构建注重成本的组织Build a cost-conscious organization
如动机中 所述：我们为什么要迁移到云？我们有许多合理的理由让公司采用云。As outlined in Motivations: why are we moving to the cloud?, there are many sound reasons for a company to adopt the cloud. 当成本降低是主要的驱动程序时，必须创建具有成本的组织。When cost reduction is a primary driver, it's important to create a cost-conscious organization.
确保成本觉悟不是一次性活动。Ensuring cost consciousness is not a one-time activity. 与其他云采用主题一样，它是迭代的。Like other cloud-adoption topics, it's iterative. 下图概述了此过程，重点介绍三个相互依赖的活动： 可见性、 责任 和 优化。The following diagram outlines this process to focus on three interdependent activities: visibility, accountability, and optimization. 这些过程在宏和微级别上运行，我们将在本文中对此进行详细介绍。These processes play out at macro and micro levels, which we describe in detail in this article.
图1：注重成本的组织的大纲。 Figure 1: Outline of the cost-conscious organization.
一般的成本意识过程General cost-conscious processes
可见性： 为了使组织意识到成本，需要了解这些成本。Visibility: For an organization to be conscious of costs, it needs visibility into those costs. 注重成本的组织中的可见性要求为采用云的团队、管理预算的财务团队和负责成本的管理团队提供一致的报告。Visibility in a cost-conscious organization requires consistent reporting for the teams adopting the cloud, finance teams who manage budgets, and management teams who are responsible for the costs. 此可见性是通过建立以下内容来实现的：This visibility is accomplished by establishing:
- 正确的报表范围。The right reporting scope.
- 适当的资源组织 (管理组、资源组、订阅) 。Proper resource organization (management groups, resource groups, subscriptions).
- 清除标记策略。Clear tagging strategies.
- Azure RBAC) (适当的访问控制。Proper access controls (Azure RBAC).
责任： 责任与可见性一样重要。Accountability: Accountability is as important as visibility. 责任从清晰的预算开始，开始采用。Accountability starts with clear budgets for adoption efforts. 预算应合理建立、清楚地传达，并根据真实的期望。Budgets should be well established, clearly communicated, and based on realistic expectations. 责任要求使用一个迭代过程和增长思维方式来促进适当的责任级别。Accountability requires an iterative process and a growth mindset to drive the right level of accountability.
优化： 优化是创建成本降低的操作。Optimization: Optimization is the action that creates cost reductions. 优化期间，会修改资源分配以降低支持各种工作负荷的成本。During optimization, resource allocations are modified to reduce the cost of supporting various workloads. 此过程需要迭代和试验。This process requires iteration and experimentation. 每个成本降低都降低了性能。Each reduction in cost reduces performance. 在成本控制和最终用户绩效期望值之间找出适当的平衡，以要求多个参与方输入。Finding the right balance between cost control and end-user performance expectations demands input from multiple parties.
以下各节介绍了各种团队在开发一个注重成本的组织中所扮演的角色。The following sections describe the roles that various teams play in developing a cost-conscious organization.
云策略团队Cloud strategy team
构建成本觉悟到云采用的工作始于领导级别。Building cost consciousness into cloud-adoption efforts starts at the leadership level. 若要长期有效， 云策略团队 应包括财务团队的成员。To be effective in the long term, the cloud strategy team should include a member of the finance team. 如果你的财务结构持有负责解决方案成本的业务经理，他们也应该邀请他们加入团队。If your financial structure holds business managers accountable for solution costs, they should be invited to join the team as well. 除了通常分配给云策略团队的核心活动外，云策略团队的所有成员还应负责：In addition to the core activities that are typically assigned to the cloud strategy team, all members of the cloud strategy team should also be responsible for:
可见性： 云策略团队和 云治理团队 需要了解云采用情况的实际成本。Visibility: The cloud strategy team and cloud governance team need to know the actual costs of the cloud-adoption efforts. 考虑到此团队的高级视图，他们应该有权访问多个成本范围来分析支出决定。Given the executive-level view of this team, they should have access to multiple cost scopes to analyze spending decisions. 通常，高级管理人员需要了解所有云 "支出" 的总成本。Typically, an executive needs visibility into the total costs across all cloud "spend." 但作为云策略团队的活动成员，他们还应能够查看每个业务单位的成本或按计费单位来验证 showback、费用分摊或其他 云会计模型。But as active members of the cloud strategy team, they should also be able to view costs per business unit or per billing unit to validate showback, chargeback, or other cloud accounting models.
责任： 应基于预期采用活动在云策略、 云监管和 云采用 团队之间建立预算。Accountability: Budgets should be established between the cloud strategy, cloud governance, and cloud adoption teams based on expected adoption activities. 当与预算发生偏差时，云策略团队和云治理团队必须合作，快速确定修正偏差的最佳操作过程。When deviations from budget occur, the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team must partner to quickly determine the best course of action to remediate the deviations.
优化： 在优化工作期间，云策略团队可以代表特定工作负荷的投资和回报价值。Optimization: During optimization efforts, the cloud strategy team can represent the investment and return value of specific workloads. 如果工作负荷对业务有战略价值或财务影响，则应密切监视成本优化工作。If a workload has strategic value or financial impact on the business, cost-optimization efforts should be monitored closely. 如果组织不会对组织造成任何战略影响，并且不会因工作负荷性能降低而产生固有成本，则云策略团队可能会批准过度优化。If there's no strategic impact on the organization and no inherent cost for poor performance of a workload, the cloud strategy team may approve over-optimization. 若要推动这些决策，团队必须能够查看每个项目范围内的成本。To drive these decisions, the team must be able to view costs on a per-project scope.
云采用团队Cloud adoption team
云采用团队是所有采用活动的中心。The cloud adoption team is at the center of all adoption activities. 因此，它们是针对超支的第一道防线。So, they're the first line of defense against overspending. 此团队在觉悟的所有三个阶段都有一个活动的角色。This team has an active role in all three phases of cost-consciousness.
- 认知： 云采用团队必须了解工作量的成本节约目标，这一点很重要。Awareness: It's important for the cloud adoption team to have visibility into the cost-saving goals of the effort. 简单地说，云采用的工作量有助于降低成本，这是一个失败的食谱。Simply stating that the cloud-adoption effort will help reduce costs is a recipe for failure. 具体 的可见性非常重要。Specific visibility is important. 例如，如果目标是将数据中心 TCO 按3% 或年度运营费用降低7%，请及早、清楚地公开这些目标。For example, if the goal is to reduce datacenter TCO by 3 percent or annual operating expenses by 7 percent, disclose those targets early and clearly.
- 遥测： 此团队需要了解其决定的影响。Telemetry: This team needs visibility into the impact of their decisions. 在迁移或创新活动期间，他们的决策对成本和性能有直接的影响。During migration or innovation activities, their decisions have a direct effect on costs and performance. 团队需要对这两个争用因素进行平衡。The team needs to balance these two competing factors. 作用域为团队活动项目的性能监视和成本监视对于提供必要的可见性非常重要。Performance monitoring and cost monitoring that's scoped to the team's active projects are important to provide the necessary visibility.
责任： 云采用团队需要知道与采用工作相关的任何预设预算。Accountability: The cloud adoption team needs to be aware of any preset budgets that are associated with their adoption efforts. 当实际成本与预算不一致时，有机会创建责任。When real costs don't align with the budget, there's an opportunity to create accountability. 责任不等同于将采用团队处罚超出预算，因为有必要的性能决策可能导致预算过量。Accountability doesn't equate to penalizing the adoption team for exceeding budget, because budget excess can result from necessary performance decisions. 相反，责任是指向团队培训目标以及他们的决策如何影响这些目标。Instead, accountability means educating the team about the goals and how their decisions affect those goals. 此外，责任还包括提供一个对话框，在该对话框中，团队可以与导致超支的决策通信。Additionally, accountability includes providing a dialog in which the team can communicate about decisions that led to overspending. 如果这些决策与项目的目标不一致，则这一努力与云策略团队合作，以做出更好的决策。If those decisions are misaligned with the goals of the project, this effort provides a good opportunity to partner with the cloud strategy team to make better decisions.
优化： 这一努力是一种平衡操作，因为资源的优化可以降低其支持的工作负荷的性能。Optimization: This effort is a balancing act, as optimization of resources can reduce the performance of the workloads that they support. 由于工作负荷不能充分利用预算资源，因此有时无法为工作负荷实现预计或预算的节省。Sometimes anticipated or budgeted savings can't be realized for a workload because the workload doesn't perform adequately with the budgeted resources. 在这些情况下，云采用团队必须作出明智的决策，并向云策略团队和云治理团队报告更改，以便可以纠正预算或优化决策。In those cases, the cloud adoption team has to make wise decisions and report changes to the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team so that budgets or optimization decisions can be corrected.
云治理团队Cloud governance team
通常， 云治理团队 负责跨整个云采用的成本管理。Generally, the cloud governance team is responsible for cost management across the entire cloud-adoption effort. 如云采用框架控制方法的 成本管理学科 主题中所述，成本管理是云监管的五个层面中的第一项。As outlined in the Cost Management discipline topic of the Cloud Adoption Framework's Govern methodology, cost management is the first of the Five Disciplines of Cloud Governance. 这些文章概述了云管理团队的一系列更深入的职责。Those articles outline a-series of deeper responsibilities for the cloud governance team.
这项工作重点介绍了与注重成本的组织的开发相关的下列活动：This effort focuses on the following activities that are related to the development of a cost-conscious organization:
可见性： 云治理团队充当云策略团队的对等，以规划云采用预算。Visibility: The cloud governance team works as a peer of the cloud strategy team to plan cloud-adoption budgets. 这两个团队还可以一起定期查看实际支出。These two teams also work together to regularly review actual expenses. 云调控团队负责确保一致的、可靠的成本报表和性能遥测。The cloud governance team is responsible for ensuring consistent, reliable cost reporting and performance telemetry.
责任： 当预算发生偏差时，云策略团队和云治理团队必须合作，快速确定修正偏差的最佳操作过程。Accountability: When budget deviations occur, the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team must partner to quickly determine the best course of action to remediate the deviations. 通常，云治理团队将采取这些决定。Generally, the cloud governance team will act on those decisions. 有时，此操作可能会对受影响的 云采用团队进行简单的重新训练。Sometimes the action may be simple retraining for the affected cloud adoption team. 云调控团队还可以帮助优化已部署的资产、更改折扣选项，甚至还可以实现自动成本控制选项，如阻止部署计划外资产。The cloud governance team can also help optimize deployed assets, change discounting options, or even implement automated cost-control options like blocking deployment of unplanned assets.
优化： 将资产迁移到云中或在云中创建后，可以使用监视工具来评估这些资产的性能和利用率。Optimization: After assets are migrated to or created in the cloud, you can employ monitoring tools to assess performance and utilization of those assets. 适当的监视和性能数据可以确定应该优化的资产。Proper monitoring and performance data can identify assets that should be optimized. 云调控团队负责确保一致地部署监视和成本报告工具。The cloud governance team is responsible for ensuring that the monitoring and cost-reporting tools are consistently deployed. 它们还可以帮助采用团队确定根据性能和成本遥测进行优化的机会。They can also help the adoption teams identify opportunities to optimize based on performance and cost telemetry.
云卓越中心Cloud center of excellence
尽管通常不负责成本管理，但 CCoE 可能会对注重成本的组织产生重大影响。While not typically responsible for cost management, the CCoE can have a significant impact on cost-conscious organizations. 许多基础 IT 决定会影响规模的成本。Many foundational IT decisions affect costs at scale. 当 CCoE 完成其工作时，可减少多个云采用的成本。When the CCoE does their part, costs can be reduced for multiple cloud-adoption efforts.
可见性： 承载核心 IT 资产的任何管理组或资源组都应该对 CCoE 团队可见。Visibility: Any management group or resource group that houses core IT assets should be visible to the CCoE team. 团队可以使用此数据来进行优化。The team can use this data to farm opportunities to optimize.
责任： 尽管通常不会对成本产生任何责任，但 CCoE 可以负责创建可重复执行的解决方案，从而最大程度地降低成本并提高性能。Accountability: While not typically accountable for cost, the CCoE can hold itself accountable for creating repeatable solutions that minimize cost and maximize performance.
优化： 由于 CCoE 对多个部署的可见性，团队非常适合建议优化提示，并可帮助采纳团队更好地优化资产。Optimization: Given the CCoE's visibility to multiple deployments, the team is in an ideal position to suggest optimization tips and to help adoption teams better tune assets.
在每个级别的业务中进行这些责任有助于推动成本意识的组织。Practicing these responsibilities at each level of the business helps drive a cost-conscious organization. 若要开始操作本指南，请查看 组织就绪性简介 ，以帮助确定正确的团队结构。To begin acting on this guidance, review the organizational readiness introduction to help identify the right team structures.