ImageList ImageList ImageList ImageList Class


Stellt Methoden zur Verwaltung einer Auflistung von Image-Objekten bereit.Provides methods to manage a collection of Image objects. Diese Klasse kann nicht vererbt werden.This class cannot be inherited.

public ref class ImageList sealed : System::ComponentModel::Component
public sealed class ImageList : System.ComponentModel.Component
type ImageList = class
    inherit Component
Public NotInheritable Class ImageList
Inherits Component


Im folgenden Codebeispiel wird gezeigt, wie Bilder ausgewählt, entfernt und angezeigt werden.The following code example shows how to select, remove, and display images.

namespace myImageRotator
#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Drawing.dll>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::Drawing;
    using namespace System::ComponentModel;
    using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

    public ref class Form1 : public System::Windows::Forms::Form
        System::ComponentModel::IContainer^ components;
        System::Windows::Forms::ListBox^ listBox1;
        System::Windows::Forms::Label^ label3;
        System::Windows::Forms::Button^ button1;
        System::Windows::Forms::Button^ button2;
        System::Windows::Forms::Button^ button3;
        System::Windows::Forms::Button^ button4;
        System::Windows::Forms::PictureBox^ pictureBox1;
        System::Windows::Forms::ImageList^ imageList1;
        System::Windows::Forms::OpenFileDialog^ openFileDialog1;
        Graphics^ myGraphics;
        System::Windows::Forms::Panel^ panel1;
        System::Windows::Forms::Label^ label5;
        int currentImage;

            imageList1 = gcnew ImageList () ;
            currentImage = 0;

            // The default image size is 16 x 16, which sets up a larger
            // image size. 
            imageList1->ImageSize = System::Drawing::Size(255,255);
            imageList1->TransparentColor = Color::White;

            // Assigns the graphics object to use in the draw options.
            myGraphics = Graphics::FromHwnd(panel1->Handle);

        void InitializeComponent()
            this->components = gcnew System::ComponentModel::Container();
            this->listBox1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::ListBox();
            this->label3 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Label();
            this->button1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button();
            this->button2 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button();
            this->button3 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button();
            this->button4 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button();
            this->pictureBox1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::PictureBox();
            this->imageList1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::ImageList(this->components);
            this->openFileDialog1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::OpenFileDialog();
            this->panel1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Panel();
            this->label5 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Label();

            this->listBox1->Location = System::Drawing::Point(16, 16);
            this->listBox1->Size = System::Drawing::Size(400, 95);
            this->listBox1->TabIndex = 0;

            this->label3->Location = System::Drawing::Point(24, 168);
            this->label3->Text = "label3";

            this->button1->Location = System::Drawing::Point(96, 128);
            this->button1->Size = System::Drawing::Size(104, 23);
            this->button1->Text = "Show Next Image";
            this->button1->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::button1_Click);

            this->button2->Location = System::Drawing::Point(208, 128);
            this->button2->Size = System::Drawing::Size(104, 23);
            this->button2->Text = "Remove Image";
            this->button2->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::button2_Click);

            this->button3->Location = System::Drawing::Point(320, 128);
            this->button3->Text = "Clear List";
            this->button3->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::button3_Click);

            this->button4->Location = System::Drawing::Point(16, 128);
            this->button4->Text = "Open Image";
            this->button4->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::button4_Click);

            this->pictureBox1->Location = System::Drawing::Point(328, 232);
            this->pictureBox1->Size = System::Drawing::Size(336, 192);

            this->imageList1->ImageSize = System::Drawing::Size(16, 16);
            this->imageList1->TransparentColor = System::Drawing::Color::Transparent;

            this->panel1->Location = System::Drawing::Point(8, 240);
            this->panel1->Size = System::Drawing::Size(296, 184);

            this->label5->Location = System::Drawing::Point(168, 168);
            this->label5->Size = System::Drawing::Size(312, 40);
            this->label5->Text = "label5";

            this->ClientSize = System::Drawing::Size(672, 461);

        // Display the image.
        void button1_Click (Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
            if(imageList1->Images->Empty != true)
                if(imageList1->Images->Count-1 > currentImage)

                // Draw the image in the panel.

                // Show the image in the PictureBox.
                pictureBox1->Image = imageList1->Images[currentImage];
                label3->Text = "Current image is " + currentImage ;
                listBox1->SelectedIndex = currentImage;
                //				label5->Text = "Image is " + listBox1->Text ;
                label5->Text = String::Concat("Image is ",listBox1->Text);

        // Remove the image.
        void button2_Click (Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)

        // Clear all images.
        void button3_Click (Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)

        // Find an image.
        void button4_Click (Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
            openFileDialog1->Multiselect = true ;
            if(openFileDialog1->ShowDialog() == System::Windows::Forms::DialogResult::OK)
                if (openFileDialog1->FileNames != nullptr)
                    for(int i =0 ; i < openFileDialog1->FileNames->Length ; i++ )

        void addImage(String^ imageToLoad)
            if (imageToLoad != "")

        static void Main(array<String^>^ /*args*/) 
            Application::Run(gcnew Form1());

int main(){
namespace myImageRotator
    using System;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
        private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components;
        private System.Windows.Forms.ListBox listBox1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label label3;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button button1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button button2;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button button3;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button button4;
        private System.Windows.Forms.PictureBox pictureBox1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.ImageList imageList1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog openFileDialog1;
        protected Graphics myGraphics;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Panel panel1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label label5;
        private int currentImage = 0;
        public Form1()
            imageList1 = new ImageList () ;

            // The default image size is 16 x 16, which sets up a larger
            // image size. 
            imageList1.ImageSize = new Size(255,255);
            imageList1.TransparentColor = Color.White;

            // Assigns the graphics object to use in the draw options.
            myGraphics = Graphics.FromHwnd(panel1.Handle);
        private void InitializeComponent()
            this.components = new System.ComponentModel.Container();
            this.listBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ListBox();
            this.label3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
            this.button1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.button2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.button3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.button4 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.pictureBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.PictureBox();
            this.imageList1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ImageList(this.components);
            this.openFileDialog1 = new System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog();
            this.panel1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Panel();
            this.label5 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();

            this.listBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 16);
            this.listBox1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(400, 95);
            this.listBox1.TabIndex = 0;

            this.label3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(24, 168);
            this.label3.Text = "label3";

            this.button1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(96, 128);
            this.button1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(104, 23);
            this.button1.Text = "Show Next Image";
            this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button1_Click);

            this.button2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(208, 128);
            this.button2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(104, 23);
            this.button2.Text = "Remove Image";
            this.button2.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button2_Click);

            this.button3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(320, 128);
            this.button3.Text = "Clear List";
            this.button3.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button3_Click);

            this.button4.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 128);
            this.button4.Text = "Open Image";
            this.button4.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button4_Click);

            this.pictureBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(328, 232);
            this.pictureBox1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(336, 192);

            this.imageList1.ImageSize = new System.Drawing.Size(16, 16);
            this.imageList1.TransparentColor = System.Drawing.Color.Transparent;

            this.panel1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(8, 240);
            this.panel1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(296, 184);

            this.label5.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(168, 168);
            this.label5.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(312, 40);
            this.label5.Text = "label5";

            this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(672, 461);

        // Display the image.
        private void button1_Click (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
            if(imageList1.Images.Empty != true)
                if(imageList1.Images.Count-1 > currentImage)
                // Draw the image in the panel.

                // Show the image in the PictureBox.
                pictureBox1.Image = imageList1.Images[currentImage];
                label3.Text = "Current image is " + currentImage ;
                listBox1.SelectedIndex = currentImage;
                label5.Text = "Image is " + listBox1.Text ;
        // Remove the image.
        private void button2_Click (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
        // Clear all images.
        private void button3_Click (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
        // Find an image.
        private void button4_Click (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
            openFileDialog1.Multiselect = true ;
            if(openFileDialog1.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.OK)
                if (openFileDialog1.FileNames != null)
                    for(int i =0 ; i < openFileDialog1.FileNames.Length ; i++ )
        private void addImage(string imageToLoad)
            if (imageToLoad != "")
        public static void Main(string[] args) 
            Application.Run(new Form1());
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits System.Windows.Forms.Form
    Private listBox1 As System.Windows.Forms.ListBox
    Private label3 As System.Windows.Forms.Label
    Private WithEvents button1 As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private WithEvents button2 As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private WithEvents button3 As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private WithEvents button4 As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private pictureBox1 As System.Windows.Forms.PictureBox
    Private imageList1 As System.Windows.Forms.ImageList
    Private openFileDialog1 As System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog
    Protected myGraphics As Graphics
    Private panel1 As System.Windows.Forms.Panel
    Private label5 As System.Windows.Forms.Label
    Private currentImage As Integer = 0

    Public Sub New()
        imageList1 = New ImageList()

        ' The default image size is 16 x 16, which sets up a larger
        ' image size. 
        imageList1.ImageSize = New Size(255, 255)
        imageList1.TransparentColor = Color.White

        ' Assigns the graphics object to use in the draw options.
        myGraphics = Graphics.FromHwnd(panel1.Handle)

    End Sub

    Private Sub InitializeComponent()

        Me.listBox1 = New System.Windows.Forms.ListBox()
        Me.label3 = New System.Windows.Forms.Label()
        Me.button1 = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.button2 = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.button3 = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.button4 = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.pictureBox1 = New System.Windows.Forms.PictureBox()
        Me.openFileDialog1 = New System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog()
        Me.panel1 = New System.Windows.Forms.Panel()
        Me.label5 = New System.Windows.Forms.Label()

        Me.listBox1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(16, 16)
        Me.listBox1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(400, 95)
        Me.listBox1.TabIndex = 0

        Me.label3.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(24, 168)
        Me.label3.Text = "label3"

        Me.button1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(96, 128)
        Me.button1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(104, 23)
        Me.button1.Text = "Show Next Image"

        Me.button2.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(208, 128)
        Me.button2.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(104, 23)
        Me.button2.Text = "Remove Image"

        Me.button3.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(320, 128)
        Me.button3.Text = "Clear List"

        Me.button4.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(16, 128)
        Me.button4.Text = "Open Image"

        Me.pictureBox1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(328, 232)
        Me.pictureBox1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(336, 192)

        Me.imageList1.ImageSize = New System.Drawing.Size(16, 16)
        Me.imageList1.TransparentColor = System.Drawing.Color.Transparent

        Me.panel1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(8, 240)
        Me.panel1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(296, 184)

        Me.label5.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(168, 168)
        Me.label5.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(312, 40)
        Me.label5.Text = "label5"

        Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(672, 461)
    End Sub

    ' Display the image.
    Private Sub button1_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles button1.Click

        If imageList1.Images.Empty <> True Then
            If imageList1.Images.Count - 1 > currentImage Then
                currentImage += 1
                currentImage = 0
            End If

            ' Draw the image in the panel.
            imageList1.Draw(myGraphics, 10, 10, currentImage)

            ' Show the image in the PictureBox.
            pictureBox1.Image = imageList1.Images(currentImage)
            label3.Text = "Current image is " + currentImage.ToString
            listBox1.SelectedIndex = currentImage
            label5.Text = "Image is " + listBox1.Text
        End If
    End Sub

    ' Remove the image.
    Private Sub button2_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles button2.Click

    End Sub

    ' Clear all images.
    Private Sub button3_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles button3.Click
    End Sub

    ' Find an image.
    Private Sub button4_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles button4.Click

        openFileDialog1.Multiselect = True
        If openFileDialog1.ShowDialog() = DialogResult.OK Then
            If (openFileDialog1.FileNames IsNot Nothing) Then
                Dim i As Integer
                For i = 0 To openFileDialog1.FileNames.Length - 1
                Next i
            End If
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Sub addImage(ByVal imageToLoad As String)
        If imageToLoad <> "" Then
        End If
    End Sub

    <StaThread()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main(ByVal args() As String)
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub
End Class


ImageListwird in der Regel von anderen Steuerelementen verwendet, ListViewwie TreeViewz. ToolBarb., oder.ImageList is typically used by other controls, such as the ListView, TreeView, or ToolBar. Sie können Bitmaps oder Symbole ImageListhinzufügen, und die anderen Steuerelemente können die Bilder verwenden, die Sie benötigen.You can add bitmaps or icons to the ImageList, and the other controls are able to use the images as they require.

ImageListverwendet ein Handle, um die Liste der Bilder zu verwalten.ImageList uses a handle to manage the list of images. Der Handle wird erst erstellt, wenn bestimmte Vorgänge, z. b Handle . das DrawAbrufen von oder aufrufen, für die Bildliste ausgeführt werden.The Handle is not created until certain operations, such as getting the Handle or calling Draw, are performed on the image list. Durch das Ausführen anderer Vorgänge, z. ColorDepth b ImageSize . durch das Handle Festlegen von oder, wird die neu erstellt.Performing other operations, such as setting the ColorDepth or ImageSize will cause the Handle to be recreated. Daher sollten Sie diese Vorgänge ausführen, bevor Sie der ImageListBilder hinzufügen.Therefore, you should perform these operations before you add images to the ImageList. Wenn Sie mit Formularen arbeiten, die lokalisiert werden, sollten Sie außerdem immer ein-und ein ImageList -Bild hinzufügen, wenn die Language-Eigenschaft eines Formulars auf Default festgelegt ist.In addition, when you work with forms that will be localized, you should always add an ImageList and images when the Language property of a form is set to Default. Wenn Sie die Sprache des Formulars vor dem Hinzufügen von Bildern ändern, werden die Anwendungs Ressourcen Dateien beschädigt.Changing the form's language before you add images will corrupt the application resource files.


ImageList() ImageList() ImageList() ImageList()

Initialisiert eine neue Instanz der ImageList-Klasse mit Standardwerten für ColorDepth, ImageSize und TransparentColor.Initializes a new instance of the ImageList class with default values for ColorDepth, ImageSize, and TransparentColor.

ImageList(IContainer) ImageList(IContainer) ImageList(IContainer) ImageList(IContainer)

Initialisiert eine neue Instanz der ImageList-Klasse und ordnet diese einem Container zu.Initializes a new instance of the ImageList class, associating it with a container.


CanRaiseEvents CanRaiseEvents CanRaiseEvents CanRaiseEvents

Ruft einen Wert ab, der angibt, ob die Komponente ein Ereignis auslösen kann.Gets a value indicating whether the component can raise an event.

(Inherited from Component)
ColorDepth ColorDepth ColorDepth ColorDepth

Ruft die Farbtiefe der Bildliste ab.Gets the color depth of the image list.

Container Container Container Container

Ruft den IContainer ab, der die Component enthält.Gets the IContainer that contains the Component.

(Inherited from Component)
DesignMode DesignMode DesignMode DesignMode

Ruft einen Wert ab, der angibt, ob sich Component gegenwärtig im Entwurfsmodus befindet.Gets a value that indicates whether the Component is currently in design mode.

(Inherited from Component)
Events Events Events Events

Ruft die Liste der Ereignishandler ab, die dieser Component angefügt sind.Gets the list of event handlers that are attached to this Component.

(Inherited from Component)
Handle Handle Handle Handle

Ruft das Handle des Bildlistenobjekts ab.Gets the handle of the image list object.

HandleCreated HandleCreated HandleCreated HandleCreated

Ruft einen Wert ab, der angibt, ob das zugrunde liegende Win32-Handle erstellt wurde.Gets a value indicating whether the underlying Win32 handle has been created.

Images Images Images Images

Ruft die ImageList.ImageCollection für diese Bildliste ab.Gets the ImageList.ImageCollection for this image list.

ImageSize ImageSize ImageSize ImageSize

Ruft die Größe der Bilder in der Bildliste ab oder legt diese fest.Gets or sets the size of the images in the image list.

ImageStream ImageStream ImageStream ImageStream

Ruft den der Bildliste zugeordneten ImageListStreamer ab.Gets the ImageListStreamer associated with this image list.

Site Site Site Site

Ruft den ISite von Component ab oder legt ihn fest.Gets or sets the ISite of the Component.

(Inherited from Component)
Tag Tag Tag Tag

Ruft ein Objekt ab, das zusätzliche Daten über die ImageList enthält, oder legt dieses fest.Gets or sets an object that contains additional data about the ImageList.

TransparentColor TransparentColor TransparentColor TransparentColor

Ruft die als transparent zu behandelnde Farbe ab oder legt diese fest.Gets or sets the color to treat as transparent.


CreateObjRef(Type) CreateObjRef(Type) CreateObjRef(Type) CreateObjRef(Type)

Erstellt ein Objekt mit allen relevanten Informationen, die zum Generieren eines Proxys für die Kommunikation mit einem Remoteobjekt erforderlich sind.Creates an object that contains all the relevant information required to generate a proxy used to communicate with a remote object.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
Dispose() Dispose() Dispose() Dispose()

Gibt alle vom Component verwendeten Ressourcen frei.Releases all resources used by the Component.

(Inherited from Component)
Dispose(Boolean) Dispose(Boolean) Dispose(Boolean) Dispose(Boolean)

Gibt die von Component verwendeten nicht verwalteten Ressourcen und optional die verwalteten Ressourcen frei.Releases the unmanaged resources used by the Component and optionally releases the managed resources.

(Inherited from Component)
Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32)

Zeichnet das durch den angegebenen Index bestimmte Bild an der angegebenen Position in der festgelegten Graphics.Draws the image indicated by the given index on the specified Graphics at the specified location.

Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32)

Zeichnet das durch den angegebenen Index festgelegte Bild im angegebenen Graphics an der angegebenen Position und in der angegebenen Größe.Draws the image indicated by the given index on the specified Graphics using the specified location and size.

Draw(Graphics, Point, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Point, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Point, Int32) Draw(Graphics, Point, Int32)

Zeichnet das durch den angegebenen Index bestimmte Bild an der angegebenen Position in der festgelegten Graphics.Draws the image indicated by the specified index on the specified Graphics at the given location.

Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object)

Bestimmt, ob das angegebene Objekt mit dem aktuellen Objekt identisch ist.Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Inherited from Object)
GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode()

Fungiert als Standardhashfunktion.Serves as the default hash function.

(Inherited from Object)
GetLifetimeService() GetLifetimeService() GetLifetimeService() GetLifetimeService()

Ruft das aktuelle Lebensdauerdienstobjekt ab, das die Lebensdauerrichtlinien für diese Instanz steuert.Retrieves the current lifetime service object that controls the lifetime policy for this instance.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
GetService(Type) GetService(Type) GetService(Type) GetService(Type)

Gibt ein Objekt zurück, das einen von der Component oder von deren Container bereitgestellten Dienst darstellt.Returns an object that represents a service provided by the Component or by its Container.

(Inherited from Component)
GetType() GetType() GetType() GetType()

Ruft den Type der aktuellen Instanz ab.Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Inherited from Object)
InitializeLifetimeService() InitializeLifetimeService() InitializeLifetimeService() InitializeLifetimeService()

Ruft ein Lebensdauerdienstobjekt zur Steuerung der Lebensdauerrichtlinie für diese Instanz ab.Obtains a lifetime service object to control the lifetime policy for this instance.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone()

Erstellt eine flache Kopie des aktuellen Object.Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Inherited from Object)
MemberwiseClone(Boolean) MemberwiseClone(Boolean) MemberwiseClone(Boolean) MemberwiseClone(Boolean)

Erstellt eine flache Kopie des aktuellen MarshalByRefObject-Objekts.Creates a shallow copy of the current MarshalByRefObject object.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
ToString() ToString() ToString() ToString()

Gibt eine Zeichenfolge zurück, die das aktuelle ImageList-Objekt darstellt.Returns a string that represents the current ImageList.


Disposed Disposed Disposed Disposed

Tritt ein, wenn die Komponente durch einen Aufruf der Dispose()-Methode freigegeben wird.Occurs when the component is disposed by a call to the Dispose() method.

(Inherited from Component)
RecreateHandle RecreateHandle RecreateHandle RecreateHandle

Tritt beim Neuerstellen des Handle ein.Occurs when the Handle is recreated.

Gilt für:

Siehe auch