SQL Server 2016 與 2017:硬體和軟體需求SQL Server 2016 and 2017: Hardware and software requirements

適用範圍:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server (所有支援的版本) yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) - 僅限 Windows 是Azure SQL 受控執行個體Azure SQL Managed InstanceYesAzure SQL 受控執行個體Azure SQL Managed Instance適用範圍:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server (所有支援的版本) yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) - Windows only 是Azure SQL 受控執行個體Azure SQL Managed InstanceYesAzure SQL 受控執行個體Azure SQL Managed Instance

本文列出在 Windows 作業系統上安裝及執行 SQL Server 2016 與 SQL Server 2017 的最低硬體和軟體需求。The article lists the minimum hardware and software requirements to install and run SQL Server 2016 and SQL Server 2017 on the Windows operating system.

如需其他 SQL Server 版本的硬體和軟體需求,請參閱:For hardware and software requirements for other versions of SQL Server, see:

硬體需求Hardware requirements

下列硬體需求適用於 SQL Server 2016 與 SQL Server 2017:The following hardware requirements apply to SQL Server 2016 and SQL Server 2017:

元件Component 需求Requirement
硬碟Hard Disk SQL ServerSQL Server 需要至少 6 GB 的可用硬碟空間。requires a minimum of 6 GB of available hard-disk space.

磁碟空間需求會因為您安裝的 SQL ServerSQL Server 元件而有所不同。Disk space requirements will vary with the SQL ServerSQL Server components you install. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本文章稍後的硬碟空間需求For more information, see Hard Disk Space Requirements later in this article. 如需支援之資料檔案儲存類型的資訊,請參閱 資料檔案的儲存類型For information on supported storage types for data files, see Storage Types for Data Files.

建議在使用 NTFS 或 ReFS 檔案格式的電腦上安裝 SQL Server。Installing SQL Server on computers with the NTFS or ReFS file formats is recommended. 雖支援 FAT32 檔案系統,但並不建議這種做法,因為其安全性低於 NTFS 或 ReFS 檔案系統。The FAT32 file system is supported but not recommended as it is less secure than the NTFS or ReFS file systems.

安裝期間將會封鎖唯讀、對應或是壓縮的磁碟機。Read-only, mapped, or compressed drives are blocked during installation.
光碟機Drive 若要從光碟片安裝,則需要 DVD 光碟機。A DVD drive, as appropriate, is required for installation from disc.
監視Monitor SQL ServerSQL Server 需要 Super-VGA (800x600) 或更高解析度的監視器。requires Super-VGA (800x600) or higher resolution monitor.
InternetInternet 網際網路功能需要網際網路存取 (可能會另行收費)。Internet functionality requires Internet access (fees may apply).
記憶體 *Memory * 最低規格:Minimum:

Express 版本:512 MBExpress Editions: 512 MB

所有其他版本:1 GBAll other editions: 1 GB

建議配備:Recommended:

Express 版本:1 GBExpress Editions: 1 GB

所有其他版本:至少 4 GB,並應隨著資料庫大小增加以確保最佳效能。All other editions: At least 4 GB and should be increased as database size increases to ensure optimal performance.
處理器速度Processor Speed 最小值: x64 處理器:1.4 GHzMinimum: x64 Processor: 1.4 GHz

建議配備: 2.0 GHz 或更快Recommended: 2.0 GHz or faster
處理器類型Processor Type x64 處理器:AMD Opteron、AMD Athlon 64、具有 Intel EM64T 支援的 Intel Xeon、具有 EM64T 支援的 Intel Pentium IVx64 Processor: AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon 64, Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support, Intel Pentium IV with EM64T support

注意

只有 x64 處理器支援安裝 SQL ServerSQL ServerInstallation of SQL ServerSQL Server is supported on x64 processors only. x86 處理器不再支援其安裝。It is no longer supported on x86 processors.

*在 Data Quality ServicesData Quality Services (DQS) 中安裝 Data Quality ServerData Quality Server 元件所需的最小記憶體為 2 GB RAM,這與 SQL ServerSQL Server 的最小記憶體需求不同。* The minimum memory required for installing the Data Quality ServerData Quality Server component in Data Quality ServicesData Quality Services (DQS) is 2 GB of RAM, which is different from the SQL ServerSQL Server minimum memory requirement. 如需有關安裝 DQS 的詳細資訊,請參閱< Install Data Quality Services>。For information about installing DQS, see Install Data Quality Services.

軟體需求Software requirements

本節中資料表列出執行 SQL Server 的最低軟體需求。The table in this section lists the minimum software requirements for running SQL Server. 另外還有建議的最佳效能 (機器翻譯) 組態選項。There are also recommended configuration options for optimal performance.

下列軟體需求適用於所有安裝:The following software requirements apply to all installations:

元件Component 需求Requirement
.NET Framework.NET Framework SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) 和更新版本需要適用於資料庫引擎、Master Data Services 或複寫的 .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6。and later require .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 for the Database Engine, Master Data Services, or Replication. SQL Server 安裝程式會自動安裝 .NET Framework.NET FrameworkSQL Server setup automatically installs .NET Framework.NET Framework. 您也可以從 .NET Framework.NET Framework Microsoft .NET Framework 4.6 (Web Installer) for Windows (適用於 Windows 的 Microsoft .NET Framework 4.6 (Web 安裝程式)) 手動安裝You can also manually install .NET Framework.NET Framework from Microsoft .NET Framework 4.6 (Web Installer) for Windows.

如需 .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 的詳細資訊、建議和指引,請參閱 .NET Framework 開發人員部署手冊For more information, recommendations, and guidance about .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 see .NET Framework Deployment Guide for Developers.

Windows 8.1Windows 8.1,而安裝 Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 4.6 之前, 需要 KB2919355 .NET Framework.NET Framework, and Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 require KB2919355 before installing .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6.
網路軟體Network Software SQL ServerSQL Server 支援的作業系統有內建的網路軟體。Supported operating systems for SQL ServerSQL Server have built-in network software. 獨立安裝的具名和預設執行個體均支援下列網路通訊協定:共用記憶體、具名管道、TCP/IP 和 VIA。Named and default instances of a stand-alone installation support the following network protocols: Shared memory, Named Pipes, TCP/IP, and VIA.

注意: 容錯移轉叢集不支援 VIA 通訊協定。Note: VIA protocol is not supported on failover clusters. 和 SQL Server 在相同容錯移轉叢集節點上執行的用戶端或應用程式,可以使用其本機管道位址以共用記憶體通訊協定連線到 SQL Server。Clients or applications running on the same node of the failover cluster as the SQL Server instance, can use Shared Memory protocol to connect to SQL Server using its local pipe address. 不過,此類型的連線不是叢集感知,且會在執行個體容錯移轉之後中斷。However this type of connection is not cluster-aware and will fail after an instance failover. 因此不建議使用此連線,且只應該在非常特定的案例中使用。It is therefore not recommended and should only be used in very specific scenarios.

重要: VIA 通訊協定已被取代。Important: The VIA protocol is deprecated. 這項功能處於維護模式,並可能在 Microsoft SQL Server 的未來版本中移除。This feature is in maintenance mode and may be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. 請避免在新的開發工作中使用這項功能,並規劃修改目前使用這項功能的應用程式。Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.

如需有關網路通訊協定和網路程式庫的詳細資訊,請參閱< Network Protocols and Network Libraries>。For more information about Network Protocols and Network Libraries, see Network Protocols and Network Libraries.

SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝程式會安裝該產品所需的下列軟體元件:Setup installs the following software components required by the product:

  • SQL ServerSQL Server Native ClientNative Client
  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝程式支援檔案Setup support files

重要

PolyBase 功能有其他的硬體和軟體需求。There are additional hardware and software requirements for the PolyBase feature. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 開始使用 PolyBaseFor more information, see Get started with PolyBase.

作業系統支援Operating System support

下表顯示 SQL Server 2016 哪些版本或 2017 可與 Windows 的哪些版本相容:The following table shows which editions of SQL Server 2016 and 2017 are compatible with which versions of Windows:

SQL Server 版本:SQL Server edition: EnterpriseEnterprise 開發人員Developer 標準Standard WebWeb ExpressExpress
Windows Server 2019 DatacenterWindows Server 2019 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2019 StandardWindows Server 2019 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2019 EssentialsWindows Server 2019 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 StandardWindows Server 2016 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 EssentialsWindows Server 2016 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 R2 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 FoundationWindows Server 2012 R2 Foundation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 FoundationWindows Server 2012 Foundation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows 10 IoT 企業版Windows 10 IoT Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 企業版Windows 10 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 ProfessionalWindows 10 Professional No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 HomeWindows 10 Home No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 EnterpriseWindows 8.1 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 專業版Windows 8.1 Pro No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 EnterpriseWindows 8.1 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8 專業版Windows 8 Pro No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8Windows 8 No Yes Yes No Yes

如需在 Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012Windows 8Windows 8 上安裝 SQL ServerSQL Server 的最低版本需求,請參閱在 Windows Server 2012 或 Windows 8 上安裝 SQL Server (機器翻譯)。For minimum version requirements to install SQL ServerSQL Server on Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8Windows 8, see Installing SQL Server on Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8.

Server Core 支援Server Core support

下列 Windows Server 版本支援在 Server Core 模式中安裝 SQL Server 2016 和 2017:Installing SQL Server 2016 and 2017 on Server Core mode is supported by the following editions of Windows Server:

Windows Server 2019 StandardWindows Server 2019 Standard

Windows Server 2019 DatacenterWindows Server 2019 Datacenter

Windows Server 2016 StandardWindows Server 2016 Standard

Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter

Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard

Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter

Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard

Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter

如需在 Server Core 上安裝 SQL Server 的詳細資訊,請參閱在 Server Core 上安裝 SQL ServerFor more information on installing SQL Server on Server Core, see Install SQL Server on Server Core.

WOW64 支援WOW64 support

WOW64 (Windows 64 位元上的 Windows 32 位元) 是 Windows 64 位元版本的一項功能,可讓 32 位元應用程式在 32 位元模式中以原生方式執行。WOW64 (Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit) is a feature of 64-bit editions of Windows that enables 32-bit applications to run natively in 32-bit mode. 即使基礎作業系統是 64 位元的作業系統,應用程式仍可在 32 位元模式下運作。Applications function in 32-bit mode, even though the underlying operating system is a 64-bit operating system. SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝不支援 WOW64。WOW64 is not supported for SQL ServerSQL Server installations. 不過,WOW64 支援管理工具。However, Management Tools are supported in WOW64.

32 位元用戶端作業系統支援的功能Features supported on 32-bit client Operating Systems

Windows 用戶端作業系統,例如 Windows 10 和 Windows 8.1 都有 32 位元或 64 位元架構。Windows client operating systems, for example Windows 10 and Windows 8.1 are available as 32-bit or 64-bit architectures. 64 位元用戶端作業系統支援所有的 SQL Server 功能。All SQL Server features are supported on 64-bit client operating systems. 在支援的 32 位元用戶端作業系統上,Microsoft 支援下列功能︰On supported 32-bit client operating systems Microsoft supports the following features:

  • Data Quality ClientData Quality Client
  • 用戶端工具連接性Client Tools Connectivity
  • Integration ServicesIntegration Services
  • 用戶端工具回溯相容性Client Tools Backwards Compatibility
  • 用戶端工具 SDKClient Tools SDK
  • 文件集元件Documentation Components
  • Distributed Replay 元件Distributed Replay Components
  • Distributed Replay ControllerDistributed Replay Controller
  • Distributed Replay ClientDistributed Replay Client
  • SQL 用戶端連接性 SDKSQL Client Connectivity SDK

Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008 R2 和更新版本的伺服器作業系統沒有 32 位元架構。and later server operating systems are not available as 32-bit architectures. 所有支援的伺服器作業系統只有 64 位元。All supported server operating systems are only available as 64-bit. 64 位元伺服器作業系統支援所有的功能。All features are supported on 64-bit server operating systems.

跨語言支援Cross-Language support

如需跨語言支援及使用當地語系化語言安裝 SQL ServerSQL Server 之考量的詳細資訊,請參閱 SQL Server 中的地區語言版本For more information about cross-language support and considerations for installing SQL ServerSQL Server in localized languages, see Local Language Versions in SQL Server.

磁碟空間需求Disk space requirements

安裝 SQL ServerSQL Server期間,Windows Installer 會在系統磁碟機上建立暫存檔。During installation of SQL ServerSQL Server, Windows Installer creates temporary files on the system drive. 在執行安裝程式來安裝或升級 SQL ServerSQL Server之前,請確認系統磁碟機上至少有 6.0 GB 的可用磁碟空間可供這些檔案使用。Before you run Setup to install or upgrade SQL ServerSQL Server, verify that you have at least 6.0 GB of available disk space on the system drive for these files. 即使您將 SQL ServerSQL Server 元件安裝到非預設磁碟機,這項需求也適用。This requirement applies even if you install SQL ServerSQL Server components to a non-default drive.

實際硬碟空間需求需視系統組態和您決定要安裝的功能而定。Actual hard disk space requirements depend on your system configuration and the features that you decide to install. 下表提供 SQL ServerSQL Server 元件的磁碟空間需求。The following table provides disk space requirements for SQL ServerSQL Server components.

功能Feature 磁碟空間需求Disk space requirement
Database EngineDatabase Engine 和資料檔案、複寫、全文檢索搜尋和 Data Quality Servicesand data files, Replication, Full-Text Search, and Data Quality Services 1480 MB1480 MB
Database EngineDatabase Engine (如上) 與 R Services (資料庫內)(as above) with R Services (In-Database) 2744 MB2744 MB
Database EngineDatabase Engine (如上) 與外部資料的 PolyBase 查詢服務(as above) with PolyBase Query Service for External Data 4194 MB4194 MB
Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 和資料檔案and data files 698 MB698 MB
Reporting ServicesReporting Services 967 MB967 MB
Microsoft R 伺服器Microsoft R Server (獨立式)(Standalone) 280 MB280 MB
Reporting ServicesReporting Services - SharePoint- SharePoint 1203 MB1203 MB
Reporting ServicesReporting Services 適用於 SharePoint 產品的增益集Add-in for SharePoint Products 325 MB325 MB
Data Quality ClientData Quality Client 121 MB121 MB
用戶端工具連接性Client Tools Connectivity 328 MB328 MB
Integration ServicesIntegration Services 306 MB306 MB
用戶端元件 ( SQL ServerSQL Server 線上叢書元件和 Integration Services 工具除外)Client Components (other than SQL ServerSQL Server Books Online components and Integration Services tools) 445 MB445 MB
Master Data ServicesMaster Data Services 280 MB280 MB
SQL ServerSQL Server 線上叢書元件,可用來檢視並管理說明內容*Books Online Components to view and manage help content* 27 MB27 MB
所有功能All Features 8030 MB8030 MB

*下載線上叢書內容的磁碟空間需求為 200 MB。*The disk space requirement for downloaded Books Online content is 200 MB.

資料檔案的儲存類型Storage Types for Data Files

支援的資料檔案儲存類型包括:The supported storage types for data files are:

  • 本機磁碟Local Disk
    • SQL ServerSQL Server 目前支援具有標準原生磁區大小 512 位元組及 4 KB 的磁碟機。currently supports disk drives that have standard native sector sizes of 512 bytes and 4 KB. 磁區大小大於 4 KB 的硬碟可能會在嘗試於其上儲存 SQL ServerSQL Server 資料檔案時產生錯誤。Hard disks with sector sizes larger than 4 KB may cause errors when attempting to store SQL ServerSQL Server data files on them. 請參閱 SQL Server 中的硬碟磁區大小支援界限 (機器翻譯),以取得 SQL ServerSQL Server 中硬碟磁區大小支援的詳細資訊。See Hard disk drive sector-size support boundaries in SQL Server for more information on hard disk sector-size support in SQL ServerSQL Server
    • SQL ServerSQL Server 容錯移轉叢集安裝只有在安裝 tempdb 檔時支援本機磁碟。failover cluster installation supports Local Disk only for installing the tempdb files. 務必確定在所有叢集節點上為 tempdb 資料和記錄檔指定的路徑都是有效的。Ensure that the path specified for the tempdb data and log files is valid on all the cluster nodes. 在容錯移轉期間,如果容錯移轉目標節點上的 tempdb 目錄無法使用,則 SQL ServerSQL Server 資源將無法上線。During failover, if the tempdb directories are not available on the failover target node, the SQL ServerSQL Server resource will fail to come online.
  • 共用儲存Shared Storage
  • 儲存空間直接存取 (S2D)Storage Spaces Direct (S2D)
  • SMB 檔案共用SMB File Share
    • 獨立或叢集安裝的 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 資料檔案不支援 SMB 儲存體。SMB storage is not supported for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services data files for either standalone or clustered installations. 請改用直接連結存放裝置、存放區域網路或 S2D。Use direct attached storage, a storage area network, or S2D instead.
    • SMB 儲存體可由 Windows 檔案伺服器或第三方 SMB 存放裝置所裝載。SMB storage can be hosted by a Windows File Server or a third-party SMB storage device. 如果使用了 Windows File Server,則 Windows File Server 版本應為 2008 或更新版本。If Windows File Server is used, the Windows File Server version should be 2008 or later. 如需有關使用 SMB 檔案共用安裝 SQL ServerSQL Server 做為儲存體選項的詳細資訊,請參閱<安裝 SQL Server 與 SMB 檔案共用儲存體>For more information about installing SQL ServerSQL Server using SMB file share as a storage option, see Install SQL Server with SMB Fileshare as a Storage Option.

在網域控制站上安裝 SQL ServerSQL ServerInstalling SQL ServerSQL Server on a Domain Controller

基於安全性理由,不建議您在網域控制站上安裝 SQL ServerSQL ServerFor security reasons, we recommend that you do not install SQL ServerSQL Server on a domain controller. SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝程式將不會封鎖當做網域控制站之電腦上的安裝,但適用以下限制:Setup will not block installation on a computer that is a domain controller, but the following limitations apply:

  • 您無法以本機服務帳戶在網域控制站上執行 SQL ServerSQL Server 服務。You cannot run SQL ServerSQL Server services on a domain controller under a local service account.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝到電腦上以後,您無法將電腦從網域成員變成網域控制站。After SQL ServerSQL Server is installed on a computer, you cannot change the computer from a domain member to a domain controller. 在您將主機電腦變更為網域控制站之前,必須先解除安裝 SQL ServerSQL ServerYou must uninstall SQL ServerSQL Server before you change the host computer to a domain controller.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝到電腦上以後,您無法將電腦從網域控制站變成網域成員。After SQL ServerSQL Server is installed on a computer, you cannot change the computer from a domain controller to a domain member. 在您將主機電腦變更為網域成員之前,必須先解除安裝 SQL ServerSQL ServerYou must uninstall SQL ServerSQL Server before you change the host computer to a domain member.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 容錯移轉叢集執行個體。failover cluster instances are not supported where cluster nodes are domain controllers.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 不受唯讀網域控制站的支援。is not supported on a read-only domain controller. SQL ServerSQL Server 安裝程式無法在唯讀的網域控制站上建立安全性群組或提供 SQL ServerSQL Server 服務帳戶。Setup cannot create security groups or provision SQL ServerSQL Server service accounts on a read-only domain controller. 在此狀況中,安裝程式將會失敗。In this scenario, Setup will fail.

    注意

    此限制也適用於網域成員節點上的安裝。This restriction also applies to installations on domain member nodes.

  • 只能存取唯讀網域控制站的環境不支援 SQL ServerSQL Server 容錯移轉叢集執行個體。A SQL ServerSQL Server failover cluster instance is not supported in an environment where only a read-only domain controller is accessible.

    注意

    此限制也適用於網域成員節點上的安裝。This restriction also applies to installations on domain member nodes.

安裝媒體Installation media

您可從下列位置取得相關的安裝媒體:You can get relevant installation media from the following locations:

或者,您可建立已在執行 SQL Server 的 Azure 虛擬機器,但由於虛擬化的額外負荷,虛擬機器上的 SQL Server 速度會比原生方式執行要慢。Alternatively, you can create an Azure virtual machine already running SQL Server though SQL Server on a virtual machine will be slower than running natively because of the overhead of virtualization.

後續步驟Next steps

檢閱安裝 SQL Server 的硬體和軟體需求之後,即可開始規劃 SQL Server 安裝或檢閱 SQL Server 的安全性考量Once you've reviewed the hardware and software requirements for installing SQL Server, you can start to Plan a SQL Server Installation or review the Security considerations for SQL Server.