使用 Azure 保留的 VM 執行個體節省成本Save costs with Azure Reserved VM Instances

當您認可至 Azure 保留的 VM 實例時,您可以節省成本。When you commit to an Azure reserved VM instance you can save money. 保留項目折扣會自動套用到符合保留項目範圍和屬性之執行中虛擬機器的數目。The reservation discount is applied automatically to the number of running virtual machines that match the reservation scope and attributes. 您不需要將保留指派給虛擬機器以取得折扣。You don't need to assign a reservation to a virtual machine to get the discounts. 購買保留實例僅涵蓋 VM 使用量的計算部分。A reserved instance purchase covers only the compute part of your VM usage. 針對 Windows Vm,使用量計量會分割成兩個不同的計量。For Windows VMs, the usage meter is split into two separate meters. 有一種計算計量,與 Linux 計量和 Windows IP 計量相同。There's a compute meter, which is same as the Linux meter, and a Windows IP meter. 當您進行購買時所看到的費用,只會用於計算成本。The charges that you see when you make the purchase are only for the compute costs. 費用不包含 Windows 軟體成本。Charges don't include Windows software costs. 如需軟體成本的詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 保留的 VM 執行個體未包含的軟體成本For more information about software costs, see Software costs not included with Azure Reserved VM Instances.

購買之前,請先決定正確的 VM 大小Determine the right VM size before you buy

購買保留之前,您應該先判斷您需要的 VM 大小。Before you buy a reservation, you should determine the size of the VM that you need. 下列各節將協助您判斷正確的 VM 大小。The following sections will help you determine the right VM size.

使用保留建議Use reservation recommendations

您可以使用保留建議來協助判斷您應該購買的保留。You can use reservation recommendations to help determine the reservations you should purchase.

  • 購買 Azure 入口網站中的 VM 保留實例時,會顯示購買建議和建議數量。Purchase recommendations and recommended quantities are shown when you purchase a VM reserved instance in the Azure portal.
  • Azure Advisor 提供個別訂用帳戶的購買建議。Azure Advisor provides purchase recommendations for individual subscriptions.
  • 您可以使用 Api 來取得共用範圍和單一訂用帳戶範圍的購買建議。You can use the APIs to get purchase recommendations for both shared scope and single subscription scope. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 企業客戶的保留實例購買建議 apiFor more information, see Reserved instance purchase recommendation APIs for enterprise customers.
  • 針對 Enterprise 合約 (EA) 和 Microsoft 客戶合約 (MCA) 客戶,可透過 Azure 使用量見解 Power BI 內容套件取得共用和單一訂用帳戶範圍的購買建議。For Enterprise Agreement (EA) and Microsoft Customer Agreement (MCA) customers, purchase recommendations for shared and single subscription scopes are available with the Azure Consumption Insights Power BI content pack.

取得 VM 保留折扣的服務Services that get VM reservation discounts

您的 VM 保留可套用至從多個服務發出的 VM 使用量,而不只是針對您的 VM 部署。Your VM reservations can apply to VM usage emitted from multiple services - not just for your VM deployments. 取得保留折扣的資源會根據執行個體大小彈性設定而變更。Resources that get reservation discounts change depending on the instance size flexibility setting.

執行個體大小彈性設定Instance size flexibility setting

執行個體大小彈性設定會決定哪些服務可取得保留執行個體折扣。The instance size flexibility setting determines which services get the reserved instance discounts.

無論是開啟或關閉設定,保留折扣都會在 ConsumedServiceMicrosoft.Compute 時,自動套用至任何相符的 VM 使用量。Whether the setting is on or off, reservation discounts automatically apply to any matching VM usage when the ConsumedService is Microsoft.Compute. 因此,請檢查您的使用量資料是否有 ConsumedService 值。So, check your usage data for the ConsumedService value. 部分範例包括:Some examples include:

  • 虛擬機器Virtual machines
  • 虛擬機器擴展集Virtual machine scale sets
  • 容器服務Container service
  • Azure Batch 部署 (在使用者訂用帳戶模式中)Azure Batch deployments (in user subscriptions mode)
  • Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
  • Service FabricService Fabric

若設為開啟,保留折扣會在 ConsumedService 為下列任何項目時,自動套用至相符的 VM 使用量:When the setting is on, reservation discounts automatically apply to matching VM usage when the ConsumedService is any of the following items:

  • Microsoft.ComputeMicrosoft.Compute
  • Microsoft.ClassicComputeMicrosoft.ClassicCompute
  • Microsoft.BatchMicrosoft.Batch
  • Microsoft.MachineLearningServicesMicrosoft.MachineLearningServices
  • Microsoft.KustoMicrosoft.Kusto

檢查使用量資料中的 ConsumedService 值,以判斷使用量是否符合保留折扣的資格。Check the ConsumedService value in your usage data to determine if the usage is eligible for reservation discounts.

如需執行個體大小彈性的詳細資訊,請參閱利用保留的 VM 執行個體獲得虛擬機器大小彈性For more information about instance size flexibility, see Virtual machine size flexibility with Reserved VM Instances.

分析您的使用量資訊Analyze your usage information

分析您的使用量資訊,以協助判斷您應該購買的保留。Analyze your usage information to help determine which reservations you should purchase. 使用量資料會在使用方式檔案和 Api 中提供。Usage data is available in the usage file and APIs. 一起使用它們來決定要購買的保留。Use them together to determine which reservation to purchase. 檢查每天是否有高使用量的 VM 實例,以決定要購買的保留數量。Check for VM instances that have high usage on daily basis to determine the quantity of reservations to purchase. 避免 Meter Product 使用方式資料中的子類別和欄位。Avoid the Meter subcategory and Product fields in usage data. 它們不會區分使用 premium 儲存體的 VM 大小。They don't distinguish between VM sizes that use premium storage. 如果您使用這些欄位來判斷保留購買的 VM 大小,您可能會購買錯誤的大小。If you use these fields to determine the VM size for reservation purchase, you may buy the wrong size. 然後您就不會得到預期的保留折扣。Then you won't get the reservation discount you expect. 相反地,請參閱 AdditionalInfo 使用量檔案或使用量 API 中的欄位,以判斷正確的 VM 大小。Instead, refer to the AdditionalInfo field in your usage file or usage API to determine the correct VM size.

您的使用量檔案會依計費期間和每日使用量顯示您的費用。Your usage file shows your charges by billing period and daily usage. 如需下載使用量檔案的相關資訊,請參閱 查看及下載您的 Azure 使用量和費用For information about downloading your usage file, see View and download your Azure usage and charges. 然後,您可以使用使用量檔案資訊來 決定要購買的保留Then, by using the usage file information, you can determine what reservation to purchase.

購買限制考慮Purchase restriction considerations

保留的 VM 實例適用于大多數 VM 大小,但有一些例外狀況。Reserved VM Instances are available for most VM sizes with some exceptions. 保留折扣不適用於下列 Vm:Reservation discounts don't apply for the following VMs:

  • VM 系列 A 系列、Av2 系列或 G 系列。VM series - A-series, Av2-series, or G-series.

  • 預覽或促銷 vm -任何處于預覽狀態或使用促銷計量的 VM 系列或大小。Preview or Promo VMs - Any VM-series or size that is in preview or uses promotional meter.

  • 雲端保留不適用於德國或中國區域 中的購買Clouds - Reservations aren't available for purchase in Germany or China regions.

  • 配額不足 -具有單一訂用帳戶範圍的保留,必須在新 RI 的訂用帳戶中有可用的 vCPU 配額。Insufficient quota - A reservation that is scoped to a single subscription must have vCPU quota available in the subscription for the new RI. 例如,如果目標訂用帳戶的配額限制為 10 個 D 系列的 vCPU,您便無法購買一個適用於 11 個 Standard_D1 執行個體的保留項目。For example, if the target subscription has a quota limit of 10 vCPUs for D-Series, then you can't buy a reservation for 11 Standard_D1 instances. 保留的配額檢查包含已在訂用帳戶中部署的 VM。The quota check for reservations includes the VMs already deployed in the subscription. 例如,如果訂用帳戶的配額為 10 個 D 系列的 vCPU,且已部署 2 個 standard_D1 執行個體,則您可以在此訂用帳戶中購買一個適用於 10 個 standard_D1 執行個體的保留項目。For example, if the subscription has a quota of 10 vCPUs for D-Series and has two standard_D1 instances deployed, then you can buy a reservation for 10 standard_D1 instances in this subscription. 您可以 建立報價增加要求 以解決此問題。You can create quote increase request to resolve this issue.

  • 容量限制 -在罕見的情況下,Azure 會限制購買 VM 大小子集的新保留,因為區域中的低容量。Capacity restrictions - In rare circumstances, Azure limits the purchase of new reservations for subset of VM sizes, because of low capacity in a region.

購買保留 VM 執行個體Buy a Reserved VM Instance

您可以在 Azure 入口網站中購買保留的 VM 實例。You can buy a reserved VM instance in the Azure portal. 保留的付款方式可為預先付款或每月付款Pay for the reservation up front or with monthly payments. 這些需求適用于購買保留的 VM 實例:These requirements apply to buying a reserved VM instance:

  • 您必須是至少一個 EA 訂用帳戶的擁有者角色,或具有隨用隨付費率的訂用帳戶。You must be in an Owner role for at least one EA subscription or a subscription with a pay-as-you-go rate.
  • 若為 EA 訂用帳戶,必須在 ea 入口網站中啟用 [新增保留實例] 選項。For EA subscriptions, the Add Reserved Instances option must be enabled in the EA portal. 或者,如果該設定已停用,則您必須是訂用帳戶的 EA 管理員。Or, if that setting is disabled, you must be an EA Admin for the subscription.
  • 針對雲端解決方案提供者 (CSP) 程式,只有系統管理員代表或銷售代表可以購買保留項目。For the Cloud Solution Provider (CSP) program, only the admin agents or sales agents can buy reservations.

購買執行個體:To buy an instance:

  1. 登入 Azure 入口網站Sign in to the Azure portal.
  2. 選取 [所有服務] > [保留]。Select All services > Reservations.
  3. 選取 [新增] 以購買新的保留,然後按一下 [虛擬機器]。Select Add to purchase a new reservation and then click Virtual machine.
  4. 輸入必要欄位。Enter required fields. 符合您選取之屬性的執行中 VM 執行個體符合取得保留項目折扣的資格。Running VM instances that match the attributes you select qualify to get the reservation discount. 取得折扣的 VM 執行個體實際數目取決於選取的範圍和數量。The actual number of your VM instances that get the discount depend on the scope and quantity selected.

如果您有 EA 合約,可以使用 [ 新增更多] 選項 來快速新增額外的實例。If you have an EA agreement, you can use the Add more option to quickly add additional instances. 此選項不適用於其他訂用帳戶類型。The option isn't available for other subscription types.

欄位Field 描述Description
訂用帳戶Subscription 用來支付保留項目的訂用帳戶。The subscription used to pay for the reservation. 保留項目的費用會透過訂用帳戶的付款方式收取。The payment method on the subscription is charged the costs for the reservation. 訂用帳戶類型必須是 enterprise 合約 (供應專案號碼: MS-AZR-0003P->ms-azr-0017p 或 MS-AZR-0003P-Ms-azr-0148p) 或 Microsoft 客戶合約,或是採用隨用隨付費率的個別訂用帳戶 (供應專案號碼: MS-MS-AZR-0003P-Ms-azr-0003p 或 MS-MS-AZR-0003P-Ms-azr-0023p) 。The subscription type must be an enterprise agreement (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P) or Microsoft Customer Agreement or an individual subscription with pay-as-you-go rates (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0003P or MS-AZR-0023P). 費用會從 Azure 預付款扣除 (先前稱為預付金) 餘額(如果有的話),或作為超額部分收費。The charges are deducted from the Azure Prepayment (previously called monetary commitment) balance, if available, or charged as overage. 針對具有隨用隨付費率的訂用帳戶,費用會以訂用帳戶的信用卡或發票付款方法計費。For a subscription with pay-as-you-go rates, the charges are billed to the credit card or invoice payment method on the subscription.
影響範圍Scope 保留範圍可以涵蓋一個訂用帳戶或多個訂用帳戶 (共用範圍) 。The reservation's scope can cover one subscription or multiple subscriptions (shared scope). 如果您選取:If you select:
  • 單一資源群組範圍 — 只會將保留折扣套用至所選資源群組中的相符資源。Single resource group scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected resource group only.
  • 單一訂用帳戶範圍 — 會將保留折扣套用至所選訂用帳戶中的相符資源。Single subscription scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected subscription.
  • 共用範圍 — 會將保留折扣套用至計費內容中合格訂用帳戶的相符資源。Shared scope — Applies the reservation discount to matching resources in eligible subscriptions that are in the billing context. 若是 EA 客戶,計費內容為註冊。For EA customers, the billing context is the enrollment. 針對使用隨用隨付費率的個別訂用帳戶,計費範圍是帳戶管理員所建立的所有合格訂用帳戶。For individual subscriptions with pay-as-you-go rates, the billing scope is all eligible subscriptions created by the account administrator.
區域Region 保留所涵蓋的 Azure 區域。The Azure region that's covered by the reservation.
VM 大小VM Size VM 執行個體的大小。The size of the VM instances.
已針對下列項目最佳化Optimize for 預設會選取 VM 實例大小彈性。VM instance size flexibility is selected by default. 按一下 [ Advanced settings ] 來變更實例大小彈性值,以將保留折扣套用至相同 VM 大小群組中的其他 vm。Click Advanced settings to change the instance size flexibility value to apply the reservation discount to other VMs in the same VM size group. 容量優先順序會讓資料中心容量供您的部署優先使用。Capacity priority prioritizes data center capacity for your deployments. 它能讓您在需要時更有信心地啟動 VM 實例。It offers additional confidence in your ability to launch the VM instances when you need them. 保留項目範圍是單一訂用帳戶時,才可使用容量優先順序。Capacity priority is only available when the reservation scope is single subscription.
詞彙Term 一年或三年。One year or three years. 此外,也有5年的期限僅適用于 HBv2 Vm。There's also a 5-year term available only for HBv2 VMs.
數量Quantity 保留項目內所購買的執行個體數目。The number of instances being purchased within the reservation. 數量是可以取得帳單折扣之執行中 VM 執行個體的數目。The quantity is the number of running VM instances that can get the billing discount. 例如,如果您在美國東部執行10部 Standard_D2 Vm,則您會將數量指定為10,以最大化所有執行中 Vm 的權益。For example, if you are running 10 Standard_D2 VMs in the East US, then you would specify quantity as 10 to maximize the benefit for all running VMs.

使用量資料和保留使用率Usage data and reservation utilization

對於獲得保留折扣的使用量,您的使用量資料有效價格會是零。Your usage data has an effective price of zero for the usage that gets a reservation discount. 您可以查看哪個 VM 實例收到每個保留的保留折扣。You can see which VM instance received the reservation discount for each reservation.

如需保留折扣如何出現在使用量資料中的詳細資訊,請參閱如果您是 EA 客戶,請 瞭解您的 Enterprise 註冊的 Azure 保留使用量For more information about how reservation discounts appear in usage data, see Understand Azure reservation usage for your Enterprise enrollment if you are an EA customer. 如果您有個別訂用帳戶,請參閱 瞭解隨用隨付訂用帳戶的 Azure 保留使用量If you have an individual subscription, see Understand Azure reservation usage for your Pay-As-You-Go subscription.

在購買後變更保留Change a reservation after purchase

購買之後,您可以對保留進行下列類型的變更:You can make the following types of changes to a reservation after purchase:

  • 更新保留範圍Update reservation scope
  • 實例大小彈性 ((如果適用)) Instance size flexibility (if applicable)
  • 擁有權Ownership

您也可以將保留分割成較小的區塊,併合並已分割的保留。You can also split a reservation into smaller chunks and merge already split reservations. 這些變更都不會造成新的商業交易或變更保留的結束日期。None of the changes cause a new commercial transaction or change the end date of the reservation.

您無法在購買後直接進行下列類型的變更:You can't make the following types of changes after purchase, directly:

  • 現有的保留區域An existing reservation's region
  • SKUSKU
  • 數量Quantity
  • 持續時間Duration

但是,如果您想要進行變更,您可以 交換 保留。However, you can exchange a reservation if you want to make changes.

取消、交換保留或進行退費Cancel, exchange, or refund reservations

您可以取消、交換保留或進行退費,但有某些限制。You can cancel, exchange, or refund reservations with certain limitations. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 保留的自助式交換和退費For more information, see Self-service exchanges and refunds for Azure Reservations.

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