Storage Migration Service frequently asked questions (FAQ)
This topic contains answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) about using Storage Migration Service to migrate servers.
What files and folders are excluded from transfers?
Storage Migration Service won't transfer files or folders that we know could interfere with Windows operation. Specifically, here's what we won't transfer or move into the PreExistingData folder on the destination:
- Windows, Program Files, Program Files (x86), Program Data, Users
- $Recycle.bin, Recycler, Recycled, System Volume Information, $UpgDrv$, $SysReset, $Windows.~BT, $Windows.~LS, Windows.old, boot, Recovery, Documents and Settings
- pagefile.sys, hiberfil.sys, swapfile.sys, winpepge.sys, config.sys, bootsect.bak, bootmgr, bootnxt
- Any files or folders on the source server that conflicts with excluded folders on the destination.
For example, if there's a N:\Windows folder on the source and it gets mapped to the C:\ volume on the destination, it won't get transferred—regardless of what it contains—because it would interfere with the C:\Windows system folder on the destination.
Are domain migrations supported?
Storage Migration Service doesn't allow migrating between Active Directory domains. Migrations between servers will always join the destination server to the same domain. You can use migration credentials from different domains in the Active Directory forest. The Storage Migration Service does support migrating between workgroups.
Are clusters supported as sources or destinations?
Storage Migration Service doesn't currently migrate between Clusters in Windows Server 2019. We plan to add cluster support in a future release of the Storage Migration Service.
Do local groups and local users migrate?
Storage Migration Service doesn't currently migrate local users or local groups in Windows Server 2019. We plan to add local user and local group migration support in a future release of the Storage Migration Service.
Is domain controller migration supported?
Storage Migration Service doesn't currently migrate domain controllers in Windows Server 2019. As a workaround, as long as you have more than one domain controller in the Active Directory domain, demote the domain controller before migrating it, then promote the destination after cut over completes. We plan to add domain controller migration support in a future release of the Storage Migration Service.
What attributes are migrated by the Storage Migration Service?
Storage Migration Service migrates all flags, settings, and security of SMB shares. That list of flags that Storage Migration Service migrates includes:
- Share State - Availability Type - Share Type - Folder Enumeration Mode *(aka Access-Based Enumeration or ABE)* - Caching Mode - Leasing Mode - Smb Instance - CA Timeout - Concurrent User Limit - Continuously Available - Description - Encrypt Data - Identity Remoting - Infrastructure - Name - Path - Scoped - Scope Name - Security Descriptor - Shadow Copy - Special - Temporary
Can I consolidate multiple servers into one server?
The Storage Migration Service version shipped in Windows Server 2019 doesn't support consolidating multiple servers into one server. An example of consolidation would be migrating three separate source servers - which may have the same share names and local file paths - onto a single new server that virtualized those paths and shares to prevent any overlap or collision, then answered all three previous servers names and IP address. We may add this functionality in a future version of the Storage Migration Service.
Can I migrate from sources other than Windows Server?
The Storage Migration Service version shipped in Windows Server 2019 supports migrating from Windows Server 2003 and later operating systems. You can also migrate storage from a Linux server or device that uses Samba; to do so, run Storage Migration Service on a server running Windows Server, version 1903 or later.
Can I migrate previous file versions?
The Storage Migration Service version shipped in Windows Server 2019 doesn't support migrating Previous Versions (made with the volume shadow copy service) of files. Only the current version will migrate.
Optimizing inventory and transfer performance
The Storage Migration Service contains a multi-threaded read and copy engine called the Storage Migration Service Proxy service which we designed to be both fast as well as bring along perfect data fidelity lacking in many file copy tools. While the default configuration will be optimal for many customers, there are ways to improve SMS performance during inventory and transfer.
Use Windows Server 2019 for the destination operating system. Windows Server 2019 contains the Storage Migration Service Proxy service. When you install this feature and migrate to Windows Server 2019 destinations, all transfers operate as direct line of sight between source and destination. This service runs on the orchestrator during transfer if the destination computers are Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016, which means the transfers double-hop and will be much slower. If there are multiple jobs running with Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016 destinations, the orchestrator will become a bottleneck.
Alter default transfer threads. The Storage Migration Service Proxy service copies 8 files simultaneously in a given job. You can increase the number of simultaneous copy threads by adjusting the following registry REG_DWORD value name in decimal on every node running the Storage Migration Service Proxy:
The valid range is 1 to 128 in Windows Server 2019. After changing you must restart the Storage Migration Service Proxy service on all computers participating in a migration. Use caution with this setting; setting it higher may require additional cores, storage performance, and network bandwidth. Setting it too high may lead to reduced performance compared to default settings.
Add cores and memory. We strongly recommend that the source, orchestrator, and destination computers have at least two processor cores or two vCPUs, and more can significantly aid inventory and transfer performance, especially when combined with FileTransferThreadCount (above). When transferring files that are larger than the usual Office formats (gigabytes or greater) transfer performance will benefit from more memory than the default 2GB minimum.
Create multiple job. When creating a job with multiple server sources, each server is contacted in serial fashion for inventory, transfer, and cutover. This means that each server must complete its phase before another server starts. To run more servers in parallel, simply create multiple jobs, with each job containing only one servers. SMS supports up to 100 simultaneously running jobs, meaning a single orchestrator can parallelize many Windows Server 2019 destination computers. We do not recommend running multiple parallel jobs if your destination computers are Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2012 R2 as without the SMS proxy service running on the destination, the orchestrator must perform all transfers itself and could become a bottleneck. The ability for servers to run in parallel inside a single job is a feature we plan to add in a later version of SMS.
Use SMB 3 with RDMA networks. If transferring from a Windows Server 2012 or later source computer, SMB 3.x supports SMB Direct mode and RDMA networking. RDMA moves most CPU cost of transfer from the motherboard CPUs to onboard NIC processors, reducing latency and server CPU utilization. In addition, RDMA networks like ROCE and iWARP typically have substantially higher bandwidth than typical TCP/ethernet, including 25, 50, and 100Gb speeds per interface. Using SMB Direct typically moves the transfer speed limit from the network down to the storage itself.
Use SMB 3 multichannel. If transferring from a Windows Server 2012 or later source computer, SMB 3.x supports multichannel copies that can greatly improve file copy performance. This feature works automatically as long as the source and destination both have:
- Multiple network adapters
- One or more network adapters that support Receive Side Scaling (RSS)
- One of more network adapters that are configured by using NIC Teaming
- One or more network adapters that support RDMA
Update drivers. As appropriate, install latest vendor storage and enclosure firmware and drivers, latest vendor HBA drivers, latest vendor BIOS/UEFI firmware, latest vendor network drivers, and latest motherboard chipset drivers on source, destination, and orchestrator servers. Restart nodes as needed. Consult your hardware vendor documentation for configuring shared storage and networking hardware.
Enable high-performance processing. Ensure that BIOS/UEFI settings for servers enable high performance, such as disabling C-State, setting QPI speed, enabling NUMA, and setting highest memory frequency. Ensure power management in Windows Server is set to High Performance. Restart as required. Don't forget to return these to appropriate states after completing migration.
Tune hardware Review the Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2016 for tuning the orchestrator and destination computers running Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2016. The Network Subsystem Performance Tuning section contains especially valuable information.
Use faster storage. While it may be difficult to upgrade the source computer storage speed, you should ensure the destination storage is at least as fast at write IO performance as the source is at read IO performance in order to ensure there is no unnecessary bottleneck in transfers. If the destination is a VM, ensure that, at least for the purposes of migration, it runs in the fastest storage layer of your hypervisor hosts, such as on the flash tier or with Storage Spaces Direct HCI clusters utilizing mirrored all-flash or hybrid spaces. When the SMS migration is complete the VM can be live migrated to a slower tier or host.
Update antivirus. Always ensure your source and destination are running the latest patched version of antivirus software to ensure minimal performance overhead. As a test, you can temporarily exclude scanning of folders you're inventorying or migrating on the source and destination servers. If your transfer performance is improved, contact your antivirus software vendor for instructions or for an updated version of the antivirus software or an explanation of expected performance degradation.
Can I migrate from NTFS to REFS?
The Storage Migration Service version shipped in Windows Server 2019 doesn't support migrating from the NTFS to REFS file systems. You can migrate from NTFS to NTFS and REFS to ReFS. This is by design, due to the many differences in functionality, metadata, and other aspects that ReFS doesn't duplicate from NTFS. ReFS is intended as an application workload file system, not a general file system. For more information, see Resilient File System (ReFS) overview
Can I move the Storage Migration Service database?
The Storage Migration Service uses an extensible storage engine (ESE) database that is installed by default in the hidden c:\programdata\microsoft\storagemigrationservice folder. This database will grow as jobs are added and transfers are completed, and can consume significant drive space after migrating millions of files if you do not delete jobs. If the database needs to move, perform the following steps:
Stop the "Storage Migration Service" service on the orchestrator computer.
Take ownership of the
Add your user account to have full control over that share and all of its files and subfolders.
Move the folder to another drive on the orchestrator computer.
Set the following registry REG_SZ value:
HKEY_Local_Machine\Software\Microsoft\SMS DatabasePath = path to the new database folder on a different volume .
Ensure that SYSTEM has full control to all files and subfolders of that folder
Remove your own accounts permissions.
Start the "Storage Migration Service" service.
What are my options to give feedback, file bugs, or get support?
To give feedback on the Storage Migration Service:
- Use the Feedback Hub tool included in Windows 10, clicking "Suggest a Feature", and specifying the category of "Windows Server" and subcategory of "Storage Migration"
- Use the Windows Server UserVoice site
- Email firstname.lastname@example.org
To file bugs:
- Use the Feedback Hub tool included in Windows 10, clicking "Report a Problem", and specifying the category of "Windows Server" and subcategory of "Storage Migration"
- Open a support case via Microsoft Support
To get support:
- Post a question on the Windows Server Tech Community
- Post on the Windows Server 2019 Technet Forum
- Open a support case via Microsoft Support