malloc

Allocates memory blocks.

Syntax

void *malloc(  
   size_t size   
);  

Parameters

size
Bytes to allocate.

Return Value

malloc returns a void pointer to the allocated space, or NULL if there is insufficient memory available. To return a pointer to a type other than void, use a type cast on the return value. The storage space pointed to by the return value is guaranteed to be suitably aligned for storage of any type of object that has an alignment requirement less than or equal to that of the fundamental alignment. (In Visual C++, the fundamental alignment is the alignment that's required for a double, or 8 bytes. In code that targets 64-bit platforms, it’s 16 bytes.) Use _aligned_malloc to allocate storage for objects that have a larger alignment requirement—for example, the SSE types __m128 and __m256, and types that are declared by using __declspec(align( n )) where n is greater than 8. If size is 0, malloc allocates a zero-length item in the heap and returns a valid pointer to that item. Always check the return from malloc, even if the amount of memory requested is small.

Remarks

The malloc function allocates a memory block of at least size bytes. The block may be larger than size bytes because of the space that's required for alignment and maintenance information.

malloc sets errno to ENOMEM if a memory allocation fails or if the amount of memory requested exceeds _HEAP_MAXREQ. For information about this and other error codes, see errno, _doserrno, _sys_errlist, and _sys_nerr.

The startup code uses malloc to allocate storage for the _environ, envp, and argv variables. The following functions and their wide-character counterparts also call malloc.

calloc fscanf _getw setvbuf
_exec functions fseek _popen _spawn functions
fgetc fsetpos printf _strdup
_fgetchar _fullpath putc system
fgets fwrite putchar _tempnam
fprintf getc _putenv ungetc
fputc getchar puts vfprintf
_fputchar _getcwd _putw vprintf
fputs _getdcwd scanf
fread gets _searchenv

The C++ _set_new_mode function sets the new handler mode for malloc. The new handler mode indicates whether, on failure, malloc is to call the new handler routine as set by _set_new_handler. By default, malloc does not call the new handler routine on failure to allocate memory. You can override this default behavior so that, when malloc fails to allocate memory, malloc calls the new handler routine in the same way that the new operator does when it fails for the same reason. To override the default, call _set_new_mode(1) early in your program, or link with NEWMODE.OBJ (see Link Options).

When the application is linked with a debug version of the C run-time libraries, malloc resolves to _malloc_dbg. For more information about how the heap is managed during the debugging process, see CRT Debug Heap Details.

malloc is marked __declspec(noalias) and __declspec(restrict); this means that the function is guaranteed not to modify global variables, and that the pointer returned is not aliased. For more information, see noalias and restrict.

Requirements

Routine Required header
malloc <stdlib.h> and <malloc.h>

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility.

Libraries

All versions of the C run-time libraries.

Example

// crt_malloc.c  
// This program allocates memory with  
// malloc, then frees the memory with free.  

#include <stdlib.h>   // For _MAX_PATH definition  
#include <stdio.h>  
#include <malloc.h>  

int main( void )  
{  
   char *string;  

   // Allocate space for a path name  
   string = malloc( _MAX_PATH );  

   // In a C++ file, explicitly cast malloc's return.  For example,   
   // string = (char *)malloc( _MAX_PATH );  

   if( string == NULL )  
      printf( "Insufficient memory available\n" );  
   else  
   {  
      printf( "Memory space allocated for path name\n" );  
      free( string );  
      printf( "Memory freed\n" );  
   }  
}  
Memory space allocated for path name  
Memory freed  

See Also

Memory Allocation
calloc
free
realloc
_aligned_malloc