叢集更新概觀Cluster-Aware Updating overview

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

本主題提供概觀 Cluster\ 感知更新 (CAU),同時也可維護可用性更新程序叢集伺服器上的軟體會自動執行的功能。This topic provides an overview of Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU), a feature that automates the software updating process on clustered servers while maintaining availability.

注意

當更新儲存空間直接存取我們叢集,建議使用叢集更新。When updating Storage Spaces Direct clusters, we recommend using Cluster-Aware Updating.

描述的功能Feature description

自動的功能,可讓您更新中的伺服器叢集更新是容錯移轉叢集中可用的更新程序期間甚至不遺失。Cluster-Aware Updating is an automated feature that enables you to update servers in a failover cluster with little or no loss in availability during the update process. 在更新執行,叢集更新無障礙可以執行下列工作:During an Updating Run, Cluster-Aware Updating transparently performs the following tasks:

  1. 每個節點叢集放節點維護模式。Puts each node of the cluster into node maintenance mode.
  2. 將節點關閉叢集的角色。Moves the clustered roles off the node.
  3. 安裝更新,任何相關的更新。Installs the updates and any dependent updates.
  4. 如有需要,請執行重新開機。Performs a restart if necessary.
  5. 將節點退出維護模式。Brings the node out of maintenance mode.
  6. 還原節點上的叢集的角色。Restores the clustered roles on the node.
  7. 移至下一個節點的更新。Moves to update the next node.

許多叢集中的角色叢集,自動更新程序觸發計劃容錯移轉。For many clustered roles in the cluster, the automatic update process triggers a planned failover. 這造成連接戶端暫時性服務中斷。This can cause a transient service interruption for connected clients. 不過,如果持續提供工作負載,例如使用即時移轉 Hyper\ HYPER-V 或 SMB 透明容錯移轉檔案伺服器叢集更新可以調整叢集更新的服務的可用性不會影響。However, in the case of continuously available workloads, such as Hyper-V with live migration or file server with SMB Transparent Failover, Cluster-Aware Updating can coordinate cluster updates with no impact to the service availability.

實用的應用程式Practical applications

  • CAU 降低叢集服務中斷,降低需要手動更新因應措施,並使 end\ to\ 高階叢集更新程序更可靠的系統管理員。CAU reduces service outages in clustered services, reduces the need for manual updating workarounds, and makes the end-to-end cluster updating process more reliable for the administrator. 持續提供叢集工作負載,例如持續提供檔案伺服器搭配使用的 CAU 功能時 \(SMB 透明 Failover\ 與檔案伺服器工作負載)或 Hyper\ HYPER-V,叢集戶端與服務的可用性零影響可以執行的更新。When the CAU feature is used in conjunction with continuously available cluster workloads, such as continuously available file servers (file server workload with SMB Transparent Failover) or Hyper-V, the cluster updates can be performed with zero impact to service availability for clients.

  • 企業的 CAU 幫助您採用一致 IT 程序。CAU facilitates the adoption of consistent IT processes across the enterprise. 執行設定檔的更新為種類容錯建立,然後以確保 CAU 部署 IT 組織套用更新一致,即使叢集由不同 lines\ of-企業或系統管理員所管理的檔案共用的集中管理。Updating Run Profiles can be created for different classes of failover clusters and then managed centrally on a file share to ensure that CAU deployments throughout the IT organization apply updates consistently, even if the clusters are managed by different lines-of-business or administrators.

  • CAU 可以排定更新上執行日常、週或每月定期協助協調叢集與其他 IT 管理程序的更新。CAU can schedule Updating Runs on regular daily, weekly, or monthly intervals to help coordinate cluster updates with other IT management processes.

  • CAU 提供更新方式 cluster\ 感知叢集軟體庫存最具擴充性的架構。CAU provides an extensible architecture to update the cluster software inventory in a cluster-aware fashion. 這可用於透過發行者協調安裝的軟體更新的不 Windows 更新或 Microsoft Update 發行,或是時無法使用,例如 Microsoft non\ Microsoft 裝置驅動程式更新。This can be used by publishers to coordinate the installation of software updates that are not published to Windows Update or Microsoft Update or that are not available from Microsoft, for example, updates for non-Microsoft device drivers.

  • CAU self\ 更新模式可讓] 方塊中的叢集「應用裝置 \(叢集所在的電腦,通常會在一個 chassis\ 已封裝的一組)本身更新。CAU self-updating mode enables a "cluster in a box" appliance (a set of clustered physical machines, typically packaged in one chassis) to update itself. 通常是這類裝置在最小本機 IT 支援管理叢集分公司部署。Typically, such appliances are deployed in branch offices with minimal local IT support to manage the clusters. Self\ 更新模式提供在這些案例中部署變得更好的值。Self-updating mode offers great value in these deployment scenarios.

重要的功能Important functionality

以下是描述的重要更新叢集功能:The following is a description of important Cluster-Aware Updating functionality:

  • 在使用者介面 (UI)-叢集注意更新視窗-和一系列 cmdlet,您可以使用預覽,用於監視,並更新報告A user interface (UI) - the Cluster Aware Updating window - and a set of cmdlets that you can use to preview, apply, monitor, and report on the updates

  • Cluster\ 更新作業的 end\ to\ 高階自動化 \ (更新 Run),協調一或多個更新協調器電腦An end-to-end automation of the cluster-updating operation (an Updating Run), orchestrated by one or more Update Coordinator computers

  • 與現有的 Windows 更新代理程式 (WUA) 和 Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 在 Windows Server 的基礎結構套用重要整合 plug\ 中的預設值 Microsoft 更新A default plug-in that integrates with the existing Windows Update Agent (WUA) and Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) infrastructure in Windows Server to apply important Microsoft updates

  • 第二 plug\ 中,可以用來適用於 Microsoft hotfix,並,您可以自訂套用 non\ Microsoft 更新A second plug-in that can be used to apply Microsoft hotfixes, and that can be customized to apply non-Microsoft updates

  • 更新執行設定檔,您所設定的更新執行選項,例如更新將會每個節點重試次數最大的設定。Updating Run Profiles that you configure with settings for Updating Run options, such as the maximum number of times that the update will be retried per node. 執行設定檔更新可讓您快速更新執行所有重複使用相同的設定,並輕鬆地與其他容錯分享的更新設定。Updating Run Profiles enable you to rapidly reuse the same settings across Updating Runs and easily share the update settings with other failover clusters.

  • 自訂軟體的安裝程式,BIOS 更新工具,例如,在叢集協調其他 node\ 更新工具和網路介面卡或主機匯流排配接器 (HBA) 更新工具的新 plug\ 在開發的支援延伸架構。An extensible architecture that supports new plug-in development to coordinate other node-updating tools across the cluster, such as custom software installers, BIOS updating tools, and network adapter or host bus adapter (HBA) updating tools.

叢集更新可以調整完成叢集更新中有兩種模式操作:Cluster-Aware Updating can coordinate the complete cluster updating operation in two modes:

  • Self\ 更新模式適用於此模式下,CAU 叢集的角色設定為工作負載的更新、容錯移轉叢集上,而且相關的更新排程定義。Self-updating mode For this mode, the CAU clustered role is configured as a workload on the failover cluster that is to be updated, and an associated update schedule is defined. 叢集更新本身排定的時間使用的預設值或自訂更新執行設定檔。The cluster updates itself at scheduled times by using a default or custom Updating Run profile. 在更新執行,CAU 更新協調者處理程序開始目前擁有 CAU 叢集的角色節點上並程序依序執行更新每個叢集節點上。During the Updating Run, the CAU Update Coordinator process starts on the node that currently owns the CAU clustered role, and the process sequentially performs updates on each cluster node. 若要更新目前叢集節點,CAU 叢集的角色失敗上到另一個叢集節點,並新的更新協調者處理程序該節點上假設控制項的更新執行。To update the current cluster node, the CAU clustered role fails over to another cluster node, and a new Update Coordinator process on that node assumes control of the Updating Run. Self\ 更新模式,CAU 更新容錯移轉叢集使用完全自動化、end\ to\ 高階更新程序。In self-updating mode, CAU can update the failover cluster by using a fully automated, end-to-end updating process. 系統管理員也可以觸發程序更新 on\ 隨選在此模式下,或只如果 remote\ 更新方式的使用。An administrator can also trigger updates on-demand in this mode, or simply use the remote-updating approach if desired. 在 self\ 更新模式中,系統管理員可以取得摘要中相關資訊更新執行進度連接到叢集並執行Get-CauRun Windows PowerShell cmdlet。In self-updating mode, an administrator can get summary information about an Updating Run in progress by connecting to the cluster and running the Get-CauRun Windows PowerShell cmdlet.

  • Remote\ 更新模式對於此模式,CAU 工具設定遠端電腦時,這稱為更新協調器。Remote-updating mode For this mode, a remote computer, which is called an Update Coordinator, is configured with the CAU tools. 更新協調不會在更新執行更新叢集的成員。The Update Coordinator is not a member of the cluster that is updated during the Updating Run. 從遠端電腦時,系統管理員觸發 on\ 隨選更新執行使用預設或自訂更新執行設定檔。From the remote computer, the administrator triggers an on-demand Updating Run by using a default or custom Updating Run profile. Remote\ 更新模式是適用於監視進行 real\ 階段期間更新執行,以及叢集伺服器核心安裝上執行。Remote-updating mode is useful for monitoring real-time progress during the Updating Run, and for clusters that are running on Server Core installations.

硬體與軟體需求Hardware and software requirements

Windows Server,包括 Server Core 安裝的所有版本上可 CAU。CAU can be used on all editions of Windows Server, including Server Core installations. 適用於需求的詳細的資訊,請查看更新叢集需求及最佳做法,For detailed requirements information, see Cluster-Aware Updating requirements and best practices.

安裝更新叢集Installing Cluster-Aware Updating

若要使用 CAU,安裝容錯功能在 Windows Server 並建立容錯移轉叢集。To use CAU, install the Failover Clustering feature in Windows Server and create a failover cluster. 在每個叢集節點,會自動安裝支援 CAU 功能的元件。The components that support CAU functionality are automatically installed on each cluster node.

若要安裝的容錯功能,您可以使用下列工具:To install the Failover Clustering feature, you can use the following tools:

  • 伺服器管理員中新增角色與精靈中的功能Add Roles and Features Wizard in Server Manager
  • 安裝-WindowsFeature Windows PowerShell cmdletInstall-WindowsFeature Windows PowerShell cmdlet
  • 部署映像服務與管理 (DISM) 的命令列工具Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) command-line tool

如需詳細資訊,請查看安裝或解除安裝的角色,角色服務或功能For more information, see Install or Uninstall Roles, Role Services, or Features.

您還必須安裝容錯移轉叢集工具,遠端伺服器管理工具的一部分,您在伺服器管理員安裝容錯功能時,預設會安裝。You must also install the Failover Clustering Tools, which are part of the Remote Server Administration Tools and are installed by default when you install the Failover Clustering feature in Server Manager. 容錯工具包含叢集更新使用者介面及 PowerShell cmdlet。The Failover Clustering tools include the Cluster-Aware Updating user interface and PowerShell cmdlets.

您必須安裝容錯移轉叢集工具,如下所示,以支援其他 CAU 更新模式:You must install the Failover Clustering Tools as follows to support the different CAU updating modes:

  • 若要使用 CAU self\ 更新模式,安裝容錯移轉叢集工具每個叢集節點上。To use CAU in self-updating mode, install the Failover Clustering Tools on each cluster node.

  • 要 remote\ 更新模式,請安裝容錯移轉叢集工具的網路錯誤後移轉叢集連接的電腦上。To enable remote-updating mode, install the Failover Clustering Tools on a computer that has network connectivity to the failover cluster.

注意

  • 您無法使用容錯移轉叢集工具在 Windows Server 2012 上來管理叢集更新上較新的 Windows Server 版本。You can't use the Failover Clustering Tools on Windows Server 2012 to manage Cluster-Aware Updating on a newer version of Windows Server.
  • 若要使用 CAU 只能在 remote\ 更新模式下,就不需要叢集節點上容錯移轉叢集工具安裝。To use CAU only in remote-updating mode, installation of the Failover Clustering Tools on the cluster nodes is not required. 不過,某些 CAU 功能將無法使用。However, certain CAU features will not be available. 如需詳細資訊,請查看需求與最佳做法 Cluster\ 感知更新For more information, see Requirements and Best Practices for Cluster-Aware Updating.
  • 除非您正在使用 CAU self\ 更新模式中,的電腦安裝 CAU 工具和,協調更新無法容錯移轉叢集的成員。Unless you are using CAU only in self-updating mode, the computer on which the CAU tools are installed and that coordinates the updates cannot be a member of the failover cluster.

讓自我更新模式Enabling self-updating mode

若要使用的自動更新模式,請您必須容錯移轉叢集新增叢集更新叢集的角色。To enable the self-updating mode, you must add the Cluster-Aware Updating clustered role to the failover cluster. 若要這樣做,請使用下列其中一個下列方法:To do so, use one of the following methods:

  • 在伺服器管理員中,選取 [工具 > 叢集更新,然後在 [叢集更新視窗中,選取 [設定叢集自我更新選項In Server Manager, select Tools > Cluster-Aware Updating, then in the Cluster-Aware Updating window, select Configure cluster self-updating options.
  • 中的 PowerShell 工作階段,請執行新增-CauClusterRole cmdlet。In a PowerShell session, run the Add-CauClusterRole cmdlet.

解除安裝 CAU、使用解除安裝的容錯功能或容錯移轉叢集工具伺服器管理員中,WindowsFeature 解除安裝的cmdlet,或 DISM command\ 列工具。To uninstall CAU, uninstall the Failover Clustering feature or Failover Clustering Tools by using Server Manager, the Uninstall-WindowsFeature cmdlet, or the DISM command-line tools.

額外需求與最佳做法Additional requirements and best practices

若要確保 CAU 可以更新叢集節點成功,以及其他指導方針容錯移轉叢集環境使用 CAU 設定,您可以執行 CAU 最佳做法分析。To ensure that CAU can update the cluster nodes successfully, and for additional guidance for configuring your failover cluster environment to use CAU, you can run the CAU Best Practices Analyzer.

詳細的需求與最佳做法使用 CAU 及執行 CAU 最佳做法分析詳細資訊,請查看需求與最佳做法 Cluster\ 感知更新For detailed requirements and best practices for using CAU, and information about running the CAU Best Practices Analyzer, see Requirements and Best Practices for Cluster-Aware Updating.

開始更新叢集Starting Cluster-Aware Updating

若要開始叢集更新從伺服器管理員To start Cluster-Aware Updating from Server Manager
  1. 伺服器管理員 [開始]。Start Server Manager.

  2. 執行下列其中一個動作:Do one of the following:

    • 工具功能表上,按Cluster\ 感知更新On the Tools menu, click Cluster-Aware Updating.

    • 如果有一或多個叢集節點或叢集,會在新增到伺服器管理員中,所有伺服器]頁面上,按一下 right\ 節點名稱 \(或 cluster\ 的名稱),然後按一下 [更新叢集If one or more cluster nodes, or the cluster, is added to Server Manager, on the All Servers page, right-click the name of a node (or the name of the cluster), and then click Update Cluster.

也了See also

下列連結提供使用叢集更新的詳細資訊。The following links provide more information about using Cluster-Aware Updating.