Windows Server 上的 HYPER-V 的系统要求System requirements for Hyper-V on Windows Server

适用于:Windows Server 2016 中,Microsoft 的 HYPER-V Server 2016 中,Windows Server 2019,Microsoft HYPER-V Server 2019Applies To: Windows Server 2016, Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2019, Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2019

HYPER-V 都有特定的硬件要求,并且某些 HYPER-V 功能有其他要求。Hyper-V has specific hardware requirements, and some Hyper-V features have additional requirements. 使用本文中详细信息来决定哪些系统必须满足,因此,可以使用 HYPER-V 到计划的方式的要求。Use the details in this article to decide what requirements your system must meet so you can use Hyper-V the way you plan to. 然后,查看Windows Server 目录Then, review the Windows Server catalog. 请记住有关 HYPER-V 要求超过 Windows Server 2016 的常规最低要求,因为虚拟化环境需要更多计算资源。Keep in mind that requirements for Hyper-V exceed the general minimum requirements for Windows Server 2016 because a virtualization environment requires more computing resources.

如果你已在使用 HYPER-V,则可能使用你现有的硬件。If you're already using Hyper-V, it's likely that you can use your existing hardware. 常规硬件要求未从 Windows Server 2012 R2 显著更改。The general hardware requirements haven't changed significantly from Windows Server 2012 R2 . 但是,你将需要使用受防护的虚拟机或离散设备分配到较新的硬件。But, you will need newer hardware to use shielded virtual machines or discrete device assignment. 这些功能依赖于特定硬件支持,如下所述。Those features rely on specific hardware support, as described below. 除此之外,在硬件中的主要区别是该第二级地址转换 (SLAT) 现在要求而不是建议。Other than that, the main difference in hardware is that second-level address translation (SLAT) is now required instead of recommended.

有关支持的最大配置 HYPER-V,如正在运行的虚拟机的数量的详细信息请参阅规划 Windows Server 2016 中的 HYPER-V 可伸缩性For details about maximum supported configurations for Hyper-V, such as the number of running virtual machines, see Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016. 中介绍了可以在你的虚拟机中运行的操作系统的列表支持 Windows 来宾操作系统为 Windows Server 上的 HYPER-VThe list of operating systems you can run in your virtual machines is covered in Supported Windows guest operating systems for Hyper-V on Windows Server.

常规要求General requirements

无论你想要使用的 HYPER-V 功能,你将需要:Regardless of the Hyper-V features you want to use, you'll need:

  • 具有二级地址转换 (SLAT) 的 64 位处理器。A 64-bit processor with second-level address translation (SLAT). 若要安装的 HYPER-V 虚拟化组件,如 Windows 虚拟机监控程序,处理器必须具有 SLAT。To install the Hyper-V virtualization components such as Windows hypervisor, the processor must have SLAT. 但是,它具有不需要安装用于 Windows PowerShell 的 HYPER-V 虚拟机连接 (VMConnect)、 HYPER-V 管理器等的 HYPER-V cmdlet 的管理工具。However, it's not required to install Hyper-V management tools like Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect), Hyper-V Manager, and the Hyper-V cmdlets for Windows PowerShell. 请参阅下面的"如何查看 HYPER-V 要求"中,要找出您的处理器具有 SLAT。See "How to check for Hyper-V requirements," below, to find out if your processor has SLAT.

  • 虚拟机监视器模式扩展VM Monitor Mode extensions

  • 足够的内存-规划至少4 GB 的 RAM。Enough memory - plan for at least 4 GB of RAM. 更多的内存是更好。More memory is better. 主机和所有你想要在同一时间运行的虚拟机,你将需要足够的内存。You'll need enough memory for the host and all virtual machines that you want to run at the same time.

  • 在 BIOS 或 UEFI 中启用虚拟化支持:Virtualization support turned on in the BIOS or UEFI:

    • 硬件协助的虚拟化。Hardware-assisted virtualization. 这是包含处理器的虚拟化选项-特别是具有 Intel 虚拟化技术 (Intel VT) 或 AMD 虚拟化 (AMD-V) 技术的处理器中提供。This is available in processors that include a virtualization option - specifically processors with Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) or AMD Virtualization (AMD-V) technology.

    • 硬件强制实施的数据执行保护 (DEP) 必须可用且已启用。Hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP) must be available and enabled. 对于 Intel 系统,这是 XD 位 (执行禁用位)。For Intel systems, this is the XD bit (execute disable bit). 对于 AMD 系统,这是 NX 位 (无执行位)。For AMD systems, this is the NX bit (no execute bit).

如何检查有关 HYPER-V 要求How to check for Hyper-V requirements

打开 Windows PowerShell 或命令提示符并键入:Open Windows PowerShell or a command prompt and type:

Systeminfo.exe

滚动到 HYPER-V 要求部分来查看报告。Scroll to the Hyper-V Requirements section to review the report.

特定功能的要求Requirements for specific features

以下是离散设备分配和受防护的虚拟机的要求。Here are the requirements for discrete device assignment and shielded virtual machines. 有关这些功能的说明,请参阅什么是 Windows Server 上的 HYPER-V 中的新增功能For descriptions of these features, see What's new in Hyper-V on Windows Server.

离散设备分配Discrete device assignment

主机要求就类似于在 HYPER-V 中的 SR-IOV 功能的现有要求。Host requirements are similar to the existing requirements for the SR-IOV feature in Hyper-V.

  • 处理器必须具有任一 Intel 扩展页表 (EPT) 或 AMD 的嵌套页表 (NPT)。The processor must have either Intel's Extended Page Table (EPT) or AMD's Nested Page Table (NPT).

  • 芯片组必须具有:The chipset must have:

    • 中断重新映射-Intel VT d 的中断重新映射功能 (VT d2) 或 AMD I/O 内存管理单元 (MMU I/O) 的任何版本。Interrupt remapping - Intel's VT-d with the Interrupt Remapping capability (VT-d2) or any version of AMD I/O Memory Management Unit (I/O MMU).

    • DMA 重新映射-与排队失效或任何 AMD I/O MMU Intel VT d。DMA remapping - Intel's VT-d with Queued Invalidations or any AMD I/O MMU.

    • PCI Express 上的访问控制服务 (ACS) 的根的端口。Access control services (ACS) on PCI Express root ports.

  • 固件表必须公开到 Windows 虚拟机监控程序 I/O MMU。The firmware tables must expose the I/O MMU to the Windows hypervisor. 请注意可能在 BIOS 或 UEFI 中禁用此功能。Note that this feature might be turned off in the UEFI or BIOS. 有关说明,请参阅硬件文档或者联系硬件制造商。For instructions, see the hardware documentation or contact your hardware manufacturer.

设备需要 GPU 或非易失性内存 express (NVMe)。Devices need GPU or non-volatile memory express (NVMe). 对于 GPU,某些设备仅支持离散设备分配。For GPU, only certain devices support discrete device assignment. 若要验证,请参阅硬件文档或者联系硬件制造商。To verify, see the hardware documentation or contact your hardware manufacturer. 有关此功能的详细信息,包括如何使用它以及注意事项,请参阅文章"离散设备分配-说明和背景"虚拟化博客中。For details about this feature, including how to use it and considerations, see the post "Discrete Device Assignment -- Description and background" in the Virtualization blog.

受防护的虚拟机Shielded virtual machines

这些虚拟机依赖于基于虚拟化的安全性,并可从 Windows Server 2016 开始。These virtual machines rely on virtualization-based security and are available starting with Windows Server 2016.

主机要求是:Host requirements are:

  • UEFI 2.3.1c 的支持安全,以启动UEFI 2.3.1c - supports secure, measured boot

    以下两个一般情况下,都是可选的基于虚拟化的安全性,但如果您希望使用这些功能提供了保护所需的主机:The following two are optional for virtualization-based security in general, but required for the host if you want the protection these features provide:

  • TPM 2.0 版的可保护平台安全资产TPM v2.0 - protects platform security assets

  • IOMMU (Intel VT-D)-因此,虚拟机监控程序可以提供直接内存访问 (DMA) 保护IOMMU (Intel VT-D) - so the hypervisor can provide direct memory access (DMA) protection

虚拟机要求是:Virtual machine requirements are:

  • 第 2 代Generation 2
  • Windows Server 2012 或更高版本作为来宾操作系统Windows Server 2012 or newer as the guest operating system