組織您的待處理專案、將子工作專案對應至父代Organize your backlog, map child work items to parents

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功能或 epics 新增至待辦專案組合之後,您可以藉由對應待處理專案(backlog)來組織待處理專案(backlog)。After you've added features or epics to your portfolio backlog, you can organize your backlog by mapping backlog items. 您可以快速地將專案新增至階層,並將其分組。You can quickly add and group items into a hierarchy. 您也可以在階層中向上或向下切入、重新排序和重做專案,以及篩選階層式查看。You can also drill up or down within the hierarchy, reorder and reparent items, and filter hierarchical views.

在本文中,您將了解如何:In this article you'll learn how to:

  • 開啟您的產品待處理專案或待辦專案組合Open your product backlog or portfolio backlog
  • 查看樹狀結構階層View the tree hierarchy
  • 使用對應窗格群組待處理專案Group backlog items using the Mapping pane
  • 使用拖放或 變更父系 選項重為專案重為專案Reparent items using drag-and-drop or the Change parent option
  • 開啟您的產品待處理專案或待辦專案組合Open your product backlog or portfolio backlog
  • 查看樹狀結構階層View the tree hierarchy
  • 使用對應窗格群組待處理專案Group backlog items using the Mapping pane
  • 使用拖放來重設定專案的父項Reparent items using drag-and-drop

注意

TFS 2015 和更新版本中支援的長篇工作專案組合待辦專案。The Epic portfolio backlog is supported in TFS 2015 and later versions.

注意

若要瞭解待處理專案、面板、工作面板和傳遞計畫之間的差異,請參閱待處理專案 、面板和方案To understand the differences between backlogs, boards, taskboards, and Delivery plans, see Backlogs, boards, and plans. 如果您的待處理專案或面板未顯示您預期或想要的工作專案,請參閱 設定您的待處理專案和麵板。If your backlog or board doesn't show the work items that you expect or want, see Set up your backlogs and boards.

注意

若要瞭解待處理專案、面板和工作面板之間的差異,請參閱待處理專案 (backlog)和面板。To understand the differences between backlogs, boards, and taskboards, see Backlogs, and boards. 如果您的待處理專案或面板未顯示您預期或想要的工作專案,請參閱 設定您的待處理專案和麵板。If your backlog or board doesn't show the work items that you expect or want, see Set up your backlogs and boards.

必要條件Prerequisites

當您建立專案或加入小組時,會自動建立待處理專案(backlog)。Backlogs are automatically created when you create a project or add a team. 每個小組都可以存取自己的產品、組合和短期衝刺待處理專案,如「 關於小組和敏捷式工具」中所述。Each team has access to their own product, portfolio, and sprint backlogs as described in About teams and Agile tools.

  • 您必須連接到專案。You must connect to a project. 如果您還沒有專案,請 建立一個專案。If you don't have a project yet, create one.
  • 您必須將專案加入至專案,做為 參與者project Administrators 安全性群組的成員。You must be added to a project as a member of the Contributors or Project Administrators security group. 若要加入,請 將使用者加入至專案或小組To get added, Add users to a project or team.
  • 若要加入或修改工作專案,您必須被授與專案關係 存取權或更高的許可權。To add or modify work items, you must be granted Stakeholder access or higher. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 關於存取層級For details, see About access levels.
  • 若要查看或修改工作專案,您必須 在此節點中使用 view 工作專案 ,並將 此節點許可權中的 [工作專案 ] 設定為 [ 允許]。To view or modify work items, you must have your View work items in this node and Edit work items in this node permissions set to Allow. 依預設, Contributors 群組具有此許可權集合。By default, the Contributors group has this permission set. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 設定工作追蹤的許可權和存取權To learn more, see Set permissions and access for work tracking.

注意

具有公用專案之專案關係 存取權的使用者,就像是具有 基本 存取權的使用者,具有待辦專案和麵板功能的完整存取權。Users with Stakeholder access for a public project have full access to backlog and board features just like users with Basic access. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 關於存取層級For details, see About access levels.

  • 您必須連接到專案。You must connect to a project. 如果您還沒有專案,請 建立一個專案。If you don't have a project yet, create one.
  • 您必須將專案加入至專案,做為 參與者project Administrators 安全性群組的成員。You must be added to a project as a member of the Contributors or Project Administrators security group. 若要加入,請 將使用者加入至專案或小組To get added, Add users to a project or team.
  • 若要加入或修改工作專案,您必須被授與專案關係 存取權或更高的許可權。To add or modify work items, you must be granted Stakeholder access or higher. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 關於存取層級For details, see About access levels.
  • 若要查看或修改工作專案,您必須 在此節點中使用 view 工作專案 ,並將 此節點許可權中的 [工作專案 ] 設定為 [ 允許]。To view or modify work items, you must have your View work items in this node and Edit work items in this node permissions set to Allow. 依預設, Contributors 群組具有此許可權集合。By default, the Contributors group has this permission set. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 設定工作追蹤的許可權和存取權To learn more, see Set permissions and access for work tracking.

私用專案的專案關係 存取使用者無法使用拖放來對應或重設工作專案的父項,或變更其短期衝刺。Stakeholder access users for a private project can't use drag and drop to map or reparent work items or change their sprint.

專案關係 存取使用者無法使用拖放來對應或重設工作專案的父項,或變更其短期衝刺。Stakeholder access users can't use drag and drop to map or reparent work items or change their sprint.

從入口網站開啟您的待處理專案Open your backlog from the web portal

從您的網頁瀏覽器開啟您的產品待處理專案(backlog)。From your web browser, open your product backlog.

  1. (1) 請確認您已選取正確的專案, (2) 選擇 [面板] > 待處理專案],然後 (3) 從 [team 選取器] 功能表中選取正確的小組。(1) Check that you have selected the right project, (2) choose Boards>Backlogs, and then (3) select the correct team from the team selector menu.

    開啟小組的工作、待處理專案(Backlog)Open Work, Backlogs, for a team

    若要選取其他待處理專案,請開啟選取器,然後選擇不同的小組,或選取 [ View 待 處理專案目錄] 選項。To select another backlog, open the selector and then choose a different team or select the View Backlog directory option. 或者,在 [搜尋] 方塊中輸入關鍵字,以篩選項目的小組待處理專案清單。Or, enter a keyword in the search box to filter the list of team backlogs for the project.

    選擇另一個小組Choose another team

    提示

    選擇 星號圖示,即可將小組待處理專案加入最愛。 加入最愛構件 ( 加入最愛圖示) 出現在 [team 選取器] 清單上方。

  2. 請確認您已選取 Agile) 的 案例 (、基本) 的 問題 (、Scrum (的 待處理專案) ,或 CMMI (做為待辦專案層級的 需求) 。Check that you have selected Stories (for Agile), Issues (for Basic), Backlog items (for Scrum), or Requirements (for CMMI) as the backlog level.

    選擇產品待處理專案層級、待處理專案、案例或需求Choose product backlog level, Backlog items, Stories, or Requirements

  3. (選擇性) 選擇應顯示的資料行和順序,請選擇 [ 動作] 圖示,然後選取 [資料 行選項]。 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 變更資料行選項To learn more, see Change column options.

    開啟資料行選項Open Column Options

  1. (1) 請確認您已選取正確的專案, (2) 選擇 [面板] > 待處理專案],然後 (3) 從 [team 選取器] 功能表中選取正確的小組。(1) Check that you have selected the right project, (2) choose Boards>Backlogs, and then (3) select the correct team from the team selector menu.

    開啟小組的工作、待處理專案(Backlog)

    若要選擇另一個小組,請開啟選取器並選取不同的小組,或選擇 [ 流覽所有 待處理專案] 選項。 或者,您可以在 [搜尋] 方塊中輸入關鍵字,以篩選項目的小組待處理專案清單。Or, you can enter a keyword in the search box to filter the list of team backlogs for the project.

    選擇另一個小組Choose another team

    提示

    選擇 星號圖示,即可將小組待處理專案加入最愛。 加入最愛構件 ( 加入最愛圖示) 出現在 [team 選取器] 清單上方。

  2. 檢查您是否已針對 Scrum) 選取 (的 待處理專案 、敏捷式) 的 案例 (,或 CMMI (做為待辦專案層級的 需求) 。Check that you have selected Backlog items (for Scrum), Stories (for Agile), or Requirements (for CMMI) as the backlog level.

    選擇產品待處理專案層級、待處理專案、案例或需求Choose product backlog level, Backlog items, Stories, or Requirements

  3. (選擇性) 選擇應顯示的資料行和順序,請選擇 [ 動作] 圖示,然後選取 [資料 行選項]。 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 變更資料行選項To learn more, see Change column options.

    開啟資料行選項Open Column Options

在您的網頁瀏覽器中,開啟您小組的產品待處理專案(backlog)。From your web browser, open your team's product backlog. (1) 從 [專案]/[小組] 選取器中選取小組、選擇 [ (2]) [工作]、[ (3) 待 處理專案],然後 (4) [產品待 處理 專案] ((Scrum) 的 待處理專案 (、AGILE) 的 案例 (或 CMMI) 的 需求(1) Select the team from the project/team selector, choose (2) Work, (3) Backlogs, and then (4) the product backlog, which is Backlog items (for Scrum), Stories (for Agile), or Requirements (for CMMI).

開啟 [面板>待處理專案] 頁面Open the Boards>Backlogs page

若要選擇另一個小組,請開啟專案/小組選取器,並選取不同的小組,或選擇 [ 流覽] 選項。To choose another team, open the project/team selector and select a different team or choose the Browse option.

選擇另一個小組Choose another team

在您的網頁瀏覽器中,開啟您小組的產品待處理專案(backlog)。From your web browser, open your team's product backlog. 選取 [面板] > 待處理專案]。Select Boards>Backlogs.

面板>待處理專案,TFS 2015,2013 web 入口網站

注意

您在入口網站中看到的影像可能會與您在本文中看到的映射不同。The images you see from your web portal may differ from the images you see in this article. 這些差異是因為對您的 web 應用程式所做的更新、您或您的系統管理員已啟用的選項,以及建立您的 project — AgileBasicScrumCMMI時所選擇的流程。These differences result from updates made to your web app, options that you or your admin have enabled, and which process was chosen when creating your project—Agile, Basic, Scrum, or CMMI. Azure DevOps Server 2019 Update 1和更新版本有提供基本的流程。The Basic process is available with Azure DevOps Server 2019 Update 1 and later versions.

顯示父代並展開樹狀結構階層Show parents and expand the tree hierarchy

  1. 若要查看父代或樹狀結構階層,請選擇 [ 視圖選項 ] 圖示,並將父系滑至 [開啟]。

    面板>待處理專案>開啟 [視圖] 選項,然後選擇 [父代]Boards>Backlogs>Open view options and choose Parents ON

    階層式視圖隨即顯示。The hierarchical view displays. 從這個觀點來看,您可以藉由拖放方式來重設專案的父代,並將子專案移至新的父系。From this view, you can reparent items by drag and drop, moving a child item to a new parent.

    階層式視圖Hierarchical view

  2. 使用展開Use the expand 展開圖示 和折迭and collapse 折迭圖示 用來展開或折迭階層層級的圖示。icons to expand or collapse one level of the hierarchy.

    階層式 view、expand 和 collapse 圖示Hierarchical view, expand, and collapse icons

在 [產品待處理專案] 頁面中,設定當您要在階層中向上或向下切入時,所要 顯示父代From the product backlog page, set Parents to Show when you want to drill up or down within the hierarchy. 您也可以拖放專案,以重設此視圖的專案的父項。You can also drag and drop items to reparent items from this view.

待處理專案的階層式查看

使用展開Use the expand 展開圖示 和折迭and collapse 折迭圖示 用來展開或折迭階層層級的圖示。icons to expand or collapse one level of the hierarchy.

折迭的階層式視圖

將專案對應至功能或故事下的群組Map items to group them under a feature or epic

如果您已經建立待處理專案,而且現在想要將它整理,您可以將子專案對應至父系,以最輕鬆的方式進行。If you've already created your backlog, and now you want to organize it, you can do that most easily by mapping child items to parents.

  1. 選擇 [ 視圖選項] 圖示,然後選取 [ 對應]。

    選擇 [視圖選項] 圖示,然後選取 [對應]。Choose the view options icon and select Mapping.

    [對應] 窗格隨即顯示。The Mapping pane displays immediately.

  2. 尋找可能出現在父項待處理專案(backlog)集合結尾的無上層待處理專案(backlog)。Find Unparented backlog items that may appear at the end of the parented set of backlog items. 您必須在 [視圖] 選項中開啟父代。Parents must be turned on in view options.

    將無上層專案對應至功能Map unparented items to a feature

  3. 若要將功能對應至 epics,請從待處理專案選取器選取 [ 功能 待處理專案]。To map features to epics, select the Features backlog from the backlog selector. [Epics 對應] 窗格會自動顯示。The Epics Mapping pane will automatically display.

若要對應功能下的待處理專案,您必須先從待處理專案 (待處理專案、案例或需求) 開啟對應。To map a backlog item under a feature, you first turn on mapping from your backlog (Backlog items, Stories, or Requirements). 接下來,藉由開啟要顯示的父控制項來尋找無上層待處理專案群組。Next, find the Unparented backlog items group by turning the Parents control to Show. 無上層待處理專案(backlog)會出現在一組父項待處理專案(backlog)的結尾。Unparented backlog items will appear at the end of the parented set of backlog items.

將目前無上層的專案拖曳至它們所屬的功能。Drag items that are currently unparented to the feature under which they belong. 此外,您也可以將待處理專案(backlog)拖曳至不同的功能,以變更其父系。Also, you can drag a backlog item to a different feature to change its parent. 這個對應會建立從功能到使用者案例的父子式連結,在This mapping creates parent-child links from feature to user stories, which is captured in the 連結索引標籤圖示 (連結]) 索引標籤。(links) tab.

將待處理專案對應至待辦專案組合工作專案

您可以用多重選取 [待處理專案] 和 [短期衝刺待處理專案] 的方式,就像 從查詢結果中選取專案一樣。You can multi-select backlog and sprint backlog items in the same way as you multi-select items from query results.

待處理專案和短期衝刺待處理專案上的多重選取工作專案需要 TFS 2015.1 或更新版本。Multi-select of work items on the backlog and sprint backlogs requires TFS 2015.1 or later versions. 這項功能的運作方式與在 查詢結果中多重選取的運作方式相同。This feature works in the same way as multi-select works within query results.

這是將功能對應至 epics 的相同程式。It's the same process to map features to epics. 從 [功能] 待辦專案中,將 [功能] 拖曳至 [對應] 窗格下所列的長篇。From the Features backlog, drag features to an epic listed under the mapping pane.

變更父系 (重做) 和重新排序專案Change parent (reparent) and reorder items

當您需要變更順序或群組時,只要將專案拖曳至新的位置即可。When you need to change the order or grouping, simply drag the item to its new location.

您可以使用 [對應] 窗格來重設專案的父代,或直接將它拖曳到階層內以變更其父系。You can reparent an item using the mapping pane, or simply drag it within the hierarchy to change its parent.

在待處理專案上重設定工作專案的父項或重新排序Reparent or reorder work items on a backlog

您只可以在其他功能下將待處理專案和其他 epics 的功能重為父項。You can only reparent backlog items under other features, and features under other epics.

此外,若要在群組內變更專案的優先順序,您可以在其階層式群組中向上或向下拖曳專案。Also, to change an item's priority within a group, you can drag the item up or down within its hierarchical group. 從待辦專案組合中重新排序,其運作方式與您將 專案移至產品待處理專案的優先權順序一樣。Reordering from a portfolio backlog works the same as when you moved items into priority order on your product backlog.

其他小組所擁有之重新排列待處理專案(backlog)的限制Limitations on reordering backlog items owned by other teams

如果您發現無法重新排序待處理專案,請檢查 資訊圖示是否出現在第一個資料行中,如下圖所示。

重新排列多小組待處理專案的限制Limitations on reordering multi-team backlog items

您可以為其他小組所擁有的專案重為其重做父項,但無法重新排序其他小組所擁有的專案。You can reparent items owned by other teams, but you can't re-order items owned by other teams. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 待處理專案、組合和 Agile 專案管理、使用多小組的待處理專案擁有權For more information, see Backlogs, portfolios, and Agile project management, Work with multi-team ownership of backlog items.

變更多個待處理專案(backlog)的父系Change parent of multiple backlog items

從產品待處理專案中,您可以多重選取數個工作專案,並選擇 [變更父系 … ],將專案連結至父工作專案。From the product backlog you can multi-select several work items and choose Change parent… to link the items to a parent work item.

變更數個待處理專案(backlog)的父系Change parent of several backlog items

加入待辦專案組合層級和麵板Add portfolio backlog levels and boards

如果您需要兩個以上的待辦專案組合,您可以新增最多兩個待辦專案,總共總共五個待處理專案層級。If you need more than two portfolio backlogs, you can add up to two more for a total of five backlog levels.

您可以藉由自訂程式、加入新的工作專案類型,然後設定待處理專案和麵板,來加入這些專案。You can add them by customizing your process, adding new work item types, and then configuring your backlogs and boards. 您也可以加入或修改針對工作專案類型所定義的欄位, (WIT) 或加入自訂 WIT。You can also add or modify the fields defined for a work item type (WIT) or add a custom WIT. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 自訂繼承程式 和自訂您的待處理專案 或面板 (繼承程式) For details, see Customize an inheritance process and Customize your backlogs or boards (Inheritance process).

您可以藉由自訂繼承的進程或修改 XML 定義檔來加入它們。You can add them by either customizing your inherited process or modifying your XML definition files. 您也可以加入或修改針對工作專案類型所定義的欄位, (WIT) 或加入自訂 WIT。You can also add or modify the fields defined for a work item type (WIT) or add a custom WIT. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱下列文章,這些文章是根據用來更新專案的流程模型而定:To learn how, see the following articles based on the process model used to update your project:

繼承進程模型:Inheritance process model:

內部部署 XML 進程模型:On-premises XML process model:

您可以藉由定義其他工作專案類型,然後自訂您的進程設定,來加入這些專案。You can add them by defining additional work item types and then customizing your process configuration. 您也可以加入或修改針對工作專案類型所定義的欄位, (WIT) 或加入自訂 WIT。You can also add or modify the fields defined for a work item type (WIT) or add a custom WIT. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 自訂內部部署 XML 流程模型加入待辦專案組合層級To learn more, see Customize the On-premises XML process model and Add a portfolio backlog level.

顯示匯總進度、計數或總計Display rollup progress, counts, or totals

產品和組合待處理專案(backlog)支援匯總資料行的顯示。Product and portfolio backlogs support the display of rollup columns. 您可以加入一個或多個匯總資料行,以顯示進度列、下階工作專案的計數,或選取數值欄位的總計。You can add one or more rollup columns to display progress bars, counts of descendant work items, or totals of select numeric fields. 您的設定會針對您自訂的每個頁面保存,且僅適用于您的視圖。Your settings persist for each page you customize and are only valid for your views.

進度 列指出階層中已關閉或已完成之下階專案的百分比。Progress bars indicate the percentage of descendant items within a hierarchy that are closed or completed. 計數 :顯示下階專案的總數。Counts display the total number of descendant items. 而且, 總計 提供數值欄位的總和,例如投入時間、故事點、完成工作,或下階專案的剩餘工作。And, Totals provide a sum of numeric fields, such as Effort, Story Points, Completed Work, or Remaining Work of descendant items.
例如,在此針對待辦專案組合顯示進度列。For example, progress bars are shown here for a portfolio backlog.

使用進度列的範例組合待處理專案Example portfolio backlog with progress bars