付自如。This empowers Traffic Manager customers to enable scenarios where knowing a user’s geographic region and routing them based on that is important. 例如,遵守資料主權規定、內容和使用者經驗的當地語系化,以及測量來自不同區域的流量。Examples include complying with data sovereignty mandates, localization of content & user experience and measuring traffic from different regions. 設定地理路由的設定檔時,必須指派一組地理區域給該設定檔相關聯的每個端點。When a profile is configured for geographic routing, each endpoint associated with that profile needs to have a set of geographic regions assigned to it. 地理區域可以達到下列細微層級A geographic region can be at following levels of granularity

  • 世界 – 任何區域World– any region
  • 地區分組 – 例如非洲、中東、澳大利亞/太平洋等Regional Grouping – for example, Africa, Middle East, Australia/Pacific etc.
  • 國家/地區 – 例如愛爾蘭、秘魯、香港特別行政區等Country/Region – for example, Ireland, Peru, Hong Kong SAR etc.
  • 州/省 – 例如美國加州、澳大利亞昆士蘭、加拿大亞伯達省等 (請注意︰僅澳大利亞、加拿大和美國的州/省才支援此細微層級)。State/Province – for example, USA-California, Australia-Queensland, Canada-Alberta etc. (note: this granularity level is supported only for states / provinces in Australia, Canada, and USA).

將一個或一組區域指派給端點時,來自這些區域的任何要求只會路由傳送至該端點。When a region or a set of regions is assigned to an endpoint, any requests from those regions gets routed only to that endpoint. 流量管理員會使用 DNS 查詢的來源 IP 位址,判斷使用者的查詢來自哪個區域 – 這通常是使用者執行查詢的本機 DNS 解析程式的 IP 位址。Traffic Manager uses the source IP address of the DNS query to determine the region from which a user is querying from – usually this is the IP address of the local DNS resolver doing the query on behalf of the user.

Azure 流量管理員「地理」流量路由方法

流量管理員會讀取 DNS 查詢的來源 IP 位址,判斷查詢的來源地理區域。Traffic Manager reads the source IP address of the DNS query and decides which geographic region it is originating from. 然後尋找是否有此地理區域對應的端點。It then looks to see if there is an endpoint that has this geographic region mapped to it. 查閱時會從最低細微層級開始 (州/省 - 若支援,否則是國家/地區層級),一直到最高層級,也就是「世界」 。This lookup starts at the lowest granularity level (State/Province where it is supported, else at the Country/Region level) and goes all the way up to the highest level, which is World. 經過此周遊找到的第一個相符項目,就指定為要在查詢回應中傳回的端點。The first match found using this traversal is designated as the endpoint to return in the query response. 符合「巢狀」類型端點時,則會根據路由方法,傳回該子設定檔中的端點。When matching with a Nested type endpoint, an endpoint within that child profile is returned, based on its routing method. 此行為有下列幾個特點︰The following points are applicable to this behavior:

  • 當路由類型是「地理路由」時,在流量管理員設定檔中,一個地理區域只能對應至一個端點。A geographic region can be mapped only to one endpoint in a Traffic Manager profile when the routing type is Geographic Routing. 這可確保使用者路由是具決定性,讓客戶在地理界限必須明確的情況下應付自如。This ensures that routing of users is deterministic, and customers can enable scenarios that require unambiguous geographic boundaries.

  • 如果使用者的區域出現在兩個不同端點的地理對應中,流量管理員會選取細微度最低的端點,不會考慮將該區域的要求路由傳送至另一個端點。If a user’s region comes under two different endpoints’ geographic mapping, Traffic Manager selects the endpoint with the lowest granularity and does not consider routing requests from that region to the other endpoint. 例如,假設「地理路由」類型設定檔有兩個端點 - 端點 1 和端點 2。For example, consider a Geographic Routing type profile with two endpoints - Endpoint1 and Endpoint2. 端點 1 設定為接收來自愛爾蘭的流量,端點 2 設定接收來自歐洲的流量。Endpoint1 is configured to receive traffic from Ireland and Endpoint2 is configured to receive traffic from Europe. 如果要求是來自愛爾蘭,則永遠會路由傳送至端點 1。If a request originates from Ireland, it is always routed to Endpoint1.

  • 因為一個區域只能對應至一個端點,不論端點是否狀況良好,流量管理員都會傳回此端點。Since a region can be mapped only to one endpoint, Traffic Manager returns it regardless of whether the endpoint is healthy or not.

    重要

    強烈建議客戶使用地理路由方法,並與「巢狀」類型端點相關聯,且子設定檔至少各包含兩個端點。It is strongly recommended that customers using the geographic routing method associate it with the Nested type endpoints that has child profiles containing at least two endpoints within each.

  • 如果找到符合的端點,但該端點處於已停止狀態,則流量管理員會傳回 NODATA 回應。If an endpoint match is found and that endpoint is in the Stopped state, Traffic Manager returns a NODATA response. 在此情況下,不會再於地理區域階層中往上進一步查閱。In this case, no further lookups are made higher up in the geographic region hierarchy. 對於巢狀端點類型,當子設定檔處於已停止已停用狀態時,此行為也適用。This behavior is also applicable for nested endpoint types when the child profile is in the Stopped or Disabled state.

  • 如果端點顯示已停用狀態,則區域比對過程不會考慮此端點。If an endpoint displays a Disabled status, it won’t be included in the region matching process. 對於巢狀端點類型,當端點處於已停用狀態時,此行為也適用。This behavior is also applicable for nested endpoint types when the endpoint is in the Disabled state.

  • 如果查詢的來源地理區域在該設定檔中沒有對應,流量管理員會傳回 NODATA 回應。If a query is coming from a geographic region that has no mapping in that profile, Traffic Manager returns a NODATA response. 因此,強烈建議客戶使用地理路由搭配一個端點,最好是「巢狀」類型,且子設定檔內至少有兩個端點,並指派區域世界Therefore, it is strongly recommended that customers use geographic routing with one endpoint, ideally of type Nested with at least two endpoints within the child profile, with the region World assigned to it. 這也可確保會處理未對應到區域的任何 IP 位址。This also ensures that any IP addresses that do not map to a region are handled.

流量管理員的運作方式中所述,流量管理員不會直接從用戶端接收 DNS 查詢。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager does not receive DNS queries directly from clients. 相反地,DNS 查詢是來自用戶端已設定使用的遞迴 DNS 服務。Rather, DNS queries come from the recursive DNS service that the clients are configured to use. 因此,用來判斷區域的 IP 位址不是用戶端的 IP 位址,而是遞迴 DNS 服務的 IP 位址。Therefore, the IP address used to determine the region is not the client's IP address, but it is the IP address of the recursive DNS service. 實際上,此 IP 位址是用戶端的理想 Proxy。In practice, this IP address is a good proxy for the client.

常見問題集FAQs

多值流量路由方法Multivalue traffic-routing method

多值流量路由方法可讓您在單一 DNS 查詢回應中取得多個狀況良好的端點。The Multivalue traffic-routing method allows you to get multiple healthy endpoints in a single DNS query response. 這可讓呼叫端在傳回之端點無回應的事件中,透過其他端點執行用戶端重試。This enables to caller to do client-side retries with other endpoints in the event of a returned endpoint being unresponsive. 此模式可提高服務的可用性,且可減少透過新的 DNS 查詢來取得狀況良好端點的相關延遲。This pattern can increase the availability of a service and reduce the latency associated with a new DNS query to obtain a healthy endpoint. 只有在所有端點類型為「外部」且指定為 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址時,才適用多值路由方法。MultiValue routing method works only if all the endpoints of type ‘External’ and are specified as IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. 當系統收到此設定檔的查詢時,會傳回所有狀況良好的端點,您可以設定回傳計數上限來限制回傳數量。When a query is received for this profile, all healthy endpoints are returned and are subject to a configurable maximum return count.

子網路流量路由方法Subnet traffic-routing method

子網路流量路由方法可讓您將一組使用者 IP 位址範圍對應至設定檔中的特定端點。The Subnet traffic-routing method allows you to map a set of end user IP address ranges to specific endpoints in a profile. 在那之後,如果流量管理員收到該設定檔的 DNS 查詢,它會檢查該要求的來源 IP 位址 (在大部分情況下,這會是呼叫端使用之 DNS 解析程式的連出 IP 位址),判斷其所對應至的端點,並將會在查詢回應中傳回該端點。After that, if Traffic Manager receives a DNS query for that profile, it will inspect the source IP address of that request (in most cases this will be the outgoing IP address of the DNS resolver used by the caller), determine which endpoint it is mapped to and will return that endpoint in the query response.

要對應至端點的 IP 位址可指定為 CIDR 範圍 (例如 1.2.3.0/24) 或位址範圍 (例如 1.2.3.4 - 5.6.7.8)。The IP address to be mapped to an endpoint can be specified as CIDR ranges (e.g. 1.2.3.0/24) or as an address range (e.g. 1.2.3.4-5.6.7.8). 與端點相關聯的 IP 範圍在該設定檔中必須是唯一的,且不能與相同設定檔中不同端點的 IP 位址集重疊。The IP ranges associated with an endpoint need to be unique within that profile and cannot have an overlap with the IP address set of a different endpoint in the same profile. 如果您定義不含任何位址範圍的端點,則該端點會用來作為後援,並從任何剩餘的子網路取得流量。If you define an endpoint with no address range, that functions as a fallback and take traffic from any remaining subnets. 如果未包含任何後援端點,流量管理員就會針對任何未定義的範圍傳送 NODATA 回應。If no fallback endpoint is included, Traffic Manager sends a NODATA response for any undefined ranges. 因此,強烈建議您定義後援端點,或確定會跨您的端點指定所有可能的 IP 範圍。It is therefore highly recommended that you either define a fallback endpoint, or else ensure that all possible IP ranges are specified across your endpoints.

子網路路由可為來自特定 IP 空間的使用者提供不同體驗。Subnet routing can be used to deliver a different experience for users connecting from a specific IP space. 例如,使用子網路路由,客戶可以讓來自公司辦公室的所有要求路由至不同端點,他們可能在其中測試其應用程式的內部版本。For example, using subnet routing, a customer can make all requests from their corporate office be routed to a different endpoint where they might be testing an internal only version of their app. 另一種情況是如果您想要為來自特定 ISP 連線的使用者提供不同體驗 (例如封鎖來至指定 ISP 的使用者)。Another scenario is if you want to provide a different experience to users connecting from a specific ISP (For example, block users from a given ISP).

後續步驟Next steps

了解如何使用 Traffic Manager endpoint monitoringLearn how to develop high-availability applications using Traffic Manager endpoint monitoring