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Azure Functions 开发人员指南Azure Functions developers guide

在 Azure Functions 中,特定函数共享一些核心技术概念和组件,不受所用语言或绑定限制。In Azure Functions, specific functions share a few core technical concepts and components, regardless of the language or binding you use. 跳转学习某个特定语言或绑定的详细信息之前,请务必通读此通用概述。Before you jump into learning details specific to a given language or binding, be sure to read through this overview that applies to all of them.

本文假定你已阅读 Azure Functions 概述This article assumes that you've already read the Azure Functions overview.

函数代码Function code

函数是 Azure Functions 的基本概念。A function is the primary concept in Azure Functions. 函数包含两个重要部分,即可以用各种语言编写的代码,以及一些配置,function.json 文件。A function contains two important pieces - your code, which can be written in a variety of languages, and some config, the function.json file. 对于编译语言,此配置文件是从代码中的注释自动生成的。For compiled languages, this config file is generated automatically from annotations in your code. 对于脚本语言,必须自己提供配置文件。For scripting languages, you must provide the config file yourself.

Function.json 文件定义函数触发器、绑定和其他配置设置。The function.json file defines the function's trigger, bindings, and other configuration settings. 每个函数有且只有一个触发器。Every function has one and only one trigger. 运行时使用此配置文件确定要监视的事件,以及如何将数据传入函数执行和从函数执行返回数据。The runtime uses this config file to determine the events to monitor and how to pass data into and return data from a function execution. 下面是一个示例 function.json 文件。The following is an example function.json file.

{
    "disabled":false,
    "bindings":[
        // ... bindings here
        {
            "type": "bindingType",
            "direction": "in",
            "name": "myParamName",
            // ... more depending on binding
        }
    ]
}

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure Functions 触发器和绑定概念For more information, see Azure Functions triggers and bindings concepts.

bindings 属性配置两个触发器和绑定。The bindings property is where you configure both triggers and bindings. 每个绑定共享一些通用设置和一些特定于个别类型的绑定的设置。Each binding shares a few common settings and some settings which are specific to a particular type of binding. 每个绑定都需要以下设置:Every binding requires the following settings:

属性Property 值/类型Values/Types 注释Comments
type 字符串string 绑定类型。Binding type. 例如,queueTriggerFor example, queueTrigger.
direction 'in', 'out''in', 'out' 表示绑定是用于接收数据到函数中或是从函数发送数据。Indicates whether the binding is for receiving data into the function or sending data from the function.
name 字符串string 将用于函数中绑定数据的名称。The name that is used for the bound data in the function. 对于 C#,它将是参数名称;对于 JavaScript,它是键/值列表中的键。For C#, this is an argument name; for JavaScript, it's the key in a key/value list.

函数应用Function app

函数应用在 Azure 中提供用于运行函数的执行上下文。A function app provides an execution context in Azure in which your functions run. 因此,它是函数的部署和管理单元。As such, it is the unit of deployment and management for your functions. 函数应用由一个或多个共同管理、部署和缩放的独立函数组成。A function app is comprised of one or more individual functions that are managed, deployed, and scaled together. 函数应用中的所有函数共享相同的定价计划、部署方法和运行时版本。All of the functions in a function app share the same pricing plan, deployment method, and runtime version. 将函数应用视为组织和共同管理函数的一种方法。Think of a function app as a way to organize and collectively manage your functions. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅如何管理函数应用To learn more, see How to manage a function app.

备注

函数应用中的所有函数必须使用相同的语言编写。All functions in a function app must be authored in the same language. 在 Azure Functions 运行时的先前版本中,这不是必需的。In previous versions of the Azure Functions runtime, this wasn't required.

文件夹结构Folder structure

特定函数应用中所有函数的代码均位于根项目文件夹中,其中包含主机配置文件和一个或多个子文件夹。The code for all the functions in a specific function app is located in a root project folder that contains a host configuration file and one or more subfolders. 每个子文件夹都包含单独函数的代码。Each subfolder contains the code for a separate function. 文件夹结构如下所示:The folder structure is shown in the following representation:

FunctionApp
 | - host.json
 | - MyFirstFunction
 | | - function.json
 | | - ...  
 | - MySecondFunction
 | | - function.json
 | | - ...  
 | - SharedCode
 | - bin

在函数运行时的版本2.x 中,函数应用中的所有函数必须共享同一语言堆栈。In version 2.x of the Functions runtime, all functions in the function app must share the same language stack.

Host json文件包含特定于运行时的配置,位于 function app 的根文件夹中。The host.json file contains runtime-specific configurations and is in the root folder of the function app. Bin文件夹包含函数应用所需的包和其他库文件。A bin folder contains packages and other library files that the function app requires. 查看函数应用项目的语言特定要求:See the language-specific requirements for a function app project:

以上是 Function app 的默认(和推荐)文件夹结构。The above is the default (and recommended) folder structure for a Function app. 如果要更改函数代码的文件位置,请修改 function.json 文件的 scriptFile 部分。If you wish to change the file location of a function's code, modify the scriptFile section of the function.json file. 我们还建议使用包部署将项目部署到 Azure 中的函数应用。We also recommend using package deployment to deploy your project to your function app in Azure. 也可以使用现有工具,比如持续集成和部署以及 Azure DevOps。You can also use existing tools like continuous integration and deployment and Azure DevOps.

备注

如果手动部署包,请确保将 host.json 文件和函数文件夹直接部署到 文件夹wwwrootIf deploying a package manually, make sure to deploy your host.json file and function folders directly to the wwwroot folder. 请勿在部署中包含 wwwroot 文件夹。Do not include the wwwroot folder in your deployments. 否则,最后将得到 wwwroot\wwwroot 文件夹。Otherwise, you end up with wwwroot\wwwroot folders.

使用本地工具和发布Use local tools and publishing

可以使用各种工具创作和发布各种函数应用,包括 Visual StudioVisual Studio CodeIntelliJEclipseAzure Functions Core ToolsFunction apps can be authored and published using a variety of tools, including Visual Studio, Visual Studio Code, IntelliJ, Eclipse, and the Azure Functions Core Tools. 有关详细信息,请参阅在本地对 Azure Functions 进行编码和测试For more information, see Code and test Azure Functions locally.

如何编辑 Azure 门户中的函数How to edit functions in the Azure portal

通过 Azure 门户中内置的函数编辑器可直接内联更新代码和 function.json 文件。The Functions editor built into the Azure portal lets you update your code and your function.json file directly inline. 建议仅用于小的更改或概念证明 - 最佳做法是使用 VS Code 等本地开发工具。This is recommended only for small changes or proofs of concept - best practice is to use a local development tool like VS Code.

并行执行Parallel execution

多个触发事件发生的速度超过了单线程函数运行的处理速度时,运行时可并行多次调用函数。When multiple triggering events occur faster than a single-threaded function runtime can process them, the runtime may invoke the function multiple times in parallel. 如果 Function App 正在使用消耗量托管计划,则 Function App 可自动扩大。If a function app is using the Consumption hosting plan, the function app could scale out automatically. 无论应用是在消耗量托管计划还是常规应用服务托管计划上运行,每个 Function App 实例都可能使用多个线程并行处理并发函数调用。Each instance of the function app, whether the app runs on the Consumption hosting plan or a regular App Service hosting plan, might process concurrent function invocations in parallel using multiple threads. 每个 Function App 实例中并发函数的最大调用数根据所用触发器类型以及 Function App 中其他函数所用资源而有所不同。The maximum number of concurrent function invocations in each function app instance varies based on the type of trigger being used as well as the resources used by other functions within the function app.

Functions 运行时版本控制Functions runtime versioning

可使用 FUNCTIONS_EXTENSION_VERSION 应用设置配置 Functions 运行时的版本。You can configure the version of the Functions runtime using the FUNCTIONS_EXTENSION_VERSION app setting. 例如,值“~2”表示 Function App 将使用 2.x 作为其主版本。For example, the value "~2" indicates that your Function App will use 2.x as its major version. Function Apps 在发布后,将升级到各自新的次要版本。Function Apps are upgraded to each new minor version as they are released. 有关详细信息(包括如何查看函数应用的确切版本),请参阅如何针对 Azure Functions 运行时版本For more information, including how to view the exact version of your function app, see How to target Azure Functions runtime versions.

存储库Repositories

Azure Functions 代码为开放源,位于 GitHub 存储库:The code for Azure Functions is open source and stored in GitHub repositories:

绑定Bindings

下面是所有受支持的绑定表。Here is a table of all supported bindings.

下表显示了 Azure Functions 运行时的两个主要版本中支持的绑定:This table shows the bindings that are supported in the two major versions of the Azure Functions runtime:

TypeType 1.x1.x 2.x12.x1 触发器Trigger 输入Input 输出Output
Blob 存储Blob storage
Cosmos DBCosmos DB
事件网格Event Grid
事件中心Event Hubs
HTTP & webhookHTTP & webhooks
IoT 中心IoT Hub
Microsoft Graph
Excel 表
Microsoft Graph
Excel tables
Microsoft Graph
OneDrive 文件
Microsoft Graph
OneDrive files
Microsoft Graph
Outlook 电子邮件
Microsoft Graph
Outlook email
Microsoft Graph
events
Microsoft Graph
events
Microsoft Graph
身份验证令牌
Microsoft Graph
Auth tokens
移动应用Mobile Apps
通知中心Notification Hubs
队列存储Queue storage
SendGridSendGrid
服务总线Service Bus
SignalRSignalR
表存储Table storage
计时器Timer
TwilioTwilio

1在版本2.x 运行时中,HTTP 和计时器除外的所有绑定都必须进行注册。1 In the version 2.x runtime, all bindings except HTTP and Timer must be registered. 请参阅注册绑定扩展See Register binding extensions. 除另有说明外,所有受支持的2.x 绑定在版本3.x 中也受支持。All supported 2.x bindings are also supported in the version 3.x, unless otherwise noted.

对来自绑定的错误怀有疑问?Having issues with errors coming from the bindings? 请查看 Azure Functions 绑定错误代码文档。Review the Azure Functions Binding Error Codes documentation.

报告问题Reporting Issues

ItemItem 描述Description 链接Link
运行时Runtime 脚本主机、触发器和绑定及语言支持Script Host, Triggers & Bindings, Language Support 提出问题File an Issue
模板Templates 创建模板的代码问题Code Issues with Creation Template 提出问题File an Issue
门户Portal 用户界面或体验问题User Interface or Experience Issue 提出问题File an Issue

后续步骤Next steps

有关详细信息,请参阅以下资源:For more information, see the following resources: