了解保留原則和保留標籤Learn about retention policies and retention labels

Microsoft 365 安全性與合規性的授權指引Microsoft 365 licensing guidance for security & compliance.

注意

如果您看到查看 App 中關於保留原則的訊息,請連絡您的的 IT 部門,以取得他們已如何為您設定的資訊。If you're seeing seeing messages about retention policies in your apps, contact your IT department for information about how they have been configured for you. 如果這些訊息是適用於 Teams 聊天或頻道訊息,請參閱關於保留原則的 Teams 訊息If these messages are for Teams chat or channel messages, see Teams messages about retention policies.

此頁面上的資訊適用於可為了合規性原因而建立保留原則和保留標籤的 IT 系統管理員。The information on this page is for IT administrators who can create retention policies and retention labels for compliance reasons.

對大多數組織來說,其資料 (電子郵件、文件、即時訊息等) 的數量和複雜性日益增加。有效管理或控管此資訊至關重要,因為您需要:For most organizations, the volume and complexity of their data is increasing daily—email, documents, instant messages, and more. Effectively managing or governing this information is important because you need to:

  • 主動遵守產業規範和內部原則,因此您需要將某些內容至少保留一段時間,例如,Sarbanes-Oxley 法案可能會要求您將某些類型的內容保留七年。Comply proactively with industry regulations and internal policies that require you to retain content for a minimum period of time—for example, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act might require you to retain certain types of content for seven years.

  • 降低發生訴訟或安全性漏洞的風險,方法為永久刪除您不再需要保留的舊內容。Reduce your risk in the event of litigation or a security breach by permanently deleting old content that you're no longer required to keep.

  • 協助貴組織有效分享知識並提高靈活度,方法為確保使用者只使用目前和相關的內容。Help your organization to share knowledge effectively and be more agile by ensuring that your users work only with content that's current and relevant to them.

您設定的保留設定可協助您實現這些目標。Retention settings that you configure can help you achieve these goals. 管理內容通常需要以下兩個動作:Managing content commonly requires two actions:

動作Action 用途Purpose
保留內容Retain content 防止永久刪除,並保持可供電子文件探索使用Prevent permanent deletion and remain available for eDiscovery
刪除內容Delete content 從組織永久刪除內容Permanently delete content from your organization

使用這兩個保留動作,您可以設定以下結果的保留設定:With these two retention actions, you can configure retention settings for the following outcomes:

  • 僅保留:永久持續保留內容或保留指定的一段時間。Retain-only: Retain content forever or for a specified period of time.
  • 僅刪除:於指定的一段時間後永久刪除內容。Delete-only: Permanently delete content after a specified period of time.
  • 保留並刪除:將內容保留一段指定的時間,然後將其永久刪除。Retain and then delete: Retain content for a specified period of time and then permanently delete it.

這些保留設定可以使用就地內容,從而在您基於合規性原因而必須保留內容時,節省建立和設定額外儲存體的額外負荷。These retention settings work with content in place that saves you the additional overheads of creating and configuring additional storage when you need to retain content for compliance reasons. 此外,您不必執行自訂的程序來複製及同步處理這項資料。In addition, you don't need to implement customized processes to copy and synchronize this data.

使用下列各節來深入了解保留原則和保留標記的運作方式、使用時機,以及它們彼此如何互補。Use the following sections to learn more about how retention policies and retention labels work, when to use them, and how they supplement each other. 但如果您準備好要開始並為一些常見案例部署保留設定,請參閱開始使用保留原則和保留標籤But if you're ready to get started and deploy retention settings for some common scenarios, see Get started with retention policies and retention labels.

保留設定如何與就地內容搭配使用How retention settings work with content in place

當內容有指派保留設定時,該內容會保留在其原始位置。When content has retention settings assigned to it, that content remains in its original location. 若未發生任何變更,人員可以繼續使用其文件或郵件。People can continue to work with their documents or mail as if nothing's changed. 但如果人員編輯或刪除保留原則中包含的內容,則會自動保留內容複本。But if they edit or delete content that's included in the retention policy, a copy of the content is automatically retained.

  • 對於 SharePoint 和 OneDrive 網站:複本會保留在 文件保留庫 中。For SharePoint and OneDrive sites: The copy is retained in the Preservation Hold library.

  • 針對 Exchange 信箱:複本會保留在 [可復原的項目] 資料夾中。For Exchange mailboxes: The copy is retained in the Recoverable Items folder.

  • 針對 Teams 和 Yammer 訊息:複本會保留在名為 SubstrateHolds 的隱藏資料夾中,以作為 Exchange [可復原的項目 ] 資料夾中的子資料夾。For Teams and Yammer messages: The copy is retained in a hidden folder named SubstrateHolds as a subfolder in the Exchange Recoverable Items folder.

注意

[文件保留庫] 會佔用不受網站儲存空間配額限制的儲存空間。The Preservation Hold library consumes storage that isn't exempt from a site's storage quota. 當您對 SharePoint 和 Microsoft 365 群組使用保留設定時,可能需要增加您的儲存空間。You might need to increase your storage when you use retention settings for SharePoint and Microsoft 365 groups.

大部分的人員無法檢視這些安全的位置和保留的內容。These secure locations and the retained content are not visible to most people. 在大部分的情況下,使用者甚至不需要知道其內容受保留設定的限制。In most cases, people do not even need to know that their content is subject to retention settings.

如需有關保留設定如何配合不同工作負載使用的詳細資訊,請參閱下列文章:For more detailed information about how retention settings work for different workloads, see the following articles:

保留原則和保留標籤Retention policies and retention labels

若要將保留設定指派給內容,請將 保留原則保留標籤與標籤原則 一起使用。To assign your retention settings to content, use retention policies and retention labels with label policies. 您可以只使用其中一種方法,也可以將它們結合使用。You can use just one of these methods, or combine them.

使用保留原則為網站或信箱層級的內容指派相同的保留設定,並使用保留標籤來指派項目層級 (資料夾、文件、電子郵件) 的保留設定。Use a retention policy to assign the same retention settings for content at a site or mailbox level, and use a retention label to assign retention settings at an item level (folder, document, email).

例如,如果 SharePoint 網站中的所有文件都應該保留 5 年,使用保留原則比將相同的保留標籤套用至該網站中所有文件的方法更有效率。For example, if all documents in a SharePoint site should be retained for 5 years, it's more efficient to do this with a retention policy than apply the same retention label to all documents in that site. 不過,如果該網站中的部分文件應保留 5 年,而其他文件保留 10 年,一個保留原則就不夠用。However, if some documents in that site should be retained for 5 years and others retained for 10 years, a retention policy wouldn't be able to do this. 當您必須在項目層級指定保留設定時,請使用保留標籤。When you need to specify retention settings at the item level, use retention labels.

不同於保留原則,保留標籤的保留設定會隨著內容移至您 Microsoft 365 租用戶中不同的位置。Unlike retention policies, retention settings from retention labels travel with the content if it’s moved to a different location within your Microsoft 365 tenant. 此外,保留標籤具有以下保留原則不支援的功能:In addition, retention labels have the following capabilities that retention policies don't support:

  • 除了內容的年限或上次修改時間以外,還可選擇從為內容加上標籤的時間或根據事件來開始保留期間的選項。Options to start the retention period from when the content was labeled or based on an event, in addition to the age of the content or when it was last modified.

  • 使用可訓練分類器來識別要加上標籤的內容。Use trainable classifiers to identify content to label.

  • 為 SharePoint 文件套用預設標籤。Apply a default label for SharePoint documents.

  • 支援處置檢閱 以在內容永久刪除之前檢閱。Support disposition review to review the content before it's permanently deleted.

  • 將內容標示為做為標籤設定一部分的記錄,並且在保留期間結束而刪除內容時,永遠都有 處置證明 。Mark the content as a record as part of the label settings, and always have proof of disposition when content is deleted at the end of its retention period.

保留原則Retention policies

保留原則可以套用到以下位置:Retention policies can be applied to the following locations:

  • Exchange 電子郵件Exchange email
  • SharePoint 網站SharePoint site
  • OneDrive 帳戶OneDrive accounts
  • Microsoft 365 群組Microsoft 365 Groups
  • 商務用 SkypeSkype for Business
  • Exchange 公用資料夾Exchange public folders
  • Teams 通道訊息Teams channel messages
  • Teams 聊天Teams chats
  • Yammer 社群訊息Yammer community messages
  • Yammer 私人訊息Yammer private messages

您可以輕鬆地將單一原則套用到多個位置,或特定位置或使用者。You can very efficiently apply a single policy to multiple locations, or to specific locations or users.

保留期間開始時,您可以選擇建立內容的時間,或者只支援檔案和 SharePoint、OneDrive 和 Microsoft 365 群組位置 (上次修改內容的時間) 的時間。For the start of the retention period, you can choose when the content was created or, supported only for files and the SharePoint, OneDrive, and Microsoft 365 Groups locations, when the content was last modified.

專案會從保留原則指定的容器繼承保留設定。Items inherit the retention settings from their container specified in the retention policy. 如果在爲了保留内容而設定原則時將專案移至容器外,則會在工作負荷的安全位置保留該專案的複本。If they are then moved outside that container when the policy is configured to retain content, a copy of that item is retained in the workload's secured location. 不過,保留設定不會隨著內容移至新的位置。However, the retention settings don't travel with the content in its new location. 如有需要,請使用保留標籤,而非保留原則。If that's required, use retention labels instead of retention policies.

保留標籤Retention labels

請針對需要不同保留設定的不同類型的內容,使用保留標籤。Use retention labels for different types of content that require different retention settings. 例如:For example:

  • 至少必須保留一小段時間的稅務表單。Tax forms that need to be retained for a minimum period of time.

  • 到達特定年限之後需要永久刪除的新聞材料。Press materials that need to be permanently deleted when they reach a specific age.

  • 需要先保留一段期間之然後再永久刪除的競爭力研究。Competitive research that needs to be retained for a specific period and then permanently deleted.

  • 必須標示為記錄使之無法編輯或刪除的工作簽證。Work visas that must be marked as a record so that they can't be edited or deleted.

在這些情況下,保留標籤可讓您在項目層級 (文件或電子郵件) 套用治理控制的保留設定。In all these cases, retention labels let you apply retention settings for governance control at the item level (document or email).

使用保留標籤,您可以:With retention labels, you can:

  • 讓貴組織中的人員手動將保留標籤套用 至網頁上的 Outlook 和 Outlook、OneDrive、SharePoint 和 Microsoft 365 群組中的內容。Enable people in your organization to apply a retention label manually to content in Outlook and Outlook on the web, OneDrive, SharePoint, and Microsoft 365 groups. 使用者通常都清楚知道自己處理的內容類型,因此可將內容分類並套用適當的保留設定。Users often know best what type of content they're working with, so they can classify it and have the appropriate retention settings applied.

  • 在當內容符合特定條件時 自動將保留標籤套用到內容,例如內容包含:Apply retention labels to content automatically if it matches specific conditions, such as when the content contains:

    • 特定類型的敏感資訊。Specific types of sensitive information.
    • 特定關鍵字符合您建立的查詢。Specific keywords that match a query you create.
    • 可訓練分類器的模式比對。Pattern matches for a trainable classifier.
  • 針對 SharePoint 網站和 OneDrive 帳戶中的文件和電子郵件項目 (行事曆項除外),從內容加上標籤起就開始保留期間Start the retention period from when the content was labeled for documents in SharePoint sites and OneDrive accounts, and to email items with the exception of calendar items. 如果您將具有此設定的保留標籤套用於行事曆項目,則保留期間從其傳送日期開始。If you apply a retention label with this configuration to a calendar item, the retention period starts from when it is sent.

  • 當事件發生時 (例如員工離開組織或合約到期),開始保留期間Start the retention period when an event occurs, such as employees leave the organization, or contracts expire.

  • 將預設保留標籤套用至 SharePoint 中的文件庫、資料夾或文件集,以便儲存在該位置中的所有文件都繼承預設保留標籤。Apply a default retention label to a document library, folder, or document set in SharePoint, so that all documents that are stored in that location inherit the default retention label.

此外,保留標籤支援跨 Microsoft 365 應用程式和服務的電子郵件和文件記錄管理Additionally, retention labels support records management for email and documents across Microsoft 365 apps and services. 您可以使用保留標籤將內容標記為記錄。You can use a retention label to mark items as a record. 發生此情況且內容仍保留在 Microsoft 365 中時,標籤會針對法規原因可能所需的內容施加進一步的限制。When this happens and the content remains in Microsoft 365, the label places further restrictions on the content that might be needed for regulatory reasons. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 比較允許或封鎖動作的限制For more information, see Compare restrictions for what actions are allowed or blocked.

敏感度標籤不同,如果內容是移至 Microsoft 365 以外的位置,保留標籤不會保留。Retention labels, unlike sensitivity labels, do not persist if the content is moved outside Microsoft 365.

針對租用戶支援的保留標籤數量沒有任何限制。There is no limit to the number of retention labels that are supported for a tenant. 不過,10,000 個是針對租用戶支援的原則數目上限,其中包括會套用標籤 (保留標籤原則和自動套用保留原則) 的原則,以及保留原則。However, 10,000 is the maximum number of policies that are supported for a tenant and these include the policies that apply the labels (retention label policies and auto-apply retention policies), as well as retention policies.

將內容分類而不套用任何動作Classifying content without applying any actions

雖然保留標籤的主要目的是要保留或刪除內容,但您也可以在不開啟任何保留或其他動作的情況下使用保留標籤。Although the main purpose of retention labels is to retain or delete content, you can also use retention labels without turning on any retention or other actions. 在此情況下,您可以使用保留標籤當做文字標籤,而不強制執行任何動作。In this case, you can use a retention label simply as a text label, without enforcing any actions.

例如,您可以建立並套用名為「稍後檢閱」的保留標籤,而不執行任何動作,然後使用該標籤於稍後尋找該內容。For example, you can create and apply a retention label named "Review later" with no actions, and then use that label to find that content later.

僅限分類的標籤設定

使用保留標籤作為 DLP 原則的條件Using a retention label as a condition in a DLP policy

您可以將保留標籤做為 SharePoint 文件的資料外洩防護 (DLP) 原則中的條件。You can specify a retention label as a condition in a data loss prevention (DLP) policy for documents in SharePoint. 例如,設定 DLP 原則以防止文件在組織外共用 (如果已套用指定的保留標籤)。For example, configure a DLP policy to prevent documents from being shared outside the organization if they have a specified retention label applied to it.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱使用保留標籤做為 DLP 原則中的條件For more information, see Using a retention label as a condition in a DLP policy.

保留標籤和套用其標籤的原則Retention labels and policies that apply them

當您發佈保留標籤時,會將這些標籤包含在 保留標籤原則 中,好讓系統管理員和使用者將其套用至內容。When you publish retention labels, they're included in a retention label policy that makes them available for admins and users to apply to content. 如下圖所示:As the following diagram shows:

  1. 單一保留標籤可納入多個保留標籤原則。A single retention label can be included in multiple retention label policies.

  2. 保留標籤原則會指定要發佈保留標籤的位置。Retention label policies specify the locations to publish the retention labels. 同一位置可以納入多個保留標籤原則中。The same location can be included in multiple retention label policies.

如何將保留標籤新增至指定位置的標籤原則

您也可以建立一或多個 自動套用原則,每一個都有單一保留標籤。You can also create one or more auto-apply retention label policies, each with a single retention label. 使用此原則,當您在原則中指定的條件滿足時,將自動套用保留標籤。With this policy, a retention label is automatically applied when conditions that you specify in the policy are met.

保留標籤原則與位置Retention label policies and locations

可以將不同類型的保留標籤發佈到不同的位置,視保留標籤的功能而定。Different types of retention labels can be published to different locations, depending on what the retention label does.

如果保留標籤是...If the retention label is… 標籤原則可套用至…Then the label policy can be applied to…
已發佈給系統管理員和使用者Published to admins and end users
Exchange、SharePoint、OneDrive、Microsoft 365 群組Exchange, SharePoint, OneDrive, Microsoft 365 Groups
根據敏感資訊類型或可訓練分類器而自動套用Auto-applied based on sensitive information types or trainable classifiers
Exchange (僅限所有信箱)、SharePoint、OneDriveExchange (all mailboxes only), SharePoint, OneDrive
根據查詢而自動套用Auto-applied based on a query
Exchange、SharePoint、OneDrive、Microsoft 365 群組Exchange, SharePoint, OneDrive, Microsoft 365 Groups

在 Exchange 中,自動套用的保留標籤僅套用至新傳送的郵件 (傳輸中的資料),而非目前在信箱中的所有郵件 (待用資料)。In Exchange, retention labels that you auto-apply are applied only to messages newly sent (data in transit), not to all items currently in the mailbox (data at rest). 此外,您只能在所有信箱中為敏感性資訊類型和可訓練分類器來自動套用保留標籤功能,但無法選取特定信箱。Also, auto-apply retention labels for sensitive information types and trainable classifiers apply to all mailboxes; you can't select specific mailboxes.

Exchange 公用資料夾、Skype、Teams 和 Yammer 訊息不支援保留標籤。Exchange public folders, Skype, Teams and Yammer messages do not support retention labels. 若要保留或刪除這些位置中的內容,請改用保留原則。To retain and delete contain from these locations, use retention policies instead.

一次只能有一個保留標籤Only one retention label at a time

電子郵件或文件等內容一次只能套用一個保留標籤。An email or document can have only a single retention label applied to it at a time. 保留標籤可以由使用者或管理員手動套用,也可以使用以下任一方法自動套用:A retention label can be applied manually by an end user or admin, or automatically by using any of the following methods:

對於標準保留標籤 (它們不會將項目標記為記錄或監管記錄):For standard retention labels (they don't mark items as a record or regulatory record):

  • 系統管理員和使用者可以手動變更或移除套用於內容的現有保留標籤。Admins and end users can manually change or remove an existing retention label that's applied on content.

  • 當內容已套用保留標籤時,現有標籤不會自動移除或替換為另一個保留標籤,但有一個可能的例外:現有標籤已作為預設標籤套用。When content already has a retention label applied, the existing label won't be automatically removed or replaced by another retention label with one possible exception: The existing label was applied as a default label.

    有關使用預設標籤套用標籤行為的詳細資訊,請執行以下操作:For more information about the label behavior when it's applied by using a default label:

  • 如果有多個自動套用標籤原則可以套用保留標籤,並且內容滿足多個原則的條件,則套用最舊的自動套用標籤原則 (按建立日期) 的保留標籤。If there are multiple auto-apply label policies that could apply a retention label, and content meets the conditions of multiple policies, the retention label for the oldest auto-apply label policy (by date created) is applied.

當保留標籤將項目標記為記錄或監管記錄時,這些標籤不會自動變更。When retention labels mark items as a record or a regulatory record, these labels are never automatically changed. 只有容器的管理員才能手動變更或移除將項目標記為記錄而不是監管記錄的保留標籤。Only admins for the container can manually change or remove retention labels that mark items as a record, but not regulatory records. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 比較允許或封鎖動作的限制For more information, see Compare restrictions for what actions are allowed or blocked.

監視保留標籤Monitoring retention labels

在 Microsoft 365 合規性中心中,使用 資料分類 > 概觀 來監視保留標籤在租用戶中的使用方式,並識別標籤項目的位置。From the Microsoft 365 compliance center, use Data classification > Overview to monitor how your retention labels are being used in your tenant, and identify where your labeled items are located. 如需詳細資訊 (包括重要先決條件),請參閱了解您的資料 - 資料分類概觀For more information, including important prerequisites, see Know your data - data classification overview.

然後您可以使用內容總管活動總管深入探討詳細資料。You can then drill down into details by using content explorer and activity explorer.

提示

請考慮使用一些其他的資料分類深入解析 (例如可訓練分類器和敏感性資訊類型),協助您識別可能需要保留或刪除的內容,或管理記錄。Consider using some of the other data classification insights, such as trainable classifiers and sensitive info types, to help you identify content that you might need to retain or delete, or manage as records.

Office 365 安全性與合規性中心具有來自 資訊控管 > 儀表板 的保留標籤同等概觀資訊,以及來自 資訊控管 > 標籤活動總管 的詳細資訊。The Office 365 Security & Compliance Center has the equivalent overview information for retention labels from Information governance > Dashboard, and more detailed information from Information governance > Label activity explorer. 如需從此舊版系統管理中心監視保留標籤的詳細資訊,請參閱下列文件:For more information about monitoring retention labels from this older admin center, see the following documentation:

使用內容搜尋來尋找具有特定保留標籤的所有內容Using Content Search to find all content with a specific retention label

將保留標籤套用至內容後 (無論是由使用者套用或自動套用),您可以使用內容搜尋來尋找已套用特定保留標籤的所有項目。After retention labels are applied to content, either by users or auto-applied, you can use content search to find all items that have a specific retention label applied.

當您建立內容搜尋時,請選擇 [保留標籤] 條件,然後輸入完整的保留標籤名稱或是部分標籤名稱,再使用萬用字元。When you create a content search, choose the Retention label condition, and then enter the complete retention label name or part of the label name and use a wildcard. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱內容搜尋的關鍵字查詢和搜尋條件For more information, see Keyword queries and search conditions for Content Search.

保留標籤條件

比較保留原則和保留標籤的功能Compare capabilities for retention policies and retention labels

使用下列表格來協助您判斷是否要根據功能來使用保留原則或保留標籤。Use the following table to help you identify whether to use a retention policy or retention label, based on capabilities.

功能Capability 保留原則Retention policy 保留標籤Retention label
可以保留然後刪除、僅保留或僅刪除的保留設定Retention settings that can retain and then delete, retain-only, or delete-only Yes Yes
支援的工作負載:Workloads supported:
- Exchange- Exchange
- SharePoint- SharePoint
- OneDrive- OneDrive
- Microsoft 365 群組- Microsoft 365 groups
- 商務用 Skype- Skype for Business
- Teams- Teams
- Yammer- Yammer

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

是,除了公用資料夾Yes, except public folders
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
自動套用的保留Retention applied automatically Yes Yes
根據條件套用保留Retention applied based on conditions
- 敏感資訊類型、KQL 查詢和關鍵字、可訓練分類器- sensitive info types, KQL queries and keywords, trainable classifiers
No Yes
手動套用的保留Retention applied manually No Yes
使用者的 UI 目前狀態UI presence for end users No Yes
如果內容已移動,則會持續存在Persists if the content is moved No 是,在您的 Microsoft 365 租用戶中Yes, within your Microsoft 365 tenant
將項目宣告為記錄Declare item as a record No Yes
在加上標籤起或根據事件來開始保留期間Start the retention period when labeled or based on an event No Yes
處置檢閱Disposition review No Yes
最高 7 年的處置證明Proof of disposition for up to 7 years No 是,當您使用處置檢閱或項目被標示為記錄時Yes, when you use disposition review or item is marked a record
稽核系統管理員活動Audit admin activities Yes Yes
識別要保留的項目:Identify items subject to retention:
- 內容搜尋- Content Search
- 資料分類頁面、內容總管,活動總管- Data classification page, content explorer, activity explorer

No
No

Yes
Yes

請注意,您可以使用保留原則和保留標籤做為補充保留方法。Note that you can use both retention policies and retention labels as complementary retention methods. 例如:For example:

  1. 您建立並設定將在內容上次修改後五年自動刪除內容的保留原則,並將該原則套用於所有 OneDrive 帳戶。You create and configure a retention policy that automatically deletes content five years after it's last modified, and apply the policy to all OneDrive accounts.

  2. 您建立並設定永久保留內容的保留標籤,並將其新增至您發佈到所有 OneDrive 帳戶的標籤原則。You create and configure a retention label that keeps content forever and add this to a label policy that you publish to all OneDrive accounts. 您向使用者說明如何手動將此標籤套用於五年後未修改應從自動刪除排除的特定文件。You explain to users how to manually apply this label to specific documents that should be excluded from automatic deletion if not modified after five years.

有關保留原則和保留標籤如何搭配,以及如何判斷其合併結果的更多資訊,請參閱下一節解釋保留的原則和其優先順序。For more information about how retention policies and retention labels work together and how to determine their combined outcome, see the next section that explains the principles of retention and what takes precedence.

原則保留或何者優先The principles of retention, or what takes precedence?

與保留標籤不同,您可以對同一內容套用多個保留原則。Unlike retention labels, you can apply more than one retention policy to the same content. 每個保留原則都可能導致一個保留動作和一個刪除動作。Each retention policy can result in a retain action and a delete action. 此外,該項也可以透過保留標籤執行這些動作。Additionally, that item could also be subject to these actions from a retention label.

在這種情況下,當項目可能受到多個可能相互衝突的保留設定的約束時,確定結果的優先順序是什麼?In this scenario, when items can be subject to multiple retention settings that could conflict with one another, what takes precedence to determine the outcome?

結果不是哪一個保留原則或單個保留標籤優先採用,而是項目被保留多長時間 (如果適用) 以及何時删除項目 (如果適用)。The outcome isn't which single retention policy or single retention label wins, but how long an item is retained (if applicable) and when an item is deleted (if applicable). 這兩個動作是根據套用於項目的所有保留設定獨立計算的。These two actions are calculated independently from each other, from all the retention settings applied to an item.

例如,項目可能受一個為只删除動作設定的保留原則和另一個設定為保留然後删除的保留原則的約束。For example, an item might be subject to one retention policy that is configured for a delete-only action, and another retention policy that is configured to retain and then delete. 因此,此項只有一個保留動作和兩個刪除動作。Consequently, this item has just one retain action but two delete actions. 保留和删除動作可能會彼此相互衝突,並且這兩個删除動作的日期可能有衝突。The retention and deletion actions could be in conflict with one another and the two deletion actions might have a conflicting date. 若要達成結果,您必須套用保留原則。To work out the outcome, you must apply the principles of retention.

在高層級中,您可以確保保留永遠優先於刪除,然後最長的保留期間勝出。At a high level, you can be assured that retention always takes precedence over deletion, and the longest retention period wins. 這兩個簡單的規則總是决定項目將被保留多長時間。These two simple rules always decide how long an item will be retained.

决定何時删除項目還有幾個因素,其中包括從保留標籤中删除動作始終優先於從保留原則中删除動作。There are a few more factors that determine when an item will be deleted, which include the delete action from a retention label always takes precedence over the delete action from a retention policy.

使用以下流程來瞭解單個項目的保留和删除結果,其中每個層級從上到下扮演解決衝突的決勝局角色。Use the following flow to understand the retention and deletion outcomes for a single item, where each level acts as a tie-breaker for conflicts, from top to bottom. 如果結果是由第一層級決定 (因為沒有更多的衝突),則無需前進到下一個層級,依此類推。If the outcome is determined by the first level because there are no further conflicts, there's no need to progress to the next level, and so on.

重要

如果使用的是保留標籤:在使用此流程確定同一項目上多個保留設定的結果之前,請確保您知道套用了哪個保留標籤If you are using retention labels: Before using this flow to determine the outcome of multiple retention settings on the same item, make sure you know which retention label is applied.

原則保留圖

四個不同層級的說明:Explanation for the four different levels:

  1. 保留優先於刪除。Retention wins over deletion. 如果內容還具有保留設定,則不會永久删除該內容。Content won't be permanently deleted when it also has retention settings to retain it.

    範例:電子郵件受 Exchange 保留原則的約束,該原則設定為在三年後删除項目,並且套用了保留標籤,該標籤設定為保留項目五年。Example: An email message is subject to a retention policy for Exchange that is configured to delete items after three years and it also has a retention label applied that is configured to retain items for five years.

    此電子郵件保留五年,因為此保留動作優先於删除動作。The email message is retained for five years because this retention action takes precedence over deletion. 由於延遲删除動作,電子郵件將在五年時間結束時被删除。The email message is deleted at the end of the five years because of the deferred delete action.

  2. 最長保留期間優先。The longest retention period wins. 如果內容受制於在不同的期間保留內容的多個保留設定,則該內容將一直保留到最長保留期間結束為止。If content is subject to multiple retention settings that retain content for different periods of time, the content will be retained until the end of the longest retention period.

    範例:Marketing SharePoint 網站中的文件受兩個保留原則的約束。Example: Documents in the Marketing SharePoint site are subject to two retention policies. 為所有 SharePoint 網站設定了第一個保留原則,以將項目保留五年。The first retention policy is configured for all SharePoint sites to retain items for five years. 第二個保留原則是為特定的 SharePoint 網站設定的,以將項目保留十年。The second retention policy is configured for specific SharePoint sites to retain items for ten years.

    此 Marketing SharePoint 網站中的文件保留十年,因為這是最長的保留期。Documents in this Marketing SharePoint site are retained for ten years because that's the longest retention period.

  3. 明確優先於隱含。Explicit wins over implicit. 適用於確定删除項目的時間:Applicable to determine when items will be deleted:

    1. 與保留原則相比,保留標籤 (無論套用的是什麼) 提供明確保留,因為保留設定套用於單個項目,而不是從容器隱含分配。A retention label (however it was applied) provides explicit retention in comparison with retention policies, because the retention settings are applied to an individual item rather than implicitly assigned from a container. 這意味著從保留標籤執行的删除動作始終優先於任何保留原則中的删除動作。This means that a delete action from a retention label always takes precedence over a delete action from any retention policy.

      範例:文件受兩個保留原則的約束,這兩個原則的删除動作分別為 5 年和 10 年,保留標籤的删除動作為 7 年。Example: A document is subject to two retention policies that have a delete action of five years and ten years respectively, and also a retention label that has a delete action of seven years.

      文件在七年後被删除,因為從保留標籤中的删除動作優先。The document is deleted after seven years because the delete action from the retention label takes precedence.

    2. 只有保留原則時:如果某個位置的保留原則的作用域是使用包含設定 (例如 Exchange 電子郵件的特定使用者),則對於同一位置,保留原則優先於未限定範圍的保留原則。When you have retention policies only: If a retention policy for a location is scoped to use an include configuration (such as specific users for Exchange email) that retention policy takes precedence over unscoped retention policies for the same location.

      未限定範圍的保留原則是指在不指定特定實例的情况下選取位置。An unscoped retention policy is where a location is selected without specifying specific instances. 例如,Exchange 電子郵件[所有收件人] 的預設設置都是未限定範圍的保留原則。For example, Exchange email and the default setting of All recipients is an unscoped retention policy. 或者,SharePoint 網站所有網站 的預設設定。Or, SharePoint sites and the default setting of All sites. 當確定保留原則的作用域時,它們在此層級上具有相同的優先順序。When retention policies are scoped, they have equal precedence at this level.

      範例 1:電子郵件受兩個保留原則的約束。Example 1: An email message is subject to two retention policies. 第一個保留原則是未限定範圍的,並在 10 年後删除項目。The first retention policy is unscoped and deletes items after ten years. 第二個保留原則的範圍是特定郵箱,並在五年後删除項目。The second retention policy is scoped to specific mailboxes and deletes items after five years.

      電子郵件在五年後被删除,因為範圍保留原則中的删除動作優先於未限定範圍的保留原則。The email message is deleted after five years because the deletion action from the scoped retention policy takes precedence over the unscoped retention policy.

      範例 2:使用者 OneDrive 帳戶中的文件受兩個保留原則的約束。Example 2: A document in a user's OneDrive account is subject to two retention policies. 第一個保留原則的範圍是包括此使用者的 OneDrive 帳戶,並在 10 年後執行删除動作。The first retention policy is scoped to include this user's OneDrive account and has a delete action after 10 years. 第二個保留原則的範圍是包括此使用者的 OneDrive 帳戶,並在七年後執行删除動作。The second retention policy is scoped to include this user's OneDrive account and has a delete action after seven years.

      無法在此層級確定何時删除此文件,因為這兩個保留原則都有範圍。When this document will be deleted can't be determined at this level because both retention policies are scoped.

  4. 最短刪除期間優先。The shortest deletion period wins. 適用於確定何時從保留原則中删除項目,並且無法從上一層級解析結果:在最短保留期結束時删除內容。Applicable to determine when items will be deleted from retention policies and the outcome couldn't be resolved from the previous level: Content is deleted at the end of the shortest retention period.

    範例:使用者 OneDrive 帳戶中的文件受兩個保留原則的約束。Example: A document in a user's OneDrive account is subject to two retention policies. 第一個保留原則的範圍是包括此使用者的 OneDrive 帳戶,並在 10 年後執行删除動作。The first retention policy is scoped to include this user's OneDrive account and has a delete action after 10 years. 第二個保留原則的範圍是包括此使用者的 OneDrive 帳戶,並在七年後執行删除動作。The second retention policy is scoped to include this user's OneDrive account and has a delete action after seven years.

    此檔案將在七年後删除,因為這是這兩個範圍內保留原則的最短保留期。This document will be deleted after seven years because that's the shortest retention period for these two scoped retention policies.

請注意,受 eDiscovery 保留約束的項目也屬於保留的第一準則;任何保留原則或保留標籤都不能删除它們。Note that items subject to eDiscovery hold also fall under the first principle of retention; they cannot be deleted by any retention policy or retention label. 當解除保留後,保留準則繼續適用於他們。When that hold is released, the principles of retention continue to apply to them. 例如,它們可能會受到未到期的保留期或延遲的删除動作的影響。For example, they could then be subject to an unexpired retention period or a deferred delete action.

結合保留和删除動作的更複雜的範例:More complex examples that combine retain and delete actions:

  1. 項目套用了以下保留設定:An item has the following retention settings applied to it:

    • 僅在五年後删除的保留原則A retention policy for delete-only after five years
    • 保留三年然後删除的保留原則A retention policy that retains for three years and then deletes
    • 只保留七年的保留標籤A retention label that retains-only for seven years

    結果:該項目保留七年,因為保留優先於删除,七年是最長的保留期。Outcome: The item is retained for seven years because retention takes precedence over deletion and seven years is the longest retention period. 在保留期結束時,由於保留原則中的删除動作在保留項目時被延后,因此將删除該項目。At the end of this retention period, the item is deleted because of the delete action from the retention policies that was deferred while the item was retained.

    雖然這兩個保留原則的删除動作的日期不同,但可以删除的項目最早是在最長保留期結束時,而該日期比這兩種刪除日期更長。Although the two retention policies have different dates for the delete actions, the earliest the item can be deleted is at the end of the longest retention period, which is longer than both deletion dates. 在此範例中,刪除日期沒有發生任何衝突需要解決,因此所有的衝突都會由第二層級解決。In this example, there is no conflict to resolve for the deletion dates so all conflicts are resolved by the second level.

  2. 項目套用了以下保留設定:An item has the following retention settings applied to it:

    • 一種未限定範圍的保留原則,僅在 10 年後删除An unscoped retention policy that deletes-only after ten years
    • 保留五年,然後删除的限定範圍的保留原則A scoped retention policy that retains for five years and then deletes
    • 保留三年然後删除的保留標籤A retention label that retains for three years and then deletes

    結果:該項目保留五年,因為這是最長的保留期。Outcome: The item is retained for five years because that's the longest retention period. 在該保留期結束時,該項目將被删除,因為在保留該項目的同時,保留標籤的三年后删除動作被延遲。At the end of that retention period, the item is deleted because of the delete action of three years from the retention label that was deferred while the item was retained. 保留標籤中的删除優先於從所有保留原則中的删除。Deletion from retention labels takes precedence over deletion from all retention policies. 在此範例中,所有衝突都會由第三層處理解決。In this example, all conflicts are resolved by the third level.

使用「保留鎖定」來限制原則變更Use Preservation Lock to restrict changes to policies

有些組織可能需要遵守由控管機構定義的規則,例如證券交易委員會 (SEC) 規定 17a-4,要求在保留原則開啟之後,不能關閉或執行較不嚴格的限制。Some organizations might need to comply with rules defined by regulatory bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Rule 17a-4, which requires that after a policy for retention is turned on, it cannot be turned off or made less restrictive.

「保留鎖定」可確保您的組織能夠符合這類法規需求,因為它會鎖定保留原則或保留標籤原則,使得沒有任何人 (包括系統管理員) 可以關閉原則、刪除原則或降低限制。Preservation Lock ensures your organization can meet such regulatory requirements because it locks a retention policy or retention label policy so that no one—including an administrator—can turn off the policy, delete the policy, or make it less restrictive.

建立保留原則或保留標籤原則之後,您可以套用「保留鎖定」。You apply Preservation Lock after the retention policy or retention label policy is created. 如需更多資訊和指示,請參閲使用保留鎖定來限制變更保留原則和保留標籤原則For more information and instructions, see Use Preservation Lock to restrict changes to retention policies and retention label policies.

發佈保留原則Releasing a policy for retention

如果您的保留原則沒有保留鎖定,您可以隨時刪除您的原則,以便有效地關閉先前套用的保留設定。Providing your policies for retention don't have a Preservation Lock, you can delete your policies at any time, which effectively turns off the previously applied retention settings. 您也可以保留此原則,但是移除 SharePoint 的網站或 OneDrive 的帳戶,或將位置狀態變更為關閉,或停用該原則。You can also keep the policy, but remove a site for SharePoint or an account for OneDrive, or change the location status to off, or disable the policy.

當您執行任何這些動作時,任何受限於原則保留的 SharePoint 或 OneDrive 內容會繼續保留 30 天,以避免意外的資料遺失。When you do any of these actions, any SharePoint or OneDrive content that's subject to retention from the policy continues to be retained for 30 days to prevent inadvertent data loss. 在這個 30 天寬限期內,您無法刪除網站,已刪除的檔案仍會保留 (檔案會繼續新增至文件保留庫),但是定期清除文件保留庫的計時器工作會暫停,因此您可以在必要時還原這些檔案。During this 30-day grace period, you can't delete the site, deleted files are still retained (files continue to be added to the Preservation Hold library), but the timer job that periodically cleans up the Preservation Hold library is suspended for these files so you can restore them if necessary.

如需文件保留庫的詳細資訊,請參閱保留如何用於 SharePoint 和 OneDriveFor more information about the Preservation Hold library, see How retention works for SharePoint and OneDrive.

由於寬限期期間的行為,如果您在 30 天內重新啟用此原則或將位置狀態變更回啟用狀態,則此期間原則會繼續執行,不會有任何資料永久遺失。Because of the behavior during the grace period, if you re-enable the policy or change the location status back to on within 30 days, the policy resumes without any permanent data loss during this time.

稽核保留設定Auditing retention configuration

啟用稽核功能後,系統會將保留原則和保留標籤的系統管理員動作儲存至稽核記錄。Administrator actions for retention policies and retention labels are saved to the audit log when auditing is enabled. 例如,建立、設定或刪除保留原則或標籤後,系統會建立稽核事件。For example, an audit event is created when a retention policy or label is created, configured, or deleted. 如需完整清單,請參閱保留原則和保留標籤活動For the full list, see Retention policy and retention label activities.

保留原則和保留標籤的 PowerShell CmdletPowerShell cmdlets for retention policies and retention labels

若要使用保留 Cmdlet,您必須先連線至 Office 365 安全性與合規性中心 PowerShellTo use the retention cmdlets, you must first connect to the Office 365 Security & Compliance Center PowerShell. 然後使用以下任一 Cmdlet:Then, use any of the following cmdlets:

何時使用保留原則和保留標籤或電子文件探索保留?When to use retention policies and retention labels or eDiscovery holds

雖然您使用保留設定和電子文件探索案例所建立的保留都可以防止資料永久刪除,但它們是為不同情況而設計的。Although retention settings and holds that you create with an eDiscovery case can both prevent data from being permanently deleted, they are designed for different scenarios. 若要協助您了解差異及決定使用哪個,請使用下列指南:To help you understand the differences and decide which to use, use the following guidance:

  • 您在 [保留原則] 和 [保留標籤] 中指定的保留設定,是專為長期資訊控管而設計,以保留或刪除符合法規需求的資料。Retention settings that you specify in retention policies and retention labels are designed for a long-term information governance strategy to retain or delete data for compliance requirements. 範圍通常很廣,主要重點是位置和內容,而不是個別使用者。The scope is usually broad with the main focus being the location and content rather than individual users. 保留期間的開始和結束是可設定的,可選擇自動刪除內容,而不需要其他系統管理員介入。The start and end of the retention period is configurable, with the option to automatically delete content without additional administrator intervention.

  • 電子文件探索的保留 (核心電子文件探索或進階電子文件探索案例) 是專為保留資料以供法律調查所設計。Holds for eDiscovery (either Core eDiscovery or Advanced eDiscovery cases) are designed for a limited duration to preserve data for a legal investigation. 該範圍是特定的,且重點是已識別使用者所擁有的內容。The scope is specific with the focus being content owned by identified users. 保留期間的開始和結束不會進行設定,但與個別系統管理員的動作相關,沒有選項可在保留解除時自動刪除內容。The start and end of the preservation period isn't configurable but dependent on individual administrator actions, without an option to automatically delete content when the hold is released.

比較保留與電子文件探索保留的摘要:Summary to compare retention with holds:

考量事項Consideration 保留Retention 電子文件探索保留eDiscovery holds
商務需求:Business need: 合規性Compliance 法律資訊Legal
時間範圍:Time scope: 長期Long-term 短期Short-term
焦點:Focus: 廣泛的、內容型Broad, content-based 特定的、使用者型Specific, user-based
開始和結束日期可設定:Start and end date configurable: Yes No
內容刪除:Content deletion: 是 (選用)Yes (optional) No
系統管理開銷:Administrative overheads: Low High

如果內容同時受制於保留設定和電子文件探索保留,則電子文件探索保留的內容保留永遠優先。If content is subject to both retention settings and an eDiscovery hold, preserving content for the eDiscovery hold always takes precedence. 如此一來,保留的原則會擴充至電子文件探索保留,因為系統會在管理員手動解除保留之前,將資料保留。In this way, the principles of retention expand to eDiscovery holds because they preserve data until an administrator manually releases the hold. 不過,儘管這個優先順序,請不要將電子文件探索保留用於長期資訊控管。However, despite this precedence, don't use eDiscovery holds for long-term information governance. 如果您擔心自動刪除資料,您可以設定保留設定以永遠保留項目,或對保留標籤使用處置評審If you are concerned about automatic deletion of data, you can configure retention settings to retain items forever, or use disposition review with retention labels.

如果您使用舊版電子文件探索工具來保留資料,請參閱下列資源:If you are using older eDiscovery tools to preserve data, see the following resources:

請使用保留原則和保留標籤,而非舊版的功能Use retention policies and retention labels instead of older features

如果您必要在 Microsoft 365 中預先主動保留或刪除內容,我們建議您使用保留原則和保留標籤,而非以下較舊的功能。If you need to proactively retain or delete content in Microsoft 365 for information governance, we recommend that you use retention policies and retention labels instead of the following older features.

如果您目前使用這些較舊的功能,這些功能會隨著保留原則和保留標籤繼續運作。If you currently use these older features, they will continue to work side-by-side with retention policies and retention labels. 不過,建議您今後改為使用保留原則和保留標籤。However, we recommend that going forward, you use retention policies and retention labels instead. 它們提供單一機制來集中管理 Microsoft 365 內容的保留與刪除。They provide you with a single mechanism to centrally manage both retention and deletion of content across Microsoft 365.

來自 Exchange Online 的舊版功能:Older features from Exchange Online:

來自 SharePoint 和 OneDrive 的舊版功能:Older features from SharePoint and OneDrive:

如果您已設定 SharePoint 網站的內容類型原則或資訊管理原則,以保留清單或文件庫的內容,當保留原則生效時,會忽略這些原則。If you have configured SharePoint sites for content type policies or information management policies to retain content for a list or library, those policies are ignored while a retention policy is in effect.

配置指導方針Configuration guidance

如果您已準備好建立保留原則,請參閱建立及設定保留原則If you are ready to create retention policies, see Create and configure retention policies.

若要建立及套用保留標籤:To create and apply retention labels: