新增伺服器或磁碟機到儲存空間直接存取Adding servers or drives to Storage Spaces Direct

適用於: Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2016

本主題描述如何新增伺服器或磁碟機到儲存空間直接存取。This topic describes how to add servers or drives to Storage Spaces Direct.

新增伺服器Adding servers

新增伺服器、通常稱為出縮放比例,新增儲存空間容量可以改善儲存效能及解除鎖定好儲存效率。Adding servers, often called scaling out, adds storage capacity and can improve storage performance and unlock better storage efficiency. 如果您的部署超匯集,也新增伺服器提供多個運算您工作負載的資源。If your deployment is hyper-converged, adding servers also provides more compute resources for your workload.


一般部署,很容易延展新增伺服器。Typical deployments are simple to scale out by adding servers. 有兩個步驟:There are just two steps:

  1. 執行叢集驗證精靈使用容錯移轉叢集或測試叢集中(系統管理員身分執行)PowerShell cmdlet。Run the cluster validation wizard using the Failover Cluster snap-in or with the Test-Cluster cmdlet in PowerShell (run as Administrator). 包含新的伺服器\ < NewNode >您想要加入。Include the new server <NewNode> you wish to add.

    Test-Cluster -Node <Node>, <Node>, <Node>, <NewNode> -Include "Storage Spaces Direct", Inventory, Network, "System Configuration"

    這符合新伺服器執行 Windows Server 2016 Datacenter Edition、已經加入的現有伺服器相同的 Active Directory Domain Services 網域、已所有所需的角色與功能及已設定適當的網路。This confirms that the new server is running Windows Server 2016 Datacenter Edition, has joined the same Active Directory Domain Services domain as the existing servers, has all the required roles and features, and has networking properly configured.


    如果您重新使用包含舊的資料或您不再需要的中繼資料磁碟機,清除使用[磁碟管理平均重設為cmdlet。If you are re-using drives that contain old data or metadata you no longer need, clear them using Disk Management or the Reset-PhysicalDisk cmdlet. 如果偵測舊的資料或中繼資料,則不共用磁碟機。If old data or metadata is detected, the drives aren't pooled.

  2. 完成新增伺服器叢集上執行下列 cmdlet:Run the following cmdlet on the cluster to finish adding the server:

Add-ClusterNode -Name NewNode 


自動共用隨著您有一個集區。Automatic pooling depends on you having only one pool. 如果您已經規避標準的設定來建立多個集區,您將需要新增到您慣用的新磁碟機集區自己使用新增-平均If you've circumvented the standard configuration to create multiple pools, you will need to add new drives to your preferred pool yourself using Add-PhysicalDisk.

從 3 伺服器 2:解除鎖定三向鏡像From 2 to 3 servers: unlocking three-way mirroring


有兩個伺服器,您只能建立雙向鏡像磁碟區(比較分散式 raid-1 使用)。With two servers, you can only create two-way mirrored volumes (compare with distributed RAID-1). 使用三個伺服器,您可以建立較佳的容錯三向鏡像磁碟區。With three servers, you can create three-way mirrored volumes for better fault tolerance. 我們建議使用 [三向鏡像盡可能。We recommend using three-way mirroring whenever possible.

雙向鏡像磁碟區無法升級中地方以三向鏡像。Two-way mirrored volumes cannot be upgraded in-place to three-way mirroring. 不過,您可以建立新的磁碟區及移轉 (複製,例如,使用儲存複本) 您的資料,並再移除舊的音量。Instead, you can create a new volume and migrate (copy, such as by using Storage Replica) your data to it, and then remove the old volume.

若要開始建立三向鏡像磁碟區,您有幾個好用的選項。To begin creating three-way mirrored volumes, you have several good options. 您可以使用無論您想要的結果。You can use whichever you prefer.

選項 1Option 1

指定PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2在建立時每個新的磁碟區。Specify PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2 on each new volume upon creation.

New-Volume -FriendlyName <Name> -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -Size <Size> -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2

選項 2Option 2

而是,您可以設定PhysicalDiskRedundancyDefault = 2上的集區的ResiliencySetting物件名為鏡像Instead, you can set PhysicalDiskRedundancyDefault = 2 on the pool's ResiliencySetting object named Mirror. 然後,將會自動使用任何新鏡像磁碟區三向即使您不指定它鏡像。Then, any new mirrored volumes will automatically use three-way mirroring even if you don't specify it.

Get-StoragePool S2D* | Get-ResiliencySetting -Name Mirror | Set-ResiliencySetting -PhysicalDiskRedundancyDefault 2

New-Volume -FriendlyName <Name> -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -Size <Size>

選項 3Option 3

設定PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2StorageTier範本稱為容量,然後參考層建立磁碟區。Set PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2 on the StorageTier template called Capacity, and then create volumes by referencing the tier.

Set-StorageTier -FriendlyName Capacity -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 

New-Volume -FriendlyName <Name> -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -StorageTierFriendlyNames Capacity -StorageTierSizes <Size>

3 伺服器 4:解除鎖定 dual 同位From 3 to 4 servers: unlocking dual parity


有四種伺服器,您可以使用雙同位,也被稱為清除編碼(比對分散式 raid-6)。With four servers, you can use dual parity, also commonly called erasure coding (compare to distributed RAID-6). 這提供相同容錯三向鏡像,但的好儲存效率。This provides the same fault tolerance as three-way mirroring, but with better storage efficiency. 若要深入了解,請查看錯誤容錯與儲存效率To learn more, see Fault tolerance and storage efficiency.

如果您來自較小的部署,您有幾個好用的選項來開始建立 dual 同位磁碟區。If you're coming from a smaller deployment, you have several good options to begin creating dual parity volumes. 您可以使用無論您想要的結果。You can use whichever you prefer.

選項 1Option 1

指定PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2ResiliencySettingName = 同位所建立的每個新磁碟區。Specify PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2 and ResiliencySettingName = Parity on each new volume upon creation.

New-Volume -FriendlyName <Name> -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -Size <Size> -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 -ResiliencySettingName Parity

選項 2Option 2

設定PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2上的集區的ResiliencySetting物件名為同位Set PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2 on the pool's ResiliencySetting object named Parity. 然後,將會自動使用任何新同位磁碟區雙重即使您不指定它同位Then, any new parity volumes will automatically use dual parity even if you don't specify it

Get-StoragePool S2D* | Get-ResiliencySetting -Name Parity | Set-ResiliencySetting -PhysicalDiskRedundancyDefault 2

New-Volume -FriendlyName <Name> -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -Size <Size> -ResiliencySettingName Parity

使用四個伺服器,您也可以開始使用鏡像加速同位部分鏡像和部分同位個人磁碟區的所在。With four servers, you can also begin using mirror-accelerated parity, where an individual volume is part mirror and part parity.

針對這點,您將需要更新您StorageTier有兩個範本效能容量層,它們會當您第一次執行建立讓-ClusterS2D四種伺服器。For this, you will need to update your StorageTier templates to have both Performance and Capacity tiers, as they would be created if you had first run Enable-ClusterS2D at four servers. 應該會有兩種層級的具體而言,媒體類型的容量裝置(例如 SSD 或 HDD)及PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2Specifically, both tiers should have the MediaType of your capacity devices (such as SSD or HDD) and PhysicalDiskRedundancy = 2. 效能層應該ResiliencySettingName = 鏡像,並容量層應該ResiliencySettingName = 同位The Performance tier should be ResiliencySettingName = Mirror, and the Capacity tier should be ResiliencySettingName = Parity.

選項 3Option 3

您可能會發現簡單,只要移除現有的層範本和建立新的兩個。You may find it easiest to simply remove the existing tier template and create the two new ones. 這不會影響所建立的參考層範本任何預先現有的磁碟區:這是只範本。This will not affect any pre-existing volumes which were created by refering the tier template: it's just a template.

Remove-StorageTier -FriendlyName Capacity

New-StorageTier -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -MediaType HDD -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 -ResiliencySettingName Mirror -FriendlyName Performance
New-StorageTier -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -MediaType HDD -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 -ResiliencySettingName Parity -FriendlyName Capacity

是的!That's it! 現在,您就可以透過參考這些層範本建立鏡像加速同位磁碟區。You are now ready to create mirror-accelerated parity volumes by referencing these tier templates.


New-Volume -FriendlyName "Sir-Mix-A-Lot" -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -StoragePoolFriendlyName S2D* -StorageTierFriendlyNames Performance, Capacity -StorageTierSizes <Size, Size> 

4 伺服器以外:同位效率Beyond 4 servers: greater parity efficiency

當您擴充四個伺服器以外,新的磁碟區,可受惠於以往更同位編碼效率。As you scale beyond four servers, new volumes can benefit from ever-greater parity encoding efficiency. 例如,之間六個與七伺服器,效率改善 50.0%的 66.7%時可以使用涅索羅門 4 + 2(而非 2 + 2)。For example, between six and seven servers, efficiency improves from 50.0% to 66.7% as it becomes possible to use Reed-Solomon 4+2 (rather than 2+2). 您需要開始喜歡這個新的效率; 無步驟編碼最佳可能會自動判斷每次您建立的磁碟區。There are no steps you need to take to begin enjoying this new efficiency; the best possible encoding is determined automatically each time you create a volume.

不過,將所有現有的磁碟區會會「轉為「新、寬度編碼。However, any pre-existing volumes will not be "converted" to the new, wider encoding. 其中一個很好的原因是,若要這樣做需要那計算影響實際上每個單一的位元中整個部署。One good reason is that to do so would require a massive calculation affecting literally every single bit in the entire deployment. 如果您想要變得更高版本效率,編碼現有資料,您可以將它移轉到新磁碟區。If you would like pre-existing data to become encoded at the higher efficiency, you can migrate it to new volume(s).

如需詳細資訊,請查看錯誤容錯與儲存效率For more details, see Fault tolerance and storage efficiency.

當使用底座或架容錯新增伺服器Adding servers when using chassis or rack fault tolerance

如果您的部署使用底座或架容錯,您必須才能將它們新增到叢集指定的底座或架的新的伺服器。If your deployment uses chassis or rack fault tolerance, you must specify the chassis or rack of new servers before adding them to the cluster. 這可將您的位置告知儲存空間直接存取分散的資料,以最大化容錯最佳方式。This tells Storage Spaces Direct how best to distribute data to maximize fault tolerance.

  1. 建立網域節點暫存錯誤打開提升權限的 PowerShell 工作階段,然後使用下列命令,其中\ < NewNode >是叢集節點新的名稱:Create a temporary fault domain for the node by opening an elevated PowerShell session and then using the following command, where <NewNode> is the name of the new cluster node:

    New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Node -Name <NewNode> 
  2. 將這個暫時錯誤網域底座或架位置新的伺服器中所指定的真實世界中,\ < ParentName >:Move this temporary fault-domain into the chassis or rack where the new server is located in the real world, as specified by <ParentName>:

    Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name <NewNode> -Parent <ParentName> 

    如需詳細資訊,請查看錯誤網域對 Windows Server 2016 在For more information, see Fault domain awareness in Windows Server 2016.

  3. 新增到叢集伺服器中, 所述新增伺服器]Add the server to the cluster as described in Adding servers. 當新的伺服器加入叢集時,它會自動(使用其名稱)與相關預留位置錯誤網域。When the new server joins the cluster, it's automatically associated (using its name) with the placeholder fault domain.

新增的磁碟機Adding drives

新增磁碟機,也就縮放比例,新增儲存空間容量,並改善效能。Adding drives, also known as scaling up, adds storage capacity and can improve performance. 如果您有提供的位置,您可以新增磁碟機,而不需要新增伺服器展開您儲存空間容量的每個伺服器。If you have available slots, you can add drives to each server to expand your storage capacity without adding servers. 您可以新增快取的磁碟機或容量磁碟機獨立隨時。You can add cache drives or capacity drives independently at any time.


建議的所有伺服器都有相同的儲存空間設定。We strongly recommend that all servers have identical storage configurations.

系統磁碟機顯示 \ [新增動畫]

放大、連接的磁碟機和確認 Windows 探索它們。To scale up, connect the drives and verify that Windows discovers them. 他們應該的輸出中會顯示取得-平均中的 PowerShell cmdlet 他們CanPool屬性設為TrueThey should appear in the output of the Get-PhysicalDisk cmdlet in PowerShell with their CanPool property set to True. 如果會顯示為CanPool =,就可以看到原因檢查其CannotPoolReason屬性。If they show as CanPool = False, you can see why by checking their CannotPoolReason property.

Get-PhysicalDisk | Select SerialNumber, CanPool, CannotPoolReason

在一段時間,符合資格的磁碟機將會自動將宣告儲存空間直接存取、新增到儲存集區中,並自動將磁碟區上的所有磁碟機來平均轉散發Within a short time, eligible drives will automatically be claimed by Storage Spaces Direct, added to the storage pool, and volumes will automatically be redistributed evenly across all the drives. 此時,您在完成後,並準備好延伸您的磁碟區建立新的At this point, you're finished and ready to extend your volumes or create new ones.

如果未出現磁碟機,請手動掃描硬體變更。If the drives don't appear, manually scan for hardware changes. 這可以使用裝置管理員]動作功能表。This can be done using Device Manager, under the Action menu. 如果包含舊的資料或中繼資料,請考慮將它們重新格式化。If they contain old data or metadata, consider reformatting them. 這可以使用[磁碟管理平均重設為cmdlet。This can be done using Disk Management or with the Reset-PhysicalDisk cmdlet.


自動共用隨著您有一個集區。Automatic pooling depends on you having only one pool. 如果您已經規避標準的設定來建立多個集區,您將需要新增到您慣用的新磁碟機集區自己使用新增-平均If you've circumvented the standard configuration to create multiple pools, you will need to add new drives to your preferred pool yourself using Add-PhysicalDisk.

最佳化磁碟機使用量新增磁碟機或伺服器之後Optimizing drive usage after adding drives or servers

一段時間,在磁碟機新增或移除,在集區中的磁碟機資料分散可以會一致。Over time, as drives are added or removed, the distribution of data among the drives in the pool can become uneven. 有時候,這可能會導致某些集區中的其他磁碟機中有多少低消耗時變成完整的磁碟機。In some cases, this can result in certain drives becoming full while other drives in pool have much lower consumption.

為了讓即使跨越集區的磁碟機配置,儲存空間直接存取會自動最佳化磁碟機使用量之後您新增磁碟機或伺服器集區(這是手動處理程序的儲存空間使用分享 SAS 附件系統)。To help keep drive allocation even across the pool, Storage Spaces Direct automatically optimizes drive usage after you add drives or servers to the pool (this is a manual process for Storage Spaces systems that use Shared SAS enclosures). 最佳化開始 30 分鐘後您集區中新增新的磁碟機。Optimization starts 30 minutes after you add a new drive to the pool. 集區最佳化執行低優先順序背景作業,以讓花時間或數天才能完成,尤其是當您正在使用大型硬碟機。Pool optimization runs as a low-priority background operation, so it can take hours or days to complete, especially if you're using large hard drives.

最佳化」會使用兩個工作-一個名為最佳化,另一個名為重新平衡-,您可以監視他們進度,使用下列命令:Optimization uses two jobs - one called Optimize and one called Rebalance - and you can monitor their progress with the following command:


您可以手動最佳化儲存集區的StoragePool 最佳化的cmdlet。You can manually optimize a storage pool with the Optimize-StoragePool cmdlet. 以下是範例:Here's an example:

Get-StoragePool <PoolName> | Optimize-StoragePool