Between Azure and your on-premises datacenter
This article describes best practices for implementing a secure hybrid network that extends an on-premises network to Azure. This reference architecture implements a DMZ (also called a perimeter network) between an on-premises network and an Azure virtual network. The DMZ includes highly available network virtual appliances (NVAs) that implement security functionality such as firewalls and packet inspection. All outgoing traffic from the VNet is force-tunneled to the Internet through the on-premises network, so that it can be audited.
Azure has two different deployment models: Resource Manager and classic. This reference architecture uses Resource Manager, which Microsoft recommends for new deployments.
Typical uses for this architecture include:
- Hybrid applications where workloads run partly on-premises and partly in Azure.
- Infrastructure that requires granular control over traffic entering an Azure VNet from an on-premises datacenter.
- Applications that must audit outgoing traffic. This is often a regulatory requirement of many commercial systems and can help to prevent public disclosure of private information.
The following diagram highlights the important components in this architecture:
A Visio document that includes this architecture diagram is available for download from the Microsoft download center. This diagram is on the "DMZ - Private" page.
- On-premises network. A private local-area network implemented in an organization.
- Azure virtual network (VNet). The VNet hosts the application and other resources running in Azure.
- Gateway. The gateway provides connectivity between the routers in the on-premises network and the VNet.
- Network virtual appliance (NVA). NVA is a generic term that describes a VM performing tasks such as allowing or denying access as a firewall, optimizing wide area network (WAN) operations (including network compression), custom routing, or other network functionality.
- Web tier, business tier, and data tier subnets. Subnets hosting the VMs and services that implement an example 3-tier application running in the cloud. See Running Windows VMs for an N-tier architecture on Azure for more information.
User defined routes (UDR). User defined routes define the flow of IP traffic within Azure VNets.
Depending on the requirements of your VPN connection, you can configure Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routes instead of using UDRs to implement the forwarding rules that direct traffic back through the on-premises network.
Management subnet. This subnet contains VMs that implement management and monitoring capabilities for the components running in the VNet.
The following recommendations apply for most scenarios. Follow these recommendations unless you have a specific requirement that overrides them.
Access control recommendations
A DevOps role with permissions to administer the infrastructure for the application, deploy the application components, and monitor and restart VMs.
A centralized IT administrator role to manage and monitor network resources.
A security IT administrator role to manage secure network resources such as the NVAs.
The DevOps and IT administrator roles should not have access to the NVA resources. This should be restricted to the security IT administrator role.
Resource group recommendations
Azure resources such as VMs, VNets, and load balancers can be easily managed by grouping them together into resource groups. Assign RBAC roles to each resource group to restrict access.
We recommend creating the following resource groups:
- A resource group containing the subnets (excluding the VMs), NSGs, and the gateway resources for connecting to the on-premises network. Assign the centralized IT administrator role to this resource group.
- A resource group containing the VMs for the NVAs (including the load balancer), the jumpbox and other management VMs, and the UDR for the gateway subnet that forces all traffic through the NVAs. Assign the security IT administrator role to this resource group.
- Separate resource groups for each application tier that contain the load balancer and VMs. Note that this resource group shouldn't include the subnets for each tier. Assign the DevOps role to this resource group.
Virtual network gateway recommendations
NVAs provide different services for managing and monitoring network traffic. The Azure Marketplace offers several third-party vendor NVAs, including:
- Barracuda Web Application Firewall and Barracuda NextGen Firewall
- Cohesive Networks VNS3 Firewall/Router/VPN
- Fortinet FortiGate-VM
- SecureSphere Web Application Firewall
- DenyAll Web Application Firewall
- Check Point vSEC
- Kemp LoadMaster Load Balancer ADC Content Switch
If none of these third-party NVAs meet your requirements, you can create a custom NVA using VMs. As an example of creating custom NVAs, the solution deployment for this reference architecture implements the following functionality:
- Traffic is routed using IP forwarding on the NVA network interfaces (NICs).
- Traffic is permitted to pass through the NVA only if it is appropriate to do so. Each NVA VM in the reference architecture is a simple Linux router. Inbound traffic arrives on network interface eth0, and outbound traffic matches rules defined by custom scripts dispatched through network interface eth1.
- The NVAs can only be configured from the management subnet.
- Traffic routed to the management subnet does not pass through the NVAs. Otherwise, if the NVAs fail, there would be no route to the management subnet to fix them.
- The VMs for the NVA are placed in an availability set behind a load balancer. The UDR in the gateway subnet directs NVA requests to the load balancer.
Include a layer-7 NVA to terminate application connections at the NVA level and maintain affinity with the backend tiers. This guarantees symmetric connectivity, in which response traffic from the backend tiers returns through the NVA.
Another option to consider is connecting multiple NVAs in series, with each NVA performing a specialized security task. This allows each security function to be managed on a per-NVA basis. For example, an NVA implementing a firewall could be placed in series with an NVA running identity services. The tradeoff for ease of management is the addition of extra network hops that may increase latency, so ensure that this doesn't affect your application's performance.
The VPN gateway exposes a public IP address for the connection to the on-premises network. We recommend creating a network security group (NSG) for the inbound NVA subnet, with rules to block all traffic not originating from the on-premises network.
We also recommend NSGs for each subnet to provide a second level of protection against inbound traffic bypassing an incorrectly configured or disabled NVA. For example, the web tier subnet in the reference architecture implements an NSG with a rule to ignore all requests other than those received from the on-premises network (192.168.0.0/16) or the VNet, and another rule that ignores all requests not made on port 80.
Internet access recommendations
Force-tunnel all outbound Internet traffic through your on-premises network using the site-to-site VPN tunnel, and route to the Internet using network address translation (NAT). This prevents accidental leakage of any confidential information stored in your data tier and allows inspection and auditing of all outgoing traffic.
Don't completely block Internet traffic from the application tiers, as this will prevent these tiers from using Azure PaaS services that rely on public IP addresses, such as VM diagnostics logging, downloading of VM extensions, and other functionality. Azure diagnostics also requires that components can read and write to an Azure Storage account.
Verify that outbound internet traffic is force-tunneled correctly. If you're using a VPN connection with the routing and remote access service on an on-premises server, use a tool such as WireShark or Microsoft Message Analyzer.
Management subnet recommendations
The management subnet contains a jumpbox that performs management and monitoring functionality. Restrict execution of all secure management tasks to the jumpbox.
Do not create a public IP address for the jumpbox. Instead, create one route to access the jumpbox through the incoming gateway. Create NSG rules so the management subnet only responds to requests from the allowed route.
The reference architecture uses a load balancer to direct on-premises network traffic to a pool of NVA devices, which route the traffic. The NVAs are placed in an availability set. This design allows you to monitor the throughput of the NVAs over time and add NVA devices in response to increases in load.
The standard SKU VPN gateway supports sustained throughput of up to 100 Mbps. The High Performance SKU provides up to 200 Mbps. For higher bandwidths, consider upgrading to an ExpressRoute gateway. ExpressRoute provides up to 10 Gbps bandwidth with lower latency than a VPN connection.
For more information about the scalability of Azure gateways, see the scalability consideration section in Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure and on-premises VPN and Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure ExpressRoute.
As mentioned, the reference architecture uses a pool of NVA devices behind a load balancer. The load balancer uses a health probe to monitor each NVA and will remove any unresponsive NVAs from the pool.
If you're using Azure ExpressRoute to provide connectivity between the VNet and on-premises network, configure a VPN gateway to provide failover if the ExpressRoute connection becomes unavailable.
For specific information on maintaining availability for VPN and ExpressRoute connections, see the availability considerations in Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure and on-premises VPN and Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure ExpressRoute.
All application and resource monitoring should be performed by the jumpbox in the management subnet. Depending on your application requirements, you may need additional monitoring resources in the management subnet. If so, these resources should be accessed through the jumpbox.
If gateway connectivity from your on-premises network to Azure is down, you can still reach the jumpbox by deploying a public IP address, adding it to the jumpbox, and remoting in from the internet.
Each tier's subnet in the reference architecture is protected by NSG rules. You may need to create a rule to open port 3389 for remote desktop protocol (RDP) access on Windows VMs or port 22 for secure shell (SSH) access on Linux VMs. Other management and monitoring tools may require rules to open additional ports.
If you're using ExpressRoute to provide the connectivity between your on-premises datacenter and Azure, use the Azure Connectivity Toolkit (AzureCT) to monitor and troubleshoot connection issues.
You can find additional information specifically aimed at monitoring and managing VPN and ExpressRoute connections in the articles Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure and on-premises VPN and Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure ExpressRoute.
This reference architecture implements multiple levels of security.
Routing all on-premises user requests through the NVA
The UDR in the gateway subnet blocks all user requests other than those received from on-premises. The UDR passes allowed requests to the NVAs in the private DMZ subnet, and these requests are passed on to the application if they are allowed by the NVA rules. You can add other routes to the UDR, but make sure they don't inadvertently bypass the NVAs or block administrative traffic intended for the management subnet.
The load balancer in front of the NVAs also acts as a security device by ignoring traffic on ports that are not open in the load balancing rules. The load balancers in the reference architecture only listen for HTTP requests on port 80 and HTTPS requests on port 443. Document any additional rules that you add to the load balancers, and monitor traffic to ensure there are no security issues.
Using NSGs to block/pass traffic between application tiers
Traffic between tiers is restricted by using NSGs. The business tier blocks all traffic that doesn't originate in the web tier, and the data tier blocks all traffic that doesn't originate in the business tier. If you have a requirement to expand the NSG rules to allow broader access to these tiers, weigh these requirements against the security risks. Each new inbound pathway represents an opportunity for accidental or purposeful data leakage or application damage.
Use RBAC to restrict the operations that DevOps can perform on each tier. When granting permissions, use the principle of least privilege. Log all administrative operations and perform regular audits to ensure any configuration changes were planned.
A deployment for a reference architecture that implements these recommendations is available on GitHub. The reference architecture can be deployed by following the directions below:
- Right-click the button below and select either "Open link in new tab" or "Open link in new window":
- Once the link has opened in the Azure portal, you must enter values for some of the settings:
- The Resource group name is already defined in the parameter file, so select Create New and enter
ra-private-dmz-rgin the text box.
- Select the region from the Location drop down box.
- Do not edit the Template Root Uri or the Parameter Root Uri text boxes.
- Review the terms and conditions, then click the I agree to the terms and conditions stated above checkbox.
- Click the Purchase button.
- The Resource group name is already defined in the parameter file, so select Create New and enter
- Wait for the deployment to complete.
- The parameter files include hard-coded administrator user name and password for all VMs, and it is strongly recommended that you immediately change both. For each VM in the deployment, select it in the Azure portal and then click Reset password in the Support + troubleshooting blade. Select Reset password in the Mode drop down box, then select a new User name and Password. Click the Update button to save.
- Learn how to implement a DMZ between Azure and the Internet.
- Learn how to implement a highly available hybrid network architecture.
- For more information about managing network security with Azure, see Microsoft cloud services and network security.
- For detailed information about protecting resources in Azure, see Getting started with Microsoft Azure security.
- For additional details on addressing security concerns across an Azure gateway connection, see Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure and on-premises VPN and Implementing a hybrid network architecture with Azure ExpressRoute.