Use CloudEvents v1.0 schema with Event Grid

In addition to its default event schema, Azure Event Grid natively supports events in the JSON implementation of CloudEvents v1.0 and HTTP protocol binding. CloudEvents is an open specification for describing event data.

CloudEvents simplifies interoperability by providing a common event schema for publishing and consuming cloud-based events. This schema allows for uniform tooling, standard ways of routing and handling events, and universal ways of deserializing the outer event schema. With a common schema, you can more easily integrate work across platforms.

CloudEvents is being built by several collaborators, including Microsoft, through the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. It's currently available as version 1.0.

This article describes how to use the CloudEvents schema with Event Grid.

CloudEvent schema

Here's an example of an Azure Blob Storage event in CloudEvents format:

{
    "specversion": "1.0",
    "type": "Microsoft.Storage.BlobCreated",  
    "source": "/subscriptions/{subscription-id}/resourceGroups/{resource-group}/providers/Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/{storage-account}",
    "id": "9aeb0fdf-c01e-0131-0922-9eb54906e209",
    "time": "2019-11-18T15:13:39.4589254Z",
    "subject": "blobServices/default/containers/{storage-container}/blobs/{new-file}",
    "dataschema": "#",
    "data": {
        "api": "PutBlockList",
        "clientRequestId": "4c5dd7fb-2c48-4a27-bb30-5361b5de920a",
        "requestId": "9aeb0fdf-c01e-0131-0922-9eb549000000",
        "eTag": "0x8D76C39E4407333",
        "contentType": "image/png",
        "contentLength": 30699,
        "blobType": "BlockBlob",
        "url": "https://gridtesting.blob.core.windows.net/testcontainer/{new-file}",
        "sequencer": "000000000000000000000000000099240000000000c41c18",
        "storageDiagnostics": {
            "batchId": "681fe319-3006-00a8-0022-9e7cde000000"
        }
    }
}

For a detailed description of the available fields, their types, and definitions, see CloudEvents v1.0.

The headers values for events delivered in the CloudEvents schema and the Event Grid schema are the same except for content-type. For the CloudEvents schema, that header value is "content-type":"application/cloudevents+json; charset=utf-8". For the Event Grid schema, that header value is "content-type":"application/json; charset=utf-8".

Configure Event Grid for CloudEvents

You can use Event Grid for both input and output of events in the CloudEvents schema. The following table describes the possible transformations:

Event Grid resource Input schema Delivery schema
System topics Event Grid schema Event Grid schema or CloudEvents schema
Custom topics/domains Event Grid schema Event Grid schema or CloudEvents schema
Custom topics/domains CloudEvents schema CloudEvents schema
Custom topics/domains Custom schema Custom schema, Event Grid schema, or CloudEvents schema
Partner topics CloudEvents schema CloudEvents schema

For all event schemas, Event Grid requires validation when you're publishing to an Event Grid topic and when you're creating an event subscription.

For more information, see Event Grid security and authentication.

Input schema

You set the input schema for a custom topic when you create the custom topic.

For the Azure CLI, use:

az eventgrid topic create \
  --name <topic_name> \
  -l westcentralus \
  -g gridResourceGroup \
  --input-schema cloudeventschemav1_0

For PowerShell, use:

New-AzEventGridTopic `
  -ResourceGroupName gridResourceGroup `
  -Location westcentralus `
  -Name <topic_name> `
  -InputSchema CloudEventSchemaV1_0

Output schema

You set the output schema when you create the event subscription.

For the Azure CLI, use:

topicID=$(az eventgrid topic show --name <topic-name> -g gridResourceGroup --query id --output tsv)

az eventgrid event-subscription create \
  --name <event_subscription_name> \
  --source-resource-id $topicID \
  --endpoint <endpoint_URL> \
  --event-delivery-schema cloudeventschemav1_0

For PowerShell, use:

$topicid = (Get-AzEventGridTopic -ResourceGroupName gridResourceGroup -Name <topic-name>).Id

New-AzEventGridSubscription `
  -ResourceId $topicid `
  -EventSubscriptionName <event_subscription_name> `
  -Endpoint <endpoint_URL> `
  -DeliverySchema CloudEventSchemaV1_0

Currently, you can't use an Event Grid trigger for an Azure Functions app when the event is delivered in the CloudEvents schema. Use an HTTP trigger. For examples of implementing an HTTP trigger that receives events in the CloudEvents schema, see Using CloudEvents with Azure Functions.

Endpoint validation with CloudEvents v1.0

If you're already familiar with Event Grid, you might be aware of the endpoint validation handshake for preventing abuse. CloudEvents v1.0 implements its own abuse protection semantics by using the HTTP OPTIONS method. To read more about it, see HTTP 1.1 Web Hooks for event delivery - Version 1.0. When you use the CloudEvents schema for output, Event Grid uses the CloudEvents v1.0 abuse protection in place of the Event Grid validation event mechanism.

Use with Azure Functions

The Azure Functions Event Grid binding doesn't natively support CloudEvents, so HTTP-triggered functions are used to read CloudEvents messages. When you use an HTTP trigger to read CloudEvents, you have to write code for what the Event Grid trigger does automatically:

For information about the URL to use for invoking the function locally or when it runs in Azure, see the HTTP trigger binding reference documentation.

The following sample C# code for an HTTP trigger simulates Event Grid trigger behavior. Use this example for events delivered in the CloudEvents schema.

[FunctionName("HttpTrigger")]
public static async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Run([HttpTrigger(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "post", "options", Route = null)]HttpRequestMessage req, ILogger log)
{
    log.LogInformation("C# HTTP trigger function processed a request.");
    if (req.Method == HttpMethod.Options)
    {
        // If the request is for subscription validation, send back the validation code
        
        var response = req.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK);
        response.Headers.Add("Webhook-Allowed-Origin", "eventgrid.azure.net");

        return response;
    }

    var requestmessage = await req.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
    var message = JToken.Parse(requestmessage);

    // The request isn't for subscription validation, so it's for an event.
    // CloudEvents schema delivers one event at a time.
    log.LogInformation($"Source: {message["source"]}");
    log.LogInformation($"Time: {message["eventTime"]}");
    log.LogInformation($"Event data: {message["data"].ToString()}");

    return req.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK);
}

The following sample JavaScript code for an HTTP trigger simulates Event Grid trigger behavior. Use this example for events delivered in the CloudEvents schema.

module.exports = function (context, req) {
    context.log('JavaScript HTTP trigger function processed a request.');
    
    if (req.method == "OPTIONS") {
        // If the request is for subscription validation, send back the validation code
        
        context.log('Validate request received');
        context.res = {
            status: 200,
            headers: {
                'Webhook-Allowed-Origin': 'eventgrid.azure.net',
            },
         };
    }
    else
    {
        var message = req.body;
        
        // The request isn't for subscription validation, so it's for an event.
        // CloudEvents schema delivers one event at a time.
        var event = JSON.parse(message);
        context.log('Source: ' + event.source);
        context.log('Time: ' + event.eventTime);
        context.log('Data: ' + JSON.stringify(event.data));
    }
 
    context.done();
};

Next steps