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入门:构建云策略团队Get started: Build a cloud strategy team

若要成功,每个云采用旅程都需要进行一定程度的战略规划。To be successful, every cloud adoption journey needs to involve some level of strategic planning. 本入门指南旨在帮助你建立一个专门的团队或虚拟团队,使其能够构建和交付坚实的云策略。This getting started guide is designed to help you establish a dedicated team or virtual team that can build and deliver on a solid cloud strategy.

旅程的第一步是确定是否需要策略团队,或现有团队成员是否可以作为分布式责任交付云策略。The first step in the journey is to decide whether you need a strategy team, or whether your existing team members can deliver on cloud strategy as a distributed responsibility.

无论选择哪种方法,都需要创建一个云策略团队来定义动机和业务结果,并验证并维持业务优先级与云采用情况之间的协调。Whichever approach you choose, you'll want to create a cloud strategy team that defines motivations and business outcomes, and that validates and maintains alignment between business priorities and cloud adoption efforts. 当业务成果影响业务功能时,策略团队应包括公司内的业务负责人。When the business outcomes affect business functions, the strategy team should include business leaders from across the organization. 云策略团队的目标是生成由云技术启用的有形业务结果。The goal of the cloud strategy team is to produce tangible business results that are enabled by cloud technologies. 总体而言,此团队可确保云采用情况的进度与业务结果相结合。Overall, this team ensures that cloud adoption efforts progress in alignment with business outcomes. 在此过程中,应尽可能早地定义业务成果和云策略团队的工作。Whenever possible, business outcomes and the cloud strategy team's efforts should both be defined early in the process.

开始构建云策略团队

备注

本文讨论 策略主持 者,这是云采用过程中的关键扮演者。This article discusses a strategy facilitator, a key player in the cloud-adoption process. 角色通常由项目经理、架构师或顾问承担。The role is commonly held by a program manager, architect, or consultant. 当云策略团队的工作方式开始时,策略主持者暂时负责创建协调,并使团队与业务目标保持一致。As the cloud strategy team forms and gets started, the strategy facilitator is temporarily accountable for creating alignment and keeping the team aligned with business goals. 策略主持者通常是最有责任地参与云采用旅程的成功之处。The strategy facilitator is often the person most accountable for the success of the cloud adoption journey.

步骤1:确定是否需要云策略团队Step 1: Determine whether a cloud strategy team is needed

云策略团队在云中提供所需的功能,这称为云策略功能。A cloud strategy team delivers on a required capability in the cloud, referred to as the cloud strategy capability. 构建云策略团队需要一组已定义的专用业务负责人、利益干系人和计划经理,以定期、定期的方式满足推动云采用的策略。Forming a cloud strategy team requires a defined group of dedicated business leaders, stakeholders, and program managers to meet on a regular, recurring basis to advance the strategy that drives cloud adoption.

Deliverables:

  • 确定你的业务是否需要云策略团队。Determine whether your business requires a cloud strategy team.

支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

出于以下原因,通常需要创建云策略团队:Creating a cloud strategy team is often necessary for the following reasons:

原因Reason 注意事项Considerations
云采用对业务非常重要。Cloud adoption is important to the business.
  • 云采用工作量具有板级别的可见性。The cloud adoption effort has board-level visibility.
  • 云采用工作量的成功将改善市场定位、客户保留或收入。Success of the cloud adoption effort will improve market positioning, customer retention, or revenue.
  • 采用公文包中的程序直接映射到战略业务成果。The programs in the adoption portfolio map directly to strategic business outcomes.
  • 采用这种采用工作量的工作负荷组合是战略和关键任务,可能会影响多个业务单位。The portfolio of workloads in this adoption effort is strategic and mission-critical and could affect multiple business units.
  • 云采用需要持续执行支持。Cloud adoption requires ongoing executive support.
  • 云采用工作量会影响你管理组织更改的方式。The cloud adoption effort will affect how you manage organizational change.
  • 工作需要来自多个业务用户的额外培训,并且可能会中断某些业务功能。The effort will require additional training from multiple business users and could interrupt certain business functions.
  • 现有 IT 运营团队或供应商仍在使用现有的数据中心。The existing IT operations team or vendor is motivated to remain in an existing datacenter.
  • 现有 IT 团队尚未完全购买。The existing IT team hasn't fully bought into the effort.
  • 云采用为业务带来了风险。Cloud adoption presents risk to the business.
  • 如果无法在指定的时间范围内完成迁移,将导致市场损失或托管成本增加。Failure to complete the migration within the specified time window will result in negative market impact or increased hosting costs.
  • 预定采用的工作负荷需要防止数据泄露,这可能会影响业务的成功或客户安全。Workloads slated for adoption need to be protected from data leakage that could affect business success or customer security.
  • 用于衡量云工作的指标是业务协调的,它在技术取得成功的情况下形成依赖关系和风险。Metrics that are being used to measure the cloud effort are business aligned, creating a dependency and risk on the technical success.
  • 如果上述任何或所有原因代表您现有的业务注意事项,本文的其余部分中的信息将帮助您建立云策略团队。If any or all of the preceding reasons represent your existing business considerations, the information in the rest of this article will help you establish your cloud strategy team.

    责任人员或团队:Accountable person or team:

    • 策略主持人负责确定是否需要云策略团队。The strategy facilitator is accountable for determining whether a cloud strategy team is needed.

    如果我不需要云策略团队,该怎么办?What if I don't need a cloud strategy team?

    查看满足云策略需求所需的 云策略功能Review the cloud strategy functions that are required to deliver on cloud strategy needs. 并非每个组织都需要一个专用团队或虚拟团队来帮助满足其战略需求。Not every organization requires a dedicated team or virtual team to help meet its strategic needs. 在你的 RACI 中 (负责、负责、 咨询和通知) 模板,列出策略的核心责任,并确定团队中将负责每个人的人员。In your RACI (responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed) template, list the core accountabilities of the strategy, and identify the person on your team who will be accountable for each. 如果某个人要参加所有这些责任,请在 RACI 模板中简单地将 "云策略" 替换为该用户的名称。If one person will take on all of those accountabilities, simple replace "cloud strategy" with that person's name in the RACI template.

    步骤2:建立云策略团队Step 2: Establish the cloud strategy team

    云策略团队充当业务领导人和 IT 负责人之间的重复对齐点。The cloud strategy team serves as a recurring alignment point between business leaders and IT leaders. 根据需要满足战略团队需要的重要性、风险和执行支持级别,参与和团队组合可能会有所不同。Based on the levels of importance, risk, and executive support that drive the need for a strategy team, participation in and the composition of the team might vary.

    Deliverables:

    • 确定想要分享的合适组织或个人负责推动云采用策略。Identify the appropriate organizations or individuals who are willing to share in the accountability and responsibility for driving the cloud adoption strategy.

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

    • 记录并共享步骤1中的理由,以确定将从定期参与中受益的利益干系人,并将能够帮助推动策略的执行。Document and share your reasoning from step 1 to identify stakeholders who will benefit from regular involvement and will be able to help drive the strategy.
    • 有关可能适合的用户的想法,请参阅 云策略功能For ideas about who might be a good fit, see Cloud strategy functions.
    • 若要从每个潜在参与者验证对齐和带宽,请查看此功能的 最小范围可交付结果To validate the alignment and bandwidth from each potential participant, review the minimum scope and deliverable for this capability.
    • 若要基于当前团队结构建立正确的 RACI 图表,请查看各种 RACI 配置示例,或选择 RACI 模板底部的示例选项卡之一。To establish the right RACI chart based on you current team structures, review the various RACI configuration examples, or select one of the example tabs at the bottom of the RACI template.
    • 将结果记录到工作表中的 RACI 模板Org AlignmentDocument the results in the RACI template in the Org Alignment worksheet.

    责任人员或团队:Accountable person or team:

    • 策略主持人负责建立云策略团队。The strategy facilitator is accountable for establishing the cloud strategy team.

    步骤3:建立节奏Step 3: Establish a cadence

    在云采用旅程初期,你的团队需要经常进行交互和迭代策略检查。Early in the cloud adoption journey, your team will require frequent interaction and iterative strategy reviews. 随着采用开始,该频率将减少,过渡到关注状态、验证或调整积压工作(backlog)优先级。As adoption starts, that frequency will lessen, transitioning to a focus on status and validation or adjustment of the backlog priorities.

    步骤4、5和6应在四到六周内完成。Steps 4, 5, and 6 should be completed within four to six weeks. 其余步骤将在后续会议中完成。The remaining steps will be completed in subsequent meetings. 在团队开始步骤7之前,应保持更频繁的会议。More frequent meetings should be maintained until the team begins step 7.

    Deliverables:

    查看建议的会议节奏,并与所有策略团队参与者一起安排会议。Review suggested meeting cadences and schedule meetings with all strategy team participants.

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

    • 查看建议的短期和长期 会议节奏 ,以使每个记录的参与者保持一致。Review the suggested short-term and long-term meeting cadences to align each of the documented participants.

    责任人员或团队:Accountable person or team:

    • 策略主持者负责为云策略团队建立适当的节奏。The strategy facilitator is accountable for establishing an appropriate cadence for the cloud strategy team.

    步骤4:建立动力驱动的策略Step 4: Establish a motivation-driven strategy

    云采用旅程包括迁移和创新方法。Cloud adoption journeys include approaches to both migration and innovation. 当技术团队定义策略时,策略通常由团队成员的当前技能和优势驱动。When technical teams define the strategy, it's common for the strategy to be driven by the team members' current skills and strengths. 此类策略可能是技术成功,但会产生有限的业务影响。Such a strategy is likely to be a technical success, but it risks producing limited business impact.

    云策略团队的第一个目标是定义基于业务动机的高级策略。The first objective of the cloud strategy team is to define a high-level strategy that's based on business motivations. 这通常可在一小时内与所有云策略团队成员一起完成。This can usually be completed in a one-hour workshop with all of the cloud strategy team members. 它还至少需要一小时的时间来查看各个技术团队和受影响的利益干系人的业务动机。It also requires a minimum of one additional hour to review the business motivations with various technical teams and affected stakeholders.

    在第一个研讨会期间,团队的每个成员都应在 理解动机 一文中划分其动机的优先级,并分享其最高优先级。During the first workshop, each member of the team should prioritize its motivations in the understand motivations article and share its top priorities. 策略主持人有助于指导一轮或多轮会话,直到某个主题在迁移或创新方向上出现为止。The strategy facilitator helps guide one or more rounds of conversation until a theme emerges in the direction of migration or innovation. 这两个类别的排名在前3个列表中,这可能要求团队在倾向一种方式之前深入了解其列表。There will likely be motivations in the top 3 list from both categories, which might require the team to go deeper on its list before a clear pattern leans one way or another.

    此练习将讨论有助于在团队成员之间建立对齐的对话。This exercise will surface conversations that can help build alignment among the team members. 可交付结果将帮助指导策略的其余部分和结果计划。The deliverable will help guide the rest of the strategy and the resulting plan.

    Deliverables:

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

    • 了解动机:关键业务事件和某些迁移动机往往是成本敏感的,这会提高所有后续工作的成本控制的重要性。Understand motivations: Critical business events and some migration motivations tend to be cost sensitive, which increases the importance of cost control for all subsequent efforts. 通过迁移与创新或增长相关的其他前瞻性动机可能更侧重于顶线收入。Other forward-looking motivations that are related to innovation or growth through migration might be focused more on top-line revenue. 了解动机有助于团队成员决定如何确定成本管理的优先级。Understanding motivations helps team members decide how high to prioritize your cost management.

    负责团队Accountable team 负责人和支持团队Responsible and supporting teams
  • 云策略团队Cloud strategy team
  • 云治理团队Cloud governance team
  • 云采用团队Cloud adoption team
  • 优秀或中心 IT 团队的云中心Cloud center of excellence or central IT team
  • 步骤5:建立业务成果Step 5: Establish business outcomes

    云策略团队的每个成员都需要通过应用特定指标来衡量业务绩效,来定义一个或多个业务成果。Each member of the cloud strategy team is asked to define one or more business outcomes by applying specific metrics to measure business success. 如果某个指标可以作为云采用工作量的直接结果来改进,则会要求团队成员分担预期的影响。If a certain metric can be improved as a direct result of the cloud adoption effort, a team member is asked to share the expected impact. 如果云采用工作量不会影响指标,但会使企业更好地推动指标的驱动,则应该记录。If the cloud adoption effort doesn't affect the metric but will enable the business to better drive the metric, that too should be documented.

    云策略团队的很多领导者可能需要分解其核心指标,以确定可能受到云采用的影响或影响的结果。Many leaders on the cloud strategy team might need to decompose their core metrics to identify an outcome that can be affected or influenced by the cloud adoption effort. 如果团队成员的结果不受此旅程的影响或影响,则他们可能会很难在计划中保持其相关水平。If the team members' outcomes can't be affected or influenced by this journey, it might be hard for them to maintain their level of interest in the program. 主持人应与每个负责人合作来开发一致的指标,并重新评估团队成员是否是参与战略团队的正确人选。The facilitator should work with each leader to develop an aligned metric and reevaluate whether that team member is the right person to participate on the strategy team.

    对业务结果的影响可能需要一定的时间。Impacts on business outcomes can take time. 通常,这些类型的更改的移动速度慢于技术更改。These types of changes typically move slower than technical changes. 若要保持透明度,策略团队应同意更短的学习指标。To maintain transparency, the strategy team should agree on shorter-term learning metrics. 这些指标可能包括技术和其他更改,这些更改可在每个团队会议上查看,以演示技术目标和业务结果的进度。These metrics might include technical and other changes that can be reviewed at each team meeting to demonstrate progress toward technical goals and business outcomes.

    Deliverables:

    • 为云策略团队的每个成员确定至少一个预期的业务成果。Identify at least one expected business outcome per member of the cloud strategy team.
    • 优化成员列表,使预期的时间承诺与预期的结果一致。Refine the list of members to align expected time commitments with expected outcomes.
    • 协调一组短期和中期指标,以支持正在进行的进度报告。Align on a set of short-term and mid-term metrics to support ongoing progress reports.

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

    • 策略和计划模板中记录业务结果。Record business outcomes in the strategy and plan template.
    • 业务成果:某些会计结果往往非常经济地敏感。Business outcomes: Some fiscal outcomes tend to be extremely cost sensitive. 当所需的结果映射到会计指标时,就可以在成本管理管理规范中非常早地投资。When the desired outcomes map to fiscal metrics, it can be wise to invest very early in the Cost Management governance discipline.
    • 学习指标 有助于弥补业务成果和技术采用工作之间的差距。Learning metrics help bridge the gap between business outcomes and technical adoption efforts.

    负责团队:Accountable team:

    云策略团队负责定义业务成果。The cloud strategy team is accountable for defining business outcomes. 团队可以使用特定指标来衡量业务结果是否成功。The team can use specific metrics to measure the success of the business outcomes.

    步骤6:根据业务理由决定是要继续还是取消Step 6: Decide whether to proceed or cancel based on the business justification

    你的业务理由有助于规划、长期回报和期望 (TCO) 的总拥有成本。Your business justification can help with planning, long-term return expectations, and expectations about total cost of ownership (TCO). 在此步骤中,云策略团队应同意为帮助战略团队做出前进决策所需的最少分析量。In this step, the cloud strategy team should agree on the minimum amount of analysis required to help the strategy team align on a go-forward decision. 战略协调可能需要深度规划和 TCO 分析。Strategic alignment might require deep planning and TCO analysis. 大多数云策略团队将发现一个足以满足方向的简单成本分析。Most cloud strategy teams will find a simple cost analysis sufficient to align on direction.

    策略团队的每个成员都应查看常见的误解和业务理由方法。Each member of the strategy team should review common myths and approaches to business justification. 这可以帮助团队与支持团队沟通预期的特定分析。This can help the team communicate the specific analysis that's expected from the supporting teams. 在团队传达其期望后,它可以减少其时间投入和会议频率。After the team communicates its expectations, it can reduce its time investment and meeting frequency. 在对业务理由和数字房地产分析达成共识之前,团队将保持完成策略的责任。The team will maintain accountability for completing the strategy until the business justification and digital estate analysis have been agreed upon.

    Deliverables:

    • 与支持团队开始开展业务理由。Kick off the business justification effort with your supporting teams.
    • 按每月 (或按需) 支持团队进行操作,直到策略团队能够根据云采用情况进行操作。Meet with the supporting teams monthly (or as needed) until the strategy team can align on a go/no go decision to proceed with cloud adoption.

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:

    • 业务理由作为云采用的总体财务计划的高级别视图。The business justification serves as a high-level view of the overall financial plan for cloud adoption. 对于最初的预算工作,这可能是一个很好的来源。This can be a good source for initial budgeting efforts.

    负责团队Accountable team 负责人和支持团队Responsible and supporting teams
  • 云策略团队Cloud strategy team
  • 云治理团队Cloud governance team
  • 云采用团队Cloud adoption team
  • 优秀或中心 IT 团队的云中心Cloud center of excellence or central IT team
  • 步骤7:通过定期节奏支持采用Step 7: Support adoption through a regular cadence

    向云策略团队达成了一致的决定之后,团队可以过渡到更不重要且不太频繁的会议节奏。After a go-forward decision has been agreed upon with the cloud strategy team, the team can transition into a less intense and less frequent meeting cadence. 团队的期望还会改变。The expectations of the team also shift at this point. 在旅程从战略定义发展到采用 (计划、准备、采用) 时,策略团队应重点关注优先级和战略支持。After the journey moves from strategic definition to adoption efforts (plan, ready, adopt), the strategy team is expected to focus on prioritization and strategic support.

    Deliverables:

    • 优先级: 现有的数字空间合理化后,策略团队可帮助建立迁移或创新优先级的波浪。Prioritization: When the existing digital estate is rationalized, the strategy team helps establish waves of migration or innovation priorities. 这可帮助技术实现团队专注于推动最大业务价值的操作。This helps the technical implementation teams focus on actions that drive the greatest business value.
    • 评估风险: 随着云采用的发展,新形式的采用会带来新的风险。Evaluate risks: As cloud adoption grows, new forms of adoption expose new risks. 策略团队负责帮助评估这些新的风险。The strategy team is responsible for helping evaluate those new risks. 策略团队的期望是评估新风险,并确定业务是否可以容忍风险,或者它是否需要消除或降低这些风险的策略。The expectation of the strategy team is to evaluate new risks and determine whether the business can tolerate the risks or it needs policies that eliminate or mitigate them.
    • 查看预算和支出: 随着云采用的增加,将会在项目组合中提供各种工作负荷的预算。Review budget and spend: As cloud adoption increases, so will budgets for various workloads in the portfolio. 在每月的基础上,云策略团队应查看预算的实际花费,以确定需要解决的问题。On a monthly basis, the cloud strategy team should review actual spend against budget to identify issues that need to be resolved. 尽早检测并解决预算更改将有助于防止在采用生命周期后期出现标签冲击。Detecting and addressing budgetary changes early will help prevent sticker shock later in the adoption lifecycle.
    • 业务规划: 当采用团队完成其迁移或创新工作时,将需要额外的业务规划,以便最大限度地提高新技术解决方案的回报。Business planning: When the adoption teams complete their migration or innovation efforts, additional business planning will be required to maximize return from the new technology solutions. 此类规划可能包括用户培训、业务流程修改或其他采用后活动。Such planning might include user training, business process modifications, or other post-adoption activities.
    • Executive 支持: 云采用将导致组织更改。Executive support: Cloud adoption will result in organizational change. 这在 IT 组织中最可见。This is most visible within the IT organization. 有时,各个团队或团队成员可能需要来自策略团队的其他支持,以了解这些更改、开发新技能并了解如何在新模型中进行最佳操作。At times, various teams or team members might need additional support from the strategy team to understand the changes, develop new skills, and understand how to best operate within the new models.

    支持交付完成的指南:Guidance to support deliverable completion:


    负责团队Accountable team 负责人和支持团队Responsible and supporting teams
  • 云策略团队Cloud strategy team
  • 云治理团队Cloud governance team
  • 云采用团队Cloud adoption team
  • 优秀或中心 IT 团队的云中心Cloud center of excellence or central IT team
  • 后续步骤What's next

    策略和规划非常重要。Strategy and planning are important. 在确定团队所需的云采用函数之前,无需执行任何操作。Nothing is actionable until you identify the cloud adoption functions that are needed on your team. 在开始采用之前,必须了解这些关键功能。It's important to understand these key capabilities before you begin your adoption efforts.

    将策略与 云采用职能 协调起来,方法是使用采用团队或负责这些功能的个人。Align your strategy with the cloud adoption functions by working with the adoption team or individuals who are responsible for these functions.

    了解如何通过开发用于标识 RACI 参与方的跨团队矩阵来协调团队间的责任。Learn to align responsibilities across teams by developing a cross-team matrix that identifies RACI parties. 下载并修改 RACI 模板Download and modify the RACI template.