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Azure 备份 - 常见问题Azure Backup - Frequently asked questions

本文回答有关 Azure 备份服务的常见问题。This article answers common questions about the Azure Backup service.

恢复服务保管库Recovery services vault

在每个 Azure 订阅中可以创建的保管库数量是否有任何限制?Is there any limit on the number of vaults that can be created in each Azure subscription?

可以。Yes. 在 Azure 备份支持的区域中,可以为每个订阅最多创建 500 个恢复服务保管库。You can create up to 500 Recovery Services vaults, per supported region of Azure Backup, per subscription. 如果需要更多保管库,请创建另一订阅。If you need additional vaults, create an additional subscription.

可针对每个保管库注册的服务器/计算机数量是否有限制?Are there limits on the number of servers/machines that can be registered against each vault?

每个保管库最多可以注册 1000 个 Azure 虚拟机。You can register up to 1000 Azure Virtual machines per vault. 如果使用 Microsoft Azure 备份代理,每个保管库最多可以注册 50 个 MAB 代理。If you are using the Microsoft Azure Backup Agent, you can register up to 50 MAB agents per vault. 可以将 50 个 MAB 服务器/DPM 服务器注册到一个保管库。And you can register 50 MAB servers/DPM servers to a vault.

如果本组织有一个保管库,如何在还原数据时将数据与保管库中的其他服务器隔离?If my organization has one vault, how can I isolate data from different servers in the vault when restoring data?

设置备份时,你想要一起恢复的服务器数据应使用相同密码。Server data that you want to recover together should use the same passphrase when you set up backup. 如果要将恢复隔离到一个特定服务器或多个服务器,仅使用该服务器的密码。If you want to isolate recovery to a specific server or servers, use a passphrase for that server or servers only. 例如,人力资源服务器可能使用一个加密通行短语,会计结算服务器使用另一个通行短语,而存储服务器使用第三个通行短语。For example, human resources servers could use one encryption passphrase, accounting servers another, and storage servers a third.

是否可以在订阅之间移动我的保管库?Can I move my vault between subscriptions?

可以。Yes. 若要移动恢复服务保管库,请参阅此文章To move a Recovery Services vault refer this article

是否可以将备份数据移动到另一个保管库?Can I move backup data to another vault?

不。No. 保管库中存储的备份数据无法移动到不同的保管库。Backup data stored in a vault can't be moved to a different vault.

能否在备份后从 GRS 更改为 LRS?Can I change from GRS to LRS after a backup?

不。No. 仅在存储任何备份之后,恢复服务保管库才可更改存储选项。A Recovery Services vault can only change storage options before any backups have been stored.

是否可以对备份到恢复服务保管库的 VM 执行项级别还原 (ILR)?Can I do an Item Level Restore (ILR) for VMs backed up to a Recovery Services vault?

  • 由 Azure VM 备份支持的 Azure VM 支持 ILR。ILR is supported for Azure VMs backed up by Azure VM backup. 有关详细信息,请参见文章For more information see, article
  • ILR 不由 Azure 备份服务器或 System Center DPM 备份的在线恢复点的本地 Vm 的支持。ILR is not supported for online recovery points of on-premises VMs backed up by Azure backup Server or System Center DPM.

Azure 备份代理Azure Backup agent

在哪里可以找到有关 Azure VM 备份的 Azure 备份代理的常见问题?Where can I find common questions about the Azure Backup agent for Azure VM backup?

  • 有关在 Azure VM 上运行的代理,请阅读此常见问题解答For the agent running on Azure VMs, read this FAQ.
  • 有关用于备份 Azure 文件夹的代理,阅读此常见问题解答For the agent used to backup up Azure file folders, read this FAQ.

VMware 和 Hyper-V 备份VMware and Hyper-V backup

是否可以将 VMware vCenter 服务器备份到 Azure?Can I back up VMware vCenter servers to Azure?

可以。Yes. 可以使用 Azure 备份服务器将 VMware vCenter Server 和 ESXi 主机备份到 Azure。You can use Azure Backup Server to back up VMware vCenter Server and ESXi hosts to Azure.

是否需要单独的许可证才能恢复完整的本地 VMware/Hyper-V 群集?Do I need a separate license to recover an full on-premises VMware/Hyper-V cluster?

不需要单独的 VMware/Hyper-V 保护许可。You don't need separate licensing for VMware/Hyper-V protection.

  • 如果你是 System Center 客户,使用 System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 来保护 VMware VM。If you're a System Center customer, use System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) to protect VMware VMs.
  • 如果不是 System Center 客户,可以使用 Azure 备份服务器(即用即付)来保护 VMware VM。If you aren't a System Center customer, you can use Azure Backup Server (pay-as-you-go) to protect VMware VMs.

DPM 和 Azure 备份服务器备份DPM and Azure Backup Server backup

支持哪些 DPM 版本?Which DPM versions are supported?

支持的 DPM 版本在支持矩阵中进行了总结。Supported DPM versions are summarized in the support matrix. 建议安装最新的 DPM 更新,并在 DPM 服务器上运行最新版本的 Azure 备份代理。We recommend that you install the latest DPM updates, and run the latest version of the Azure Backup agent on the DPM server.

是否可以向多个保管库注册服务器?Can I register the server to multiple vaults?

不。No. 一个 DPM 或 Azure 备份服务器只能注册到一个保管库。A DPM or Azure Backup server can be registered to only one vault.

是否可以使用 Azure 备份服务器为物理服务器创建裸机恢复 (BMR) 备份?Can I use Azure Backup Server to create a Bare Metal Recovery (BMR) backup for a physical server?

可以。Yes.

可以使用 DPM 来备份 Azure Stack 中的应用吗?Can I use DPM to back up apps in Azure Stack?

不。No. 可以使用 Azure 备份来保护 Azure Stack,但 Azure 备份不支持使用 DPM 来备份 Azure Stack 中的应用。You can use Azure Backup to protect Azure Stack, Azure Backup doesn't support using DPM to back up apps in Azure Stack.

如果已经安装 Azure 备份代理来保护我的文件和文件夹,是否可以安装 System Center DPM 将本地工作负载备份到 Azure?If I've installed Azure Backup agent to protect my files and folders, can I install System Center DPM to back up on-premises workloads to Azure?

可以。Yes. 但应首先设置 DPM,然后再安装 Azure 备份代理。But you should set up DPM first, and then install the Azure Backup agent. 按此顺序安装组件可以确保 Azure 备份代理能够与 DPM 一起工作。Installing components in this order ensures that the Azure Backup agent works with DPM. 不建议也不支持在安装 DPM 之前安装代理。Installing the agent before installing DPM isn't advised or supported.

常规备份General backup

备份计划是否有限制?Are there limits on backup scheduling?

可以。Yes.

  • 可以备份 Windows Server 或 Windows 计算机,最多一天三次。You can back up Windows Server or Windows machines up to three times a day. 可以将计划策略设置为每日或每周计划。You can set the scheduling policy to daily or weekly schedules.
  • 可以备份 DPM,最多一天两次。You can back up DPM up to twice a day. 可以将计划策略设置为每日、每周、每月或每年。You can set the scheduling policy to daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly.
  • Azure VM 可每日备份一次。You back up Azure VMs once a day.

支持哪些操作系统进行备份?What operating systems are supported for backup?

Azure 备份支持操作系统对文件和文件夹以及使用 Azure 备份服务器和 DPM 保护的工作负载应用程序进行备份。Azure Backup supports these operating systems for backing up files and folders, and apps protected by Azure Backup Server and DPM.

OSOS SKUSKU 详细信息Details
工作站Workstation
Windows 10 64 位Windows 10 64 bit Enterprise、Pro、HomeEnterprise, Pro, Home 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 8.1 64 位Windows 8.1 64 bit Enterprise、ProEnterprise, Pro 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 8 64 位Windows 8 64 bit Enterprise、ProEnterprise, Pro 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 7 64 位Windows 7 64 bit Ultimate、Enterprise、Professional、Home Premium、Home Basic、StarterUltimate, Enterprise, Professional, Home Premium, Home Basic, Starter 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
服务器Server
Windows Server 2019 64 位Windows Server 2019 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、EssentialsStandard, Datacenter, Essentials 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2016 64 位Windows Server 2016 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、EssentialsStandard, Datacenter, Essentials 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2012 R2 64 位Windows Server 2012 R2 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、FoundationStandard, Datacenter, Foundation 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2012 64 位Windows Server 2012 64 bit Datacenter、Foundation、StandardDatacenter, Foundation, Standard 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2016 64 位Windows Storage Server 2016 64 bit Standard、WorkgroupStandard, Workgroup 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 64 位Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 64 bit Standard、Workgroup、EssentialStandard, Workgroup, Essential 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2012 64 位Windows Storage Server 2012 64 bit Standard、WorkgroupStandard, Workgroup 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 64 位Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 64 bit Standard、Enterprise、Datacenter、FoundationStandard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Foundation 使用最新更新。With the latest updates.
Windows Server 2008 64 位Windows Server 2008 64 bit Standard、Enterprise、DatacenterStandard, Enterprise, Datacenter 使用最新更新。With latest updates.

对于 Azure VM Linux 备份,Azure 备份支持 Azure 认可的分发版列表,但 Core OS Linux 和 32 位操作系统除外。For Azure VM Linux backups, Azure Backup supports the list of distributions endorsed by Azure, except Core OS Linux and 32-bit operating system. 只要 VM 上装有 VM 代理且支持 Python,其他自带 Linux 发行版应该也能正常运行。Other bring-your-own Linux distributions might work as long as the VM agent is available on the VM, and support for Python exists.

是否存在数据备份的大小限制?Are there size limits for data backup?

大小限制如下所示:Sizes limits are as follows:

OS/计算机OS/machine 数据源的大小限制Size limit of data source
Windows 8 或更高版本Windows 8 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows 7Windows 7 1700 GB1700 GB
Windows Server 2012 或更高版本Windows Server 2012 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows Server 2008、Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2 1700 GB1700 GB
Azure VMAzure VM 16 个数据磁盘16 data disks

数据磁盘最大为 4095 GBData disk up to 4095 GB

如何确定数据源大小?How is the data source size determined?

下表说明了如何确定每个数据源大小。The following table explains how each data source size is determined.

数据源Data source 详细信息Details
数据量(Volume)Volume 从正在备份的单个卷 VM 备份的数据量。The amount of data being backed up from single volume VM being backed up.
SQL Server 数据库SQL Server database 正在备份的单个 SQL 数据库的大小。Size of single SQL database size being backed up.
SharePointSharePoint 正在备份的 SharePoint 场中内容和配置数据库的总和。Sum of the content and configuration databases within a SharePoint farm being backed up.
ExchangeExchange 正在备份 Exchange 服务器中所有 Exchange 数据库的总和。Sum of all Exchange databases in an Exchange server being backed up.
BMR/系统状态BMR/System state 正在备份计算机的 BMR 或系统状态的每个副本。Each individual copy of BMR or system state of the machine being backed up.

使用恢复服务保管库备份的数据量是否有限制?Is there a limit on the amount of data backed up using a Recovery Services vault?

对可以使用恢复服务保管库进行备份的数据量没有限制。There is no limit on the amount of data you can back up using a Recovery Services vault.

为什么传输到恢复服务保管库的数据的大小小于选择进行备份的数据?Why is the size of the data transferred to the Recovery Services vault smaller than the data selected for backup?

从 Azure 备份代理、DPM 和 Azure 备份服务器备份的数据都会在传输之前进行压缩和加密。Data backed up from Azure Backup Agent, DPM, and Azure Backup Server is compressed and encrypted before being transferred. 应用压缩和加密后,保管库中的数据将减少 30-40%。With compression and encryption is applied, the data in the vault is 30-40% smaller.

可以从保管库中的恢复点删除单个文件吗?Can I delete individual files from a recovery point in the vault?

不可以,Azure 备份不支持从存储的备份中删除或清除单个项。No, Azure Backup doesn't support deleting or purging individual items from stored backups.

如果在备份作业开始后取消,是否会删除已传输的备份数据?If I cancel a backup job after it starts, is the transferred backup data deleted?

不。No. 在备份作业取消之前传输到保管库中的所有数据将保留在保管库中。All data that was transferred into the vault before the backup job was canceled remains in the vault.

  • Azure 备份使用检查点机制,在备份过程中偶尔要对备份数据添加检查点。Azure Backup uses a checkpoint mechanism to occasionally add checkpoints to the backup data during the backup.
  • 由于备份数据中有检查点,下次备份过程可以验证文件的完整性。Because there are checkpoints in the backup data, the next backup process can validate the integrity of the files.
  • 下一次备份作业将是以前备份的数据的增量。The next backup job will be incremental to the data previously backed up. 增量备份仅传输新增或更改的数据,这相当于更好地利用带宽。Incremental backups only transfer new or changed data, which equates to better utilization of bandwidth.

如果取消了 Azure VM 的备份作业,则已传输的数据会被忽略。If you cancel a backup job for an Azure VM, any transferred data is ignored. 下次备份作业将传输上次成功的备份作业之后的增量数据。The next backup job transfers incremental data from the last successful backup job.

保留和恢复Retention and recovery

DPM 和不带 DPM 的 Windows 计算机的保留策略是否相同?Are the retention policies for DPM and Windows machines without DPM the same?

是的,它们都有每日、每周、每月和每年保留策略。Yes, they both have daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly retention policies.

能否自定义保留策略?Can I customize retention policies?

是的,可以自定义策略。Yes, you have customize policies. 例如,可以配置每周和每日保留期要求,但不能配置每年和每月保留期要求。For example, you can configure weekly and daily retention requirements, but not yearly and monthly.

是否可以对备份计划和保留策略使用不同时间?Can I use different times for backup scheduling and retention policies?

不。No. 只能在备份时间点应用保留策略。Retention policies can only be applied on backup points. 例如,此图显示了中午 12 点和下午 6 点创建的备份保留策略。For example, this images shows a retention policy for backups taken at 12am and 6pm.

计划备份和保持

如果备份保留了很长一段时间,是否需要更多时间才能恢复较旧的数据点?If a backup is kept for a long time, does it take more time to recover an older data point?

不。No. 恢复最旧或最新时间点所需的时间相同。The time to recover the oldest or the newest point is the same. 每个恢复点的行为类似一个完整的点。Each recovery point behaves like a full point.

如果每个恢复点相当于完整的点,它会影响总体可计费备份存储吗?If each recovery point is like a full point, does it impact the total billable backup storage?

典型的长期保留点产品将备份数据存储为完整的点。Typical long-term retention point products store backup data as full points.

  • 完整点的存储 效率不高 ,但能使还原变得更方便和快速。The full points are storage inefficient but are easier and faster to restore.
  • 增量复制为高效存储,但要求还原数据链,这会影响恢复时间Incremental copies are storage efficient but require you to restore a chain of data, which impacts your recovery time

Azure 备份存储体系结构提供这两个领域的最佳产品,它以最佳方式用于快速恢复的数据存储中,产生较低的存储成本。Azure Backup storage architecture gives you the best of both worlds by optimally storing data for fast restores and incurring low storage costs. 这种方法可确保提高(入口和出口)带宽使用效率。This ensures that your ingress and egress bandwidth is used efficiently. 数据存储量和恢复数据所需的时间都会尽量减少。The amount of data storage, and the time needed to recover the data, is kept to a minimum. 了解有关增量备份的更多信息。Learn more about incremental backups.

可创建的恢复点数量是否有限制?Is there a limit on the number of recovery points that can be created?

最多可为单个受保护实例创建 9999 个恢复点。You can create up to 9999 recovery points per protected instance. 受保护的实例包括计算机、服务器(物理或虚拟)或备份到 Azure 的工作负载。A protected instance is a computer, server (physical or virtual), or workload that backs up to Azure.

我可以恢复多少次备份到 Azure 的数据?How many times can I recovery data that's backed up to Azure?

从 Azure 备份执行恢复的次数没有限制。There is no limit on the number of recoveries from Azure Backup.

还原数据时,Azure 的出口流量是否需要付费?When restoring data, do I pay for the egress traffic from Azure?

不。No. 恢复是免费的,不收取传出流量费。Recovery is free and you aren't charged for the egress traffic.

如果更改备份策略,会发生什么情况?What happens when I change my backup policy?

应用新策略时,将遵循新策略的计划和保留期。When a new policy is applied, schedule and retention of the new policy is followed.

  • 如果延长保留期,则会对现有的恢复点进行标记,按新策略要求保留它们。If retention is extended, existing recovery points are marked to keep them as per new policy.
  • 如果缩短保留期,则会将其标记为在下一清理作业中删除,随后会将其删除。If retention is reduced, they are marked for pruning in the next cleanup job and subsequently deleted.

加密Encryption

发送到 Azure 的数据会加密吗?Is the data sent to Azure encrypted?

可以。Yes. 使用 AES256 在本地计算机上对数据进行加密。Data is encrypted on the on-premises machine using AES256. 数据通过安全的 HTTPS 链接发送。The data is sent over a secure HTTPS link. 在云中传输的数据仅在存储和恢复服务之间通过 HTTPS 链接进行保护。The data transmitted in cloud is protected by HTTPS link only between storage and recovery service. iSCSI 协议可保护恢复服务和用户计算机之间传输的数据。iSCSI protocol secures the data transmitted between recovery service and user machine. 安全隧道用于保护 iSCSI 通道。Secure tunneling is used to protect the iSCSI channel.

Azure 中的备份数据也会加密吗?Is the backup data on Azure encrypted as well?

可以。Yes. Azure 中的数据为静态加密。The data in Azure is encrypted-at-rest.

  • 对于本地备份,使用在备份到 Azure 时提供的密码提供静态加密。For on-premises backup, encryption-at-rest is provided using the passphrase you provide when backing up to Azure.
  • 对于 Azure VM,使用存储服务加密 (SSE) 对数据进行静态加密。For Azure VMs, data is encrypted-at-rest using Storage Service Encryption (SSE).

Microsoft 不会解密任何位置的备份数据。Microsoft does not decrypt the backup data at any point.

用于加密备份数据的加密密钥的最小长度是多少?What is the minimum length of encryption the key used to encrypt backup data?

使用 Azure 备份代理时,加密密钥至少应该为 16 个字符。The encryption key should be at least 16 characters when you are using Azure backup agent. 就 Azure VM 来说,Azure KeyVault 所使用的密钥没有长度限制。For Azure VMs, there is no limit to length of keys used by Azure KeyVault.

如果我丢失了加密密钥,会发生什么情况?What happens if I misplace the encryption key? 能否恢复数据?Can I recover the data? Microsoft 能否恢复数据?Can Microsoft recover the data?

用于加密备份数据的密钥仅出现在你的站点上。The key used to encrypt the backup data is present only on your site. Microsoft 不会在 Azure 中保留副本,并且无权访问密钥。Microsoft does not maintain a copy in Azure and does not have any access to the key. 如果错放密钥,Microsoft 将无法恢复备份数据。If you misplace the key, Microsoft can't recover the backup data.

后续步骤Next steps

阅读其他常见问题:Read the other FAQs: