Upstream sources

Azure DevOps Services | TFS 2018 | TFS 2017

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Upstream sources enable you to use a single feed to store both the packages you produce and the packages you consume from "remote feeds": both public feeds (e.g. and and authenticated feeds (i.e. other Azure DevOps Services feeds in your organization or enterprise). Once you've enabled an upstream source, any user connected to your feed can install a package from the remote feed, and your feed will save a copy.

Already familiar with the concepts and want to jump right in? Start with these how-tos:

Benefits of upstream sources

Upstream sources enable you to manage all of your product's dependencies in a single feed. We recommend publishing all of the packages for a given product to that product's feed, and managing that product's dependencies from remote feeds in the same feed, via upstream sources. This setup has a few benefits:

  • Simplicity: your NuGet.config, .npmrc, or settings.xml contains exactly one feed (your feed).
  • Determinism: your feed resolves package requests in order, so rebuilding the same codebase at the same commit or changeset uses the same set of packages
  • Provenance: your feed knows the provenance of packages it saved via upstream sources, so you can verify that you're using the original package, not a custom or malicious copy published to your feed
  • Peace of mind: packages used via upstream sources are guaranteed to be saved in the feed on first use; if the upstream source is disabled/removed, or the remote feed goes down or deletes a package you depend on, you can continue to develop and build

Best practices: feed consumers

To take full advantage of the benefits of upstream sources as a consumer of another feed, consider applying the following best practices to your project.

Use a single feed on the client

In order for your feed to provide deterministic restore, it's important to ensure that your package feed configuration file—your .npmrc or nuget.config—references only your Azure Artifacts feed with upstream sources enabled. For NuGet, the <packageSources> section should look like:

  <clear />
  <add key="FabrikamFiber" value="" />


The <clear /> tag is required because NuGet composes several configuration files to determine the full set of options to use. <clear /> tells NuGet to ignore all other <packageSources> defined in higher-level configuration files.

For npm, you should have only one registry line, like:


Order your upstream sources intentionally

If you only use public upstream sources (e.g. or, the order of your upstream sources is irrelevant. Requests to the feed will follow the search order.

If you use multiple Azure DevOps Services upstream sources, or a mixture of public and Azure DevOps Services upstream sources, the order of those upstreams is taken into account in step 3 of the search order. In that case, we recommend putting the public upstream sources first. This ensures that you look for OSS packages from the public repos before checking any Azure DevOps Services upstream sources, which could contain modified versions of public packages.

In rare cases, some organizations choose to modify OSS packages to fix security issues, to add functionality, or to satisfy requirements that the package is built from scratch internally, rather than consumed directly from the public repository. If your organization does this, put the Azure DevOps Services upstream source that contains these modified OSS packages before the public upstream sources to ensure you use your organization's modified versions.

Use the suggested default view

Upstream sources to Azure DevOps Services feeds require you to select a view of the remote feed when you add it as an upstream source. This prevents your upstream sources from creating a cycle, and it requires and encourages your upstream feed to provide you with a complete package graph. In general, the feed owner should select the correct default view, as the view communicates which packages and versions the producer wants consumers to use.

Best practices: feed owners/package producers

To make your feed easily usable as an upstream source to other feeds, consider applying the following best practices to your feed.

When in doubt, @local is your default view

If you don't use views, the @local view should be your default view (and is the default view on all newly-created feeds). @local contains all packages uploaded/pushed/published to the feed from a package client (e.g. nuget.exe) and all packages saved from any upstream source. @local, like all views, does not include packages that are available in the feed's upstream sources but have never been saved into the feed.

If you do use views to communicate release quality, you can set the default view to whichever view contains the packages you want to make available to your consumers.

Provide a complete graph

Because your consumers require a complete graph to successfully install and consume your package, you should ensure that your default view contains one. This is most easily done by connecting to the feed's default view (NuGet, npm) and installing the package you wish to share. You may need to do this once connected to the feed (instead of the feed@view). If the package installs correctly while you're connected to the default view, all of its dependencies are in the view.

Determining the package to use: search order

For package managers that support multiple feeds (like NuGet and Maven), the order in which feeds are consulted is sometimes unclear or non-deterministic (for example in NuGet, parallel requests are made to all feeds in the config file and the first response wins). Upstream sources prevent this non-determinism by searching the feed and its upstream sources using the following order:

  1. Packages pushed to the feed
  2. Packages saved via an upstream source
  3. Packages available via upstream sources: each upstream is searched in the order it's listed in the feed's configuration

To take advantage of the determinism provided by upstream sources, you should ensure that your client's configuration file only references your product feed, and not any other feeds like the public sources.

Saving packages from upstream sources: continuity

When you enable an upstream source, packages installed from the upstream source via the feed will automatically be saved in the feed. These packages could be installed directly from the upstream (e.g. npm install express) or they could be installed as part of dependency resolution (e.g. the install of express would also save dependencies like accepts).

Saving can improve download performance and save network bandwidth, esp. for TFS servers located on internal networks.

Overriding a package from an upstream source

You can't publish any package-version that already exists in any upstream source enabled on your feed. For instance, if the upstream source is enabled you cannot publish Newtonsoft.Json 10.0.3 because that same package-version is already present on

If you must push a package-version that already exists on one of your upstream sources, you must disable the upstream source, push your package, then re-enable the upstream source. Note that you can only push a package-version that wasn't previously saved from the upstream, because saved packages remain in the feed even if the upstream source is disabled or removed. See the immutability doc for more info.

Metadata cached from upstream sources

When you configure an upstream source and begin to query it through your feed, the feed will keep a cache of the metadata that you queried (most often, the package you asked for and its available versions) for 24 hours. This means that you may not be able to install a package that was published to the upstream source within the last 24 hours.

Offline upstreams

Upstream sources protect you and your CI/CD infrastructure from outages in public sources. That protection works for both short and long outages.

For outages lasting less than 12 hours, you can continue to use the feed as normal thanks to the metadata cache.

For outages lasting more than 12 hours, which are quite infrequent, you will experience issues listing and restoring packages, even if those packages have been installed into the feed. In these scenarios, you can delete either the offline upstream or all upstreams of the affected package type and continue developing and building as normal. If/when the upstream source returns, just re-add it.

Legacy upstream source information

Older Azure Artifacts feeds ("legacy feeds") use an older version of the upstream source and are also unable to use the upstream source.