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云监视指南:云部署模型的监视策略Cloud monitoring guide: Monitoring strategy for cloud deployment models

本文针对每个云部署模型提供我们建议的监视策略,具体取决于以下条件:This article includes our recommended monitoring strategy for each of the cloud deployment models, based on the following criteria:

  • 你必须保持对 Operations Manager 或其他企业监视平台的承诺,因为它与你的 IT 运营流程、知识和专业知识相集成,或者某些功能在 Azure Monitor 中不可用。You must maintain your commitment to Operations Manager or another enterprise monitoring platform, because it's integrated with your IT operations processes, knowledge, and expertise, or certain functionality isn't available yet in Azure Monitor.
  • 必须监视本地和公有云中的工作负荷,或仅监视云中的工作负荷。You must monitor workloads both on-premises and in the public cloud, or just in the cloud.
  • 你的云迁移策略包括现代化 IT 运营,并迁移到我们的云监视服务和解决方案。Your cloud migration strategy includes modernizing IT operations and moving to our cloud monitoring services and solutions.
  • 你的关键系统可能是气流或物理隔离的,或者托管在私有云和物理硬件上,需要监视这些系统。You might have critical systems that are air-gapped or physically isolated, or are hosted in a private cloud or on physical hardware, and these systems need to be monitored.

我们的策略包括对监视基础结构 (计算、存储和服务器工作负荷) 、应用程序 (最终用户、异常和客户端) 以及网络资源的支持。Our strategy includes support for monitoring infrastructure (compute, storage, and server workloads), application (end-user, exceptions, and client), and network resources. 它提供了一个完整的面向服务的监视透视。It delivers a complete, service-oriented monitoring perspective.

Azure 云监视Azure cloud monitoring

Azure Monitor 是 Azure 本机平台服务,提供了用于监视 Azure 资源的单一源。Azure Monitor is the Azure native platform service that provides a single source for monitoring Azure resources. 它适用于以下云解决方案:It's designed for cloud solutions that:

  • 是在 Azure 上构建的。Are built on Azure.
  • 支持基于虚拟机 (VM) 工作负荷或使用微服务和其他平台资源的复杂体系结构的业务功能。Support a business capability that's based on virtual machine (VM) workloads or complex architectures that use microservices and other platform resources.

它从租户服务开始监视堆栈的所有层,如 Azure Active Directory 域服务,以及订阅级事件和 Azure 服务运行状况。It monitors all layers of the stack, starting with tenant services, such as Azure Active Directory Domain Services, and subscription-level events and Azure Service Health.

它还监视 Vm、存储和网络资源等基础结构资源。It also monitors infrastructure resources, such as VMs, storage, and network resources. 在顶层,它监视您的应用程序。At the top layer, it monitors your application.

通过监视其中的每个依赖关系,并收集每个依赖项可以发出的正确信号,可以获得应用程序的可观察性和所需的关键基础结构。By monitoring each of these dependencies, and collecting the right signals that each can emit, you get the observability of applications and the key infrastructure you need.

下表总结了用于监视堆栈的每一层的建议方法:Our recommended approach to monitoring each layer of the stack is summarized in the following table:

Layer 资源Resource 范围Scope 方法Method
应用程序Application 一个基于 web 的应用程序,在 Azure VM、Azure App Service、Azure Service Fabric、Azure Functions 和 Azure 云服务上的 .NET、.NET Core、Java、JavaScript 和 Node.js 平台上运行。A web-based application that runs on .NET, .NET Core, Java, JavaScript, and Node.js platform on an Azure VM, Azure App Service, Azure Service Fabric, Azure Functions, and Azure Cloud Services. 监视实时 web 应用程序以自动检测性能异常、识别代码异常和问题,并收集用户行为分析。Monitor a live web application to automatically detect performance anomalies, identify code exceptions and issues, and collect user behavior analytics. Application Insights (Azure Monitor) 的一项功能。Application Insights (a feature of Azure Monitor).
Azure 资源-平台即服务 (PaaS) Azure resources - platform as a service (PaaS) Azure 数据库服务 (例如,SQL 或 MySQL) 。Azure database services (for example, SQL or MySQL). Azure SQL 数据库性能指标。Azure SQL Database performance metrics. 启用诊断日志记录,以便将 SQL 数据流式传输到 Azure Monitor 日志。Enable diagnostics logging to stream SQL data to Azure Monitor Logs.
Azure 资源-基础结构即服务 (IaaS) Azure resources - infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 1. Azure 存储1. Azure Storage
2. Azure 负载平衡服务2. Azure load balancing services
3. 网络安全组3. Network security groups
4. Azure 虚拟机4. Azure Virtual Machines
5. azure Kubernetes Service / azure 容器实例5. Azure Kubernetes Service / Azure Container Instances
1. 容量、可用性和性能。1. Capacity, availability, and performance.
2. 性能和诊断日志 (活动、访问、性能和防火墙) 。2. Performance and diagnostics logs (activity, access, performance, and firewall).
3. 在应用规则时监视事件,并将规则计数器用于拒绝或允许规则的次数。3. Monitor events when rules are applied, and the rule counter for how many times a rule is applied to deny or allow.
4. 监视来宾 VM 操作系统 (OS) 中的容量、可用性和性能。4. Monitor capacity, availability, and performance in a guest VM operating system (OS). 映射每个虚拟机上托管的应用程序依赖关系,包括服务器之间的活动网络连接、入站和出站连接延迟以及任何 TCP 连接的体系结构之间的端口的可见性。Map application dependencies hosted on each VM, including the visibility of active network connections between servers, inbound and outbound connection latency, and ports across any TCP-connected architecture.
5. 监视容器和容器实例上运行的工作负荷的容量、可用性和性能。5. Monitor capacity, availability, and performance of workloads running on containers and container instances.
对于第一列中的项目1到5,平台指标和活动日志将自动收集并在 Azure Monitor 中提供,以供分析和发出警报。For items 1 through 5 in the first column, platform metrics and the activity log are automatically collected and available in Azure Monitor for analysis and alerting.
将诊断设置配置为将资源日志转发到 Azure Monitor 日志。Configure diagnostic settings to forward resource logs to Azure Monitor Logs.
4. 启用 用于 VM 的 Azure Monitor4. Enable Azure Monitor for VMs.
5. 为容器启用 Azure Monitor5. Enable Azure Monitor for containers.
网络Network 虚拟机与一个或多个终结点之间的通信 (其他 VM、完全限定的域名、统一资源标识符或 IPv4 地址) 。Communication between your virtual machine and one or more endpoints (another VM, a fully qualified domain name, a uniform resource identifier, or an IPv4 address). 监视 VM 与终结点之间发生的可访问性、延迟和网络拓扑更改。Monitor reachability, latency, and network topology changes that occur between the VM and the endpoint. Azure 网络观察程序。Azure Network Watcher.
Azure 订阅Azure subscription Azure 服务的运行状况和基本资源运行状况。Azure Service Health and basic resource health from the perspective of the Azure service.
  • 对服务或资源执行的管理操作。Administrative actions performed on a service or resource.
  • Azure 服务的服务运行状况处于降级或不可用状态。Service health of an Azure service is in a degraded or unavailable state.
  • Azure 资源从 Azure 服务角度检测到运行状况问题。Health issues detected with an Azure resource from the Azure service perspective.
  • 使用 Azure 自动缩放执行的操作指示失败或异常。Operations performed with Azure autoscale indicating a failure or exception.
  • 使用 Azure 策略执行的操作,指出允许或拒绝的操作发生。Operations performed with Azure Policy indicating that an allowed or denied action occurred.
  • Azure 安全中心生成的警报的记录。Record of alerts generated by Azure Security Center.
  • 在活动日志中提供,用于通过使用 Azure Monitor 进行监视和发出警报。Delivered in the activity log for monitoring and alerting by using Azure Monitor.
    Azure 租户Azure tenant Azure Active DirectoryAzure Active Directory Azure AD 审核日志和登录日志。Azure AD audit logs and sign-in logs. 启用 诊断日志记录,并配置 Azure Monitor 日志的流式传输。Enable diagnostics logging, and configure streaming to Azure Monitor Logs.

    混合云监视Hybrid cloud monitoring

    对于许多组织而言,必须逐步实现到云的过渡,其中混合云模型是旅程的最常见的第一步。For many organizations, transition to the cloud must be approached gradually, where the hybrid cloud model is the most common first step in the journey. 请仔细选择应用程序和基础结构的适当子集,以便开始迁移,同时避免业务中断。You carefully select the appropriate subset of applications and infrastructure to begin your migration, while you avoid disruption to your business. 不过,由于我们提供了两个支持此云模型的监视平台,IT 决策者可能不确定哪个平台是支持其业务和 IT 运营目标的最佳选择。However, because we offer two monitoring platforms that support this cloud model, IT decision makers might be uncertain as to which platform is the best choice to support their business and IT operational goals.

    在本部分中,我们通过查看几个因素并了解要考虑的平台来解决不确定性。In this section, we address the uncertainty by reviewing several factors and offering an understanding of which platform to consider.

    请记住以下关键技术方面的内容:Keep in mind the following key technical aspects:

    • 需要从支持工作负荷的 Azure 资源收集数据,然后将数据转发到现有的本地或托管服务提供商工具。You need to collect data from Azure resources that support the workload, then forward the data to your existing on-premises or managed service provider tools.

    • 你需要在 System Center Operations Manager 中维护当前投资,并将其配置为监视在 Azure 中运行的 IaaS 和 PaaS 资源。You need to maintain your current investment in System Center Operations Manager, and configure it to monitor IaaS and PaaS resources that are running in Azure. 根据需要,你可以根据自己的需求来监视具有不同特征的两个环境,需要确定与 Azure Monitor 的集成如何支持你的策略。Optionally, because you're monitoring two environments with different characteristics, based on your requirements, you need to determine how integrating with Azure Monitor supports your strategy.

    • 作为现代化策略的一部分,以便在单个工具上进行标准化以降低成本和复杂性,需要提交到 Azure Monitor 来监视 Azure 和企业网络中的资源。As part of your modernization strategy to standardize on a single tool to reduce cost and complexity, you need to commit to Azure Monitor for monitoring the resources in Azure and on your corporate network.

    下表汇总了根据一组通用条件监视混合云模型 Azure Monitor 和 System Center Operations Manager 支持的要求。The following table summarizes the requirements that Azure Monitor and System Center Operations Manager support with monitoring the hybrid cloud model based on a common set of criteria.

    要求Requirement Azure MonitorAzure Monitor Operations ManagerOperations Manager
    基础结构要求Infrastructure requirements No Yes

    至少需要一个管理服务器和一个 SQL Server 实例来承载操作数据库和报表数据仓库数据库。Requires, at a minimum, a management server and a SQL Server instance to host the operational database and the reporting data warehouse database. 当需要高可用性和灾难恢复,并且有多个站点、不受信任的系统和其他复杂的设计注意事项时,复杂性就会增加。The complexity increases when high availability and disaster recovery are required, and there are machines in multiple sites, untrusted systems, and other complex design considerations.
    受限连接-没有 internet 或隔离的网络Limited connectivity - no internet or isolated network No Yes
    受限连接控制的 internet 访问Limited connectivity - controlled internet access Yes Yes
    受限连接-频繁断开连接Limited connectivity - frequently disconnected Yes Yes
    可配置的运行状况监视Configurable health monitoring No Yes
    (隔离网络) 的 Web 应用可用性测试Web app availability test (isolated network) 是,受限Yes, limited

    Azure Monitor 在此方面的支持有限,并需要自定义防火墙例外。Azure Monitor has limited support in this area and requires custom firewall exceptions.
    Yes
    (全局分布式) 的 Web 应用可用性测试Web app availability test (globally distributed) No Yes
    监视 VM 工作负荷Monitor VM workloads 是,受限Yes, limited

    可以收集 IIS 和 SQL Server 错误日志、Windows 事件和性能计数器。Can collect IIS and SQL Server error logs, Windows events, and performance counters. 需要创建自定义查询、警报和可视化效果。Requires creating custom queries, alerts, and visualizations.
    Yes

    支持监视包含可用管理包的大多数服务器工作负荷。Supports monitoring most of the server workloads with available management packs. 需要 VM 上的 Log Analytics Windows 代理或 Operations Manager 代理,并向企业网络上的管理组报告。Requires either the Log Analytics Windows agent or Operations Manager agent on the VM, reporting back to the management group on the corporate network.
    监视 Azure IaaSMonitor Azure IaaS Yes Yes

    支持监视企业网络中的大多数基础结构。Supports monitoring most of the infrastructure from the corporate network. 通过 Azure 管理包跟踪 Azure Vm、SQL 和存储的可用性状态、指标和警报。Tracks availability state, metrics, and alerts for Azure VMs, SQL, and storage via the Azure management pack.
    监视 Azure PaaSMonitor Azure PaaS Yes 是,受限Yes, limited

    基于 Azure 管理包支持的内容。Based on what's supported in the Azure management pack.
    Azure 服务监视Azure service monitoring Yes Yes

    虽然目前不通过管理包提供 Azure 服务运行状况的本机监视,但你可以创建自定义工作流来查询服务运行状况警报。Although there's no native monitoring of Azure Service Health provided today through a management pack, you can create custom workflows to query Service Health alerts. 使用 Azure REST API 通过现有通知获取警报。Use the Azure REST API to get alerts through your existing notifications.
    新式 web 应用程序监视Modern web application monitoring Yes No
    旧版 web 应用程序监视Legacy web application monitoring 是的,受限制,随 SDK 而变化Yes, limited, varies by SDK

    支持监视较早版本的 .NET 和 Java web 应用程序。Supports monitoring older versions of .NET and Java web applications.
    是,受限Yes, limited
    监视 Azure Kubernetes Service 容器Monitor Azure Kubernetes Service containers Yes No
    监视 Docker 或 Windows 容器Monitor Docker or Windows containers Yes No
    网络性能监视Network performance monitoring Yes 是,受限Yes, limited

    支持可用性检查,并通过使用企业网络中 (SNMP) 的简单网络管理协议从网络设备收集基本统计信息。Supports availability checks, and collects basic statistics from network devices by using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) from the corporate network.
    交互式数据分析Interactive data analysis Yes No

    依赖 SQL Server Reporting Services 固定或自定义报表、第三方可视化解决方案或自定义 Power BI 实现。Relies on SQL Server Reporting Services canned or custom reports, third-party visualization solutions, or a custom Power BI implementation. Operations Manager 数据仓库存在规模和性能方面的限制。There are scale and performance limitations with the Operations Manager data warehouse. 集成 Azure Monitor 日志,作为数据聚合要求的替代方法。Integrate with Azure Monitor Logs as an alternative for data aggregation requirements. 可以通过配置 Log Analytics 连接器实现集成。You achieve integration by configuring the Log Analytics connector.
    端到端诊断、根本原因分析和及时故障排除End-to-end diagnostics, root-cause analysis, and timely troubleshooting Yes 是,受限Yes, limited

    仅支持对本地基础结构和应用程序的端到端诊断和故障排除。Supports end-to-end diagnostics and troubleshooting only for on-premises infrastructure and applications. 使用其他 System Center 组件或合作伙伴解决方案。Uses other System Center components or partner solutions.
    交互式可视化效果 (仪表板) Interactive visualizations (dashboards) Yes 是,受限Yes, limited

    通过其 HTML5 web 控制台或合作伙伴解决方案(例如,方形 Up 和 Savision)提供的高级体验,提供重要的仪表板。Delivers essential dashboards with its HTML5 web console or an advanced experience from partner solutions, such as Squared Up and Savision.
    与 IT 或 DevOps 工具集成Integration with IT or DevOps tools Yes 是,受限Yes, limited

    收集监视数据并将其流式传输到第三方或本地工具Collect and stream monitoring data to third-party or on-premises tools

    若要从 Azure 基础结构和平台资源收集指标和日志,需要为这些资源启用 Azure 诊断日志。To collect metrics and logs from Azure infrastructure and platform resources, you need to enable Azure Diagnostics logs for those resources. 此外,借助 Azure Vm,你可以通过启用 Azure 诊断扩展,从来宾操作系统收集指标和日志。Additionally, with Azure VMs, you can collect metrics and logs from the guest OS by enabling the Azure Diagnostics extension. 若要将从 Azure 资源发出的诊断数据转发到本地工具或托管服务提供商,请将 事件中心 配置为向其流式传输数据。To forward the diagnostics data that's emitted from your Azure resources to your on-premises tools or managed service provider, configure Event Hubs to stream the data to them.

    监视 System Center Operations ManagerMonitor with System Center Operations Manager

    尽管 System Center Operations Manager 最初设计为本地解决方案来监视在你的 IT 环境中运行的应用程序、工作负荷和基础结构组件,但它也在不断发展,包括云监视功能。Although System Center Operations Manager was originally designed as an on-premises solution to monitor across applications, workloads, and infrastructure components that are running in your IT environment, it evolved to include cloud-monitoring capabilities. 它与 Azure、Microsoft 365 和 Amazon Web Services (AWS) 集成。It integrates with Azure, Microsoft 365, and Amazon Web Services (AWS). 它可以通过设计和更新的管理包监视这些不同的环境,以支持这些环境。It can monitor across these diverse environments with management packs that are designed and updated to support them.

    对于在 Operations Manager 中进行了大量投资以实现全面监视(与 IT 服务管理过程和工具紧密集成)的客户,或者对于 Azure 的新客户而言,可理解以下问题:For customers who have made significant investments in Operations Manager to achieve comprehensive monitoring that's tightly integrated with their IT service management processes and tools, or for customers new to Azure, it's understandable to ask the following questions:

    • 能否 Operations Manager 继续提供价值,并使其成为业务意义吗?Can Operations Manager continue to deliver value, and does it make business sense?
    • Operations Manager 中的功能是否适合我们的 IT 组织?Do the features in Operations Manager make it the right fit for our IT organization?
    • 是否将 Operations Manager 与 Azure Monitor 集成提供了我们需要的经济高效且全面的监视解决方案?Does integrating Operations Manager with Azure Monitor provide the cost-effective and comprehensive monitoring solution that we require?

    如果你已经投入了 Operations Manager,则无需专注于计划迁移来立即替换。If you've already invested in Operations Manager, you don't need to focus on planning a migration to replace it immediately. 使用 Azure 或其他云提供程序作为你自己的本地网络的扩展,Operations Manager 可以监视来宾 Vm 和 Azure 资源,就像它们位于企业网络上一样。With Azure or other cloud providers that exist as an extension of your own on-premises network, Operations Manager can monitor the guest VMs and Azure resources as if they were on your corporate network. 此方法要求在网络与 Azure 中的虚拟网络之间建立可靠的网络连接,该网络具有足够的带宽。This approach requires a reliable network connection between your network and the virtual network in Azure that has sufficient bandwidth.

    若要监视 Azure 中运行的工作负荷,需要:To monitor the workloads that are running in Azure, you need:

    • 适用于 Azure 的 System Center Operations Manager 管理包The System Center Operations Manager management pack for Azure. 它收集 Azure 服务发出的性能指标,例如 web 角色和辅助角色、Application Insights 可用性测试 (web 测试) 、Azure 服务总线等。It collects performance metrics emitted by Azure services such as web and worker roles, Application Insights availability tests (web tests), Azure Service Bus, and so on. 管理包使用 Azure REST API 来监视这些资源的可用性和性能。The management pack uses the Azure REST API to monitor the availability and performance of these resources. 某些 Azure 服务类型在管理包中没有指标或预定义监视器,但你仍可以通过 Azure 管理包中为发现的服务定义的关系对其进行监视。Some Azure service types have no metrics or predefined monitors in the management pack, but you can still monitor them through the relationships defined in the Azure management pack for discovered services.

    • 用于 AZURE Sql 数据库的管理包 ,用于使用 azure REST API 和 t-sql 查询 SQL Server 系统视图来监视 azure sql 数据库和 Azure sql 数据库实例的可用性和性能。The management pack for Azure SQL Database to monitor the availability and performance of Azure SQL databases and Azure SQL Database instances using the Azure REST API and T-SQL queries to SQL Server system views.

    • 若要监视 VM 上运行的来宾 OS 和工作负荷(例如 SQL Server、IIS 或 Apache Tomcat),需要下载并导入支持应用程序、服务和操作系统的管理包。To monitor the guest OS and workloads that are running on the VM, such as SQL Server, IIS, or Apache Tomcat, you need to download and import the management pack that supports the application, service, and OS.

    知识在管理包中定义,该管理包介绍如何监视各个依赖项和组件。Knowledge is defined in the management pack, which describes how to monitor the individual dependencies and components. 这两个 Azure 管理包都需要在 Azure 中执行一组配置步骤并 Operations Manager,然后才能开始监视这些资源。Both Azure management packs require performing a set of configuration steps in Azure and Operations Manager before you can begin monitoring these resources.

    在应用程序层,Operations Manager 为某些旧版本的 .NET 和 Java 提供基本应用程序性能监视功能。At the application tier, Operations Manager offers basic application performance monitoring capabilities for some legacy versions of .NET and Java. 如果混合云环境中的某些应用程序在脱机或网络隔离模式下运行,以使它们无法与公有云服务进行通信,则 Operations Manager 应用程序性能监视 (APM) 在某些有限方案中可能是可行的选项。If certain applications within your hybrid cloud environment operate in an offline or network-isolated mode, such that they can't communicate with a public cloud service, Operations Manager application performance monitoring (APM) might be a viable option for certain limited scenarios. 对于未在旧平台上运行但同时在本地和任何公有云中托管的应用程序,允许通过防火墙进行通信 (直接或通过代理) 到 Azure,请使用 Azure Monitor Application Insights。For applications that are not running on legacy platforms but are hosted both on-premises and in any public cloud that allows communication through a firewall (either direct or via a proxy) to Azure, use Azure Monitor Application Insights. 此服务提供深入的代码级别的监视功能,其中包含对 ASP.NET、ASP.NET Core、Java、JavaScript 和 Node.js 的一流支持。This service offers deep, code-level monitoring, with first-class support for ASP.NET, ASP.NET Core, Java, JavaScript, and Node.js.

    对于可从外部访问的任何 web 应用程序,应启用一种称为 " 可用性监视" 的综合事务。For any web application that can be reached externally, you should enable a type of synthetic transaction known as availability monitoring. 了解应用程序或应用程序所依赖的关键 HTTP/HTTPS 终结点是否可用以及响应能力非常重要。It's important to know whether your application or a critical HTTP/HTTPS endpoint that your application relies on, is available and responsive. 利用 Application Insights 可用性监视,你可以从多个 Azure 数据中心运行测试,并从全球角度深入了解应用程序的运行状况。With Application Insights availability monitoring, you can run tests from multiple Azure datacenters and provide insight into the health of your application from a global perspective.

    尽管 Operations Manager 能够监视在 Azure 中托管的资源,但包含 Azure Monitor 有几个优点,因为它的优势克服了 Operations Manager 的限制,并且可以建立可靠的基础来支持最终的迁移。Although Operations Manager is capable of monitoring resources that are hosted in Azure, there are several advantages to including Azure Monitor, because its strengths overcome the limitations in Operations Manager and can establish a strong foundation to support eventual migration from it. 在这里,我们将回顾每个优点和弱点,并建议将 Azure Monitor 包括在混合监视策略中。Here we review each of those strengths and weaknesses, with our recommendation to include Azure Monitor in your hybrid monitoring strategy.

    使用 Operations Manager 本身的缺点Disadvantages of using Operations Manager by itself

    • 在 Operations Manager 中分析监视数据通常是使用从控制台访问的管理包提供的预定义视图、从 SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) 报表或最终用户创建的自定义视图来执行的。Analyzing monitoring data in Operations Manager is commonly performed by using predefined views that are provided by management packs accessed from the console, from SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) reports, or from custom views that end users have created. 不能通过即席数据分析。Ad hoc data analysis isn't possible out of the box. Operations Manager 报告不太灵活。Operations Manager reporting is inflexible. 提供监视数据的长期保留的数据仓库不会扩展或性能良好。The data warehouse that provides long-term retention of the monitoring data doesn't scale or perform well. 在编写 T-sql 语句、开发 Power BI 解决方案或使用第三方解决方案的专业知识中,需要支持 IT 组织中各种角色的要求。And expertise in writing T-SQL statements, developing a Power BI solution, or using third-party solutions is required to support the requirements for the various personas in the IT organization.

    • Operations Manager 中的警报不支持复杂的表达式或包含相关逻辑。Alerting in Operations Manager doesn't support complex expressions or include correlation logic. 为了帮助减少干扰,会对警报进行分组,以显示它们之间的关系并确定其原因。To help reduce noise, alerts are grouped to show the relationships between them and to identify their causes.

    将 Operations Manager 与 Azure Monitor 结合使用的优点Advantages of using Operations Manager with Azure Monitor

    • Azure Monitor 是解决 Operations Manager 的限制的方法。Azure Monitor is the way to work around the limitations of Operations Manager. 它通过收集重要的性能和日志数据来补充 Operations Manager 数据仓库数据库。It complements the Operations Manager data warehouse database by collecting important performance and log data. Azure Monitor 提供更好的分析、在查询大数据量) 时的性能 (和与 Operations Manager 数据仓库的保留期。Azure Monitor delivers better analytics, performance (when querying large data volume), and retention than the Operations Manager data warehouse.

      利用 Azure Monitor 日志查询语言,你可以创建更复杂、更复杂的查询。With the Azure Monitor Logs query language, you can create much more complex and sophisticated queries. 你可以在数秒内对数 tb 的数据运行查询。You can run queries across terabytes of data in seconds. 可以快速将数据转换为饼图、时间表和许多其他可视化效果。You can quickly transform your data into pie charts, time charts, and many other visualizations. 若要分析此数据,您将不再受限于基于 SQL Server Reporting Services、自定义 SQL 查询或其他解决方法的 Operations Manager 报表。To analyze this data, you're no longer constrained by working with Operations Manager reports that are based on SQL Server Reporting Services, custom SQL queries, or other workarounds.

    • 可以通过实现 Azure Monitor 警报管理解决方案来提供改进的警报体验。You can deliver an improved alerting experience by implementing the Azure Monitor Alert Management solution. Operations Manager 管理组中生成的警报可以转发到 Azure Monitor Log Analytics "工作区。Alerts that are generated in the Operations Manager management group can be forwarded to the Azure Monitor Log Analytics workspace. 你可以配置负责将警报从 Operations Manager 转发到 Azure Monitor 日志以便仅转发某些警报的订阅。You can configure the subscription that's responsible for forwarding alerts from Operations Manager to Azure Monitor Logs to forward only certain alerts. 例如,你可以通过单一的玻璃窗格,仅转发满足你的查询支持问题管理的条件的警报,并调查故障或问题的根本原因。For example, you can forward only alerts that meet your criteria for querying in support of problem management for trends, and investigation of the root cause of failures or problems, through a single pane of glass. 此外,你还可以将其他日志数据与 Application Insights 或其他源关联起来,以获得有助于改进用户体验、增加运行时间和缩短事件解决时间的见解。Additionally, you can correlate other log data from Application Insights or other sources, to gain insight that help improve user experience, increase uptime, and reduce time to resolve incidents.

    • 你可以使用 Azure Monitor 在 Azure 中的简单或多层体系结构中监视云本机基础结构和应用程序,并且可以使用 Operations Manager 来监视本地基础结构。You can monitor cloud-native infrastructure and applications, from a simple or multitier architecture in Azure using Azure Monitor, and you can use Operations Manager to monitor on-premises infrastructure. 此监视包括一个或多个 Vm、放置在可用性集或虚拟机规模集中的多个 Vm,或者部署到 Azure Kubernetes Service 的容器化应用程序 (AKS) 在 Windows Server 或 Linux 容器上运行。This monitoring includes one or more VMs, multiple VMs placed in an availability set or virtual machine scale set, or a containerized application deployed to Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) that's running on Windows Server or Linux containers.

      如果需要对 Azure Vm 上运行的 Microsoft 或第三方工作负荷进行全面监视,并且具有不能仅基于日志或性能数据评估的高级方案,请使用 System Center Operations Manager。If you need comprehensive monitoring of Microsoft or third-party workloads running on your Azure VMs, and you have advanced scenarios that cannot be evaluated based on log or performance data alone, use System Center Operations Manager. 其管理包提供了高级逻辑,其中包括服务和运行状况模型,用于确定工作负荷的操作运行状况。Its management packs delivers advanced logic, which includes a service and health model, to determine the operational health of the workload.

    • 通过使用用于 VM 的 Azure Monitor 的映射功能,你可以从 Azure Vm 和本地 Vm 之间的网络连接监视标准连接指标。By using the Map feature of Azure Monitor for VMs, you can monitor standard connectivity metrics from network connections between your Azure VMs and on-premises VMs. 这些指标包括每分钟的响应时间、请求数、流量吞吐量和链接数。These metrics include response time, requests per minute, traffic throughput, and links. 您可以确定失败的连接、故障排除、执行迁移验证、执行安全分析并验证服务的总体体系结构。You can identify failed connections, troubleshoot, perform migration validation, perform security analysis, and verify the overall architecture of the service. Map 可以自动发现 Windows 和 Linux 系统上的应用程序组件,并映射服务之间的通信。Map can automatically discover application components on Windows and Linux systems, and map the communication between services. 此自动化可帮助你识别你不知道的连接和依赖关系,计划和验证迁移到 Azure,并在事件解析过程中将推理降到最低。This automation helps you identify connections and dependencies you were unaware of, plan and validate migration to Azure, and minimize speculation during incident resolution.

    • 通过使用网络性能监视器,你可以监视以下各内容之间的网络连接:By using Network Performance Monitor, you can monitor the network connectivity between:

      • 企业网络和 Azure。Your corporate network and Azure.

      • 任务关键型多层应用程序和微服务。Mission-critical multitier applications and microservices.

      • (HTTP/HTTPS) 的用户位置和基于 web 的应用程序。User locations and web-based applications (HTTP/HTTPS).

        此策略可提供网络层的可见性,而无需 SNMP。This strategy delivers visibility of the network layer, without the need for SNMP. 它还可以在交互式拓扑图中显示源和目标终结点之间路由的逐跳拓扑。It can also present, in an interactive topology map, the hop-by-hop topology of routes between the source and destination endpoint. 它比尝试使用网络监视 Operations Manager 或环境中当前使用的其他网络监视工具来完成相同的结果是一个更好的选择。It's a better choice than attempting to accomplish the same result with network monitoring in Operations Manager or with other network monitoring tools currently used in your environment.

    使用 Azure Monitor 进行监视Monitor with Azure Monitor

    尽管迁移到云会带来许多挑战,但它还提供了机会。Although a migration to the cloud presents numerous challenges, it also provides opportunities. 它使你的组织能够从一个或多个本地企业监视工具中进行迁移,不仅可以降低资本支出和运营成本,还能从中受益,因为云监视平台(如 Azure Monitor)可以在云范围内提供。It enables your organization to migrate from one or more on-premises enterprise monitoring tools to not only potentially reduce capital expenditures and operating costs, but also to benefit from the advantages that a cloud monitoring platform such as Azure Monitor can deliver at cloud scale. 检查监视和警报要求、现有监视工具的配置以及转换到云的工作负荷。Examine your monitoring and alerting requirements, configuration of existing monitoring tools, and workloads transitioning to the cloud. 完成计划后,请配置 Azure Monitor。After your plan is finalized, configure Azure Monitor.

    • 从在 Azure、其他云提供商和企业网络之间托管组件的简单或多层体系结构中监视混合基础结构和应用程序。Monitor the hybrid infrastructure and applications, from a simple or multitier architecture where components are hosted between Azure, other cloud providers, and your corporate network. 这些组件可能包括一个或多个 Vm、位于可用性集或虚拟机规模集中的多个 Vm,或者部署到 Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) 在 Windows Server 或 Linux 容器上运行的容器化应用程序。The components might include one or more VMs, multiple VMs placed in an availability set or virtual machine scale set, or a containerized application that's deployed to Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) running on Windows Server or Linux containers.

    • 使用 Azure Arc 为你的环境中的服务器、虚拟机、Kubernetes 群集和数据库准备好管理,就像它们在 Azure 中运行一样。Use Azure Arc to prepare your servers, virtual machines, Kubernetes clusters, and databases across your environment for management as if they are running in Azure. Azure Arc 通过熟悉的 Azure 服务和管理功能提供一致的清单、管理、监管和安全性。Azure Arc delivers consistent inventory, management, governance, and security with familiar Azure services and management capabilities.

    • 为容器和 Application Insights 启用用于 VM 的 Azure Monitor、Azure Monitor,以检测和诊断基础结构与应用程序之间的问题。Enable Azure Monitor for VMs, Azure Monitor for containers, and Application Insights to detect and diagnose issues between infrastructure and applications. 若要对从多个组件或支持应用程序的依赖项收集的数据进行更全面的分析和相关性,需要使用 Azure Monitor 日志。For a more thorough analysis and correlation of data collected from the multiple components or dependencies supporting the application, you need to use Azure Monitor Logs.

    • 创建适用于一组核心应用程序和服务组件的智能警报,有助于减少使用复杂信号的动态阈值发出警报噪音,并根据机器学习算法使用警报聚合来帮助快速确定问题。Create intelligent alerts that apply to a core set of applications and service components, help reduce alert noise with dynamic thresholds for complex signals, and use alert aggregation based on machine learning algorithms to help identify the issue quickly.

    • 定义查询和仪表板的库,以支持 IT 组织中各种角色的要求。Define a library of queries and dashboards to support the requirements of the various personas in the IT organization.

    • 定义在混合和云资源之间启用监视的标准和方法、每个资源的监视基线、警报阈值等。Define standards and methods for enabling monitoring across the hybrid and cloud resources, a monitoring baseline for each resource, alert thresholds, and so on.

    • 配置 azure RBAC) (Azure 基于角色的访问控制,以便仅向用户和组授予从其管理的资源中监视数据所需的访问权限。Configure Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) so you grant users and groups only the access required to monitor data from the resources they manage.

    • 包括自动化和自助服务,使每个团队能够根据需要创建、启用和优化其监视和警报配置。Include automation and self-service to enable each team to create, enable, and tune their monitoring and alerting configurations as needed.

    私有云监视Private cloud monitoring

    您可以通过 System Center Operations Manager 全面监视 Azure Stack。You can achieve holistic monitoring of Azure Stack with System Center Operations Manager. 具体而言,你可以监视租户中运行的工作负荷、资源级别、虚拟机上的工作负荷,以及承载 Azure Stack (物理服务器和网络交换机) 的基础结构。Specifically, you can monitor the workloads that are running in the tenant, the resource level, on the virtual machines, and the infrastructure hosting Azure Stack (physical servers and network switches).

    你还可以通过包含在 Azure Stack 中的 基础结构监视功能 来实现全面监视。You can also achieve holistic monitoring with a combination of infrastructure monitoring capabilities that are included in Azure Stack. 这些功能可帮助您查看 Azure Stack 中 Azure Stack 区域和 Azure Monitor 服务 的运行状况和警报,这为大多数服务提供了基本的基础结构指标和日志。These capabilities help you view health and alerts for an Azure Stack region and the Azure Monitor service in Azure Stack, which provides base-level infrastructure metrics and logs for most services.

    如果你已经投入了 Operations Manager,请使用 Azure Stack 管理包来监视 Azure Stack 部署的可用性和运行状况状态,包括区域、资源提供程序、更新、更新运行、缩放单元、单元节点、基础结构角色以及其实例 (包含硬件资源) 的逻辑实体。If you've already invested in Operations Manager, use the Azure Stack management pack to monitor the availability and health state of Azure Stack deployments, including regions, resource providers, updates, update runs, scale units, unit nodes, infrastructure roles, and their instances (logical entities comprised of the hardware resources). 此管理包使用运行状况和更新资源提供程序 REST Api 与 Azure Stack 通信。This management pack uses the health and update resource provider REST APIs to communicate with Azure Stack. 若要监视物理服务器和存储设备,请使用 OEM 供应商的管理包 (例如,通过联想、HPE 或 Dell) 提供。To monitor physical servers and storage devices, use the OEM vendors' management pack (for example, provided by Lenovo, HPE, or Dell). Operations Manager 可以通过使用 SNMP 以本机方式监视网络交换机以收集基本统计信息。Operations Manager can natively monitor the network switches to collect basic statistics by using SNMP. 可以通过以下两个基本步骤,通过 Azure 管理包监视租户工作负荷。Monitoring the tenant workloads is possible with the Azure management pack by following two basic steps. 配置要监视的订阅,然后添加该订阅的监视器。Configure the subscription that you want to monitor, and then add the monitors for that subscription.

    后续步骤Next steps