How to: Create a 3-D Scene

This example shows how to create a 3-D object that looks like a flat sheet of paper which has been rotated. A Viewport3D along with the following components are used to create this simple 3-D scene:

  • A camera is created using a PerspectiveCamera. The camera specifies what part of the 3-D scene is viewable.

  • A mesh is created to specify the shape of 3-D object (sheet of paper) using the Geometry property of GeometryModel3D.

  • A material is specified to be displayed on the surface of the object (linear gradient in this sample) using the Material property of GeometryModel3D.

  • A light is created to shine on the object using DirectionalLight.

Example

The code below shows how to create a 3-D scene in XAML.

<Page xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
  xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" >
  <DockPanel>
    <Viewbox>
      <Canvas Width="321" Height="201">

        <!-- The Viewport3D provides a rendering surface for 3-D visual content. -->
        <Viewport3D ClipToBounds="True" Width="150" Height="150" Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="10">

          <!-- Defines the camera used to view the 3D object. -->
          <Viewport3D.Camera>
            <PerspectiveCamera Position="0,0,2" LookDirection="0,0,-1" FieldOfView="60" />
          </Viewport3D.Camera>

          <!-- The ModelVisual3D children contain the 3D models -->
          <Viewport3D.Children>

            <!-- This ModelVisual3D defines the light cast in the scene. Without light, the 3D 
                 object cannot be seen. Also, the direction of the lights affect shadowing. If desired,
                 you can create multiple lights with different colors that shine from different directions. -->
            <ModelVisual3D>
              <ModelVisual3D.Content>
                <DirectionalLight Color="#FFFFFF" Direction="-0.612372,-0.5,-0.612372" />
              </ModelVisual3D.Content>
            </ModelVisual3D>
            <ModelVisual3D>
              <ModelVisual3D.Content>
                <GeometryModel3D>

                  <!-- The geometry specifies the shape of the 3D plane. In this sample, a flat sheet is created. -->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Geometry>
                    <MeshGeometry3D
                     TriangleIndices="0,1,2 3,4,5 "
                     Normals="0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 "
                     TextureCoordinates="0,0 1,0 1,1 1,1 0,1 0,0 "
                     Positions="-0.5,-0.5,0.5 0.5,-0.5,0.5 0.5,0.5,0.5 0.5,0.5,0.5 -0.5,0.5,0.5 -0.5,-0.5,0.5 " />
                  </GeometryModel3D.Geometry>

                  <!-- The material specifies the material applied to the 3D object. In this sample a linear gradient 
                       covers the surface of the 3D object.-->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Material>
                    <MaterialGroup>
                      <DiffuseMaterial>
                        <DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
                          <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0,0.5" EndPoint="1,0.5">
                            <LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops>
                              <GradientStop Color="Yellow" Offset="0" />
                              <GradientStop Color="Red" Offset="0.25" />
                              <GradientStop Color="Blue" Offset="0.75" />
                              <GradientStop Color="LimeGreen" Offset="1" />
                            </LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops>
                          </LinearGradientBrush>
                        </DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
                      </DiffuseMaterial>
                    </MaterialGroup>
                  </GeometryModel3D.Material>

                  <!-- Apply a transform to the object. In this sample, a rotation transform is applied, rendering the 
                       3D object rotated. -->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Transform>
                    <RotateTransform3D>
                      <RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                        <AxisAngleRotation3D Axis="0,3,0" Angle="40" />
                      </RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                    </RotateTransform3D>
                  </GeometryModel3D.Transform>
                </GeometryModel3D>
              </ModelVisual3D.Content>
            </ModelVisual3D>
          </Viewport3D.Children>

        </Viewport3D>
      </Canvas>
    </Viewbox>
  </DockPanel>
</Page>

Example

The code below shows how to create the same 3-D scene in procedural code.

using System;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Media3D;

namespace SDKSample
{
    public partial class Basic3DShapeExample : Page
    {
        public Basic3DShapeExample()
        {

            // Declare scene objects.
            Viewport3D myViewport3D = new Viewport3D();
            Model3DGroup myModel3DGroup = new Model3DGroup();
            GeometryModel3D myGeometryModel = new GeometryModel3D();
            ModelVisual3D myModelVisual3D = new ModelVisual3D();
            // Defines the camera used to view the 3D object. In order to view the 3D object,
            // the camera must be positioned and pointed such that the object is within view 
            // of the camera.
            PerspectiveCamera myPCamera = new PerspectiveCamera();

            // Specify where in the 3D scene the camera is.
            myPCamera.Position = new Point3D(0, 0, 2);

            // Specify the direction that the camera is pointing.
            myPCamera.LookDirection = new Vector3D(0, 0, -1);

            // Define camera's horizontal field of view in degrees.
            myPCamera.FieldOfView = 60;

            // Asign the camera to the viewport
            myViewport3D.Camera = myPCamera;
            // Define the lights cast in the scene. Without light, the 3D object cannot 
            // be seen. Note: to illuminate an object from additional directions, create 
            // additional lights.
            DirectionalLight myDirectionalLight = new DirectionalLight();
            myDirectionalLight.Color = Colors.White;
            myDirectionalLight.Direction = new Vector3D(-0.61, -0.5, -0.61);

            myModel3DGroup.Children.Add(myDirectionalLight);

            // The geometry specifes the shape of the 3D plane. In this sample, a flat sheet 
            // is created.
            MeshGeometry3D myMeshGeometry3D = new MeshGeometry3D();

            // Create a collection of normal vectors for the MeshGeometry3D.
            Vector3DCollection myNormalCollection = new Vector3DCollection();
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myNormalCollection.Add(new Vector3D(0,0,1));
            myMeshGeometry3D.Normals = myNormalCollection;

            // Create a collection of vertex positions for the MeshGeometry3D. 
            Point3DCollection myPositionCollection = new Point3DCollection();
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(-0.5, -0.5, 0.5));
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(0.5, -0.5, 0.5));
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(0.5, 0.5, 0.5));
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(0.5, 0.5, 0.5));
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(-0.5, 0.5, 0.5));
            myPositionCollection.Add(new Point3D(-0.5, -0.5, 0.5));
            myMeshGeometry3D.Positions = myPositionCollection;

            // Create a collection of texture coordinates for the MeshGeometry3D.
            PointCollection myTextureCoordinatesCollection = new PointCollection();
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(0, 0));
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(1, 0));
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(1, 1));
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(1, 1));
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(0, 1));
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(new Point(0, 0));
            myMeshGeometry3D.TextureCoordinates = myTextureCoordinatesCollection;

            // Create a collection of triangle indices for the MeshGeometry3D.
            Int32Collection myTriangleIndicesCollection = new Int32Collection();
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(0);
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(1);
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(2);
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(3);
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(4);
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(5);
            myMeshGeometry3D.TriangleIndices = myTriangleIndicesCollection;

            // Apply the mesh to the geometry model.
            myGeometryModel.Geometry = myMeshGeometry3D;

            // The material specifies the material applied to the 3D object. In this sample a  
            // linear gradient covers the surface of the 3D object.

            // Create a horizontal linear gradient with four stops.   
            LinearGradientBrush myHorizontalGradient = new LinearGradientBrush();
            myHorizontalGradient.StartPoint = new Point(0, 0.5);
            myHorizontalGradient.EndPoint = new Point(1, 0.5);
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(new GradientStop(Colors.Yellow, 0.0));
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(new GradientStop(Colors.Red, 0.25));
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(new GradientStop(Colors.Blue, 0.75));
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(new GradientStop(Colors.LimeGreen, 1.0));

            // Define material and apply to the mesh geometries.
            DiffuseMaterial myMaterial = new DiffuseMaterial(myHorizontalGradient);
            myGeometryModel.Material = myMaterial;

            // Apply a transform to the object. In this sample, a rotation transform is applied,  
            // rendering the 3D object rotated.
            RotateTransform3D myRotateTransform3D = new RotateTransform3D();
            AxisAngleRotation3D myAxisAngleRotation3d = new AxisAngleRotation3D();
            myAxisAngleRotation3d.Axis = new Vector3D(0,3,0);
            myAxisAngleRotation3d.Angle = 40;
            myRotateTransform3D.Rotation = myAxisAngleRotation3d;
            myGeometryModel.Transform = myRotateTransform3D;

            // Add the geometry model to the model group.
            myModel3DGroup.Children.Add(myGeometryModel);

            // Add the group of models to the ModelVisual3d.
            myModelVisual3D.Content = myModel3DGroup;

            // 
            myViewport3D.Children.Add(myModelVisual3D);

            // Apply the viewport to the page so it will be rendered.
            this.Content = myViewport3D;
        }
    }
}

Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic
Imports System
Imports System.Windows
Imports System.Windows.Controls
Imports System.Windows.Media
Imports System.Windows.Media.Media3D

Namespace SDKSample
    Partial Public Class Basic3DShapeExample
        Inherits Page
        Public Sub New()

            ' Declare scene objects.
            Dim myViewport3D As New Viewport3D()
            Dim myModel3DGroup As New Model3DGroup()
            Dim myGeometryModel As New GeometryModel3D()
            Dim myModelVisual3D As New ModelVisual3D()
            ' Defines the camera used to view the 3D object. In order to view the 3D object,
            ' the camera must be positioned and pointed such that the object is within view 
            ' of the camera.
            Dim myPCamera As New PerspectiveCamera()

            ' Specify where in the 3D scene the camera is.
            myPCamera.Position = New Point3D(0, 0, 2)

            ' Specify the direction that the camera is pointing.
            myPCamera.LookDirection = New Vector3D(0, 0, -1)

            ' Define camera's horizontal field of view in degrees.
            myPCamera.FieldOfView = 60

            ' Asign the camera to the viewport
            myViewport3D.Camera = myPCamera
            ' Define the lights cast in the scene. Without light, the 3D object cannot 
            ' be seen. Note: to illuminate an object from additional directions, create 
            ' additional lights.
            Dim myDirectionalLight As New DirectionalLight()
            myDirectionalLight.Color = Colors.White
            myDirectionalLight.Direction = New Vector3D(-0.61, -0.5, -0.61)

            myModel3DGroup.Children.Add(myDirectionalLight)

            ' The geometry specifes the shape of the 3D plane. In this sample, a flat sheet 
            ' is created.
            Dim myMeshGeometry3D As New MeshGeometry3D()

            ' Create a collection of normal vectors for the MeshGeometry3D.
            Dim myNormalCollection As New Vector3DCollection()
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myNormalCollection.Add(New Vector3D(0,0,1))
            myMeshGeometry3D.Normals = myNormalCollection

            ' Create a collection of vertex positions for the MeshGeometry3D. 
            Dim myPositionCollection As New Point3DCollection()
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(-0.5, -0.5, 0.5))
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(0.5, -0.5, 0.5))
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(0.5, 0.5, 0.5))
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(0.5, 0.5, 0.5))
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(-0.5, 0.5, 0.5))
            myPositionCollection.Add(New Point3D(-0.5, -0.5, 0.5))
            myMeshGeometry3D.Positions = myPositionCollection

            ' Create a collection of texture coordinates for the MeshGeometry3D.
            Dim myTextureCoordinatesCollection As New PointCollection()
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(0, 0))
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(1, 0))
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(1, 1))
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(1, 1))
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(0, 1))
            myTextureCoordinatesCollection.Add(New Point(0, 0))
            myMeshGeometry3D.TextureCoordinates = myTextureCoordinatesCollection

            ' Create a collection of triangle indices for the MeshGeometry3D.
            Dim myTriangleIndicesCollection As New Int32Collection()
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(0)
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(1)
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(2)
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(3)
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(4)
            myTriangleIndicesCollection.Add(5)
            myMeshGeometry3D.TriangleIndices = myTriangleIndicesCollection

            ' Apply the mesh to the geometry model.
            myGeometryModel.Geometry = myMeshGeometry3D

            ' The material specifies the material applied to the 3D object. In this sample a  
            ' linear gradient covers the surface of the 3D object.

            ' Create a horizontal linear gradient with four stops.   
            Dim myHorizontalGradient As New LinearGradientBrush()
            myHorizontalGradient.StartPoint = New Point(0, 0.5)
            myHorizontalGradient.EndPoint = New Point(1, 0.5)
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(New GradientStop(Colors.Yellow, 0.0))
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(New GradientStop(Colors.Red, 0.25))
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(New GradientStop(Colors.Blue, 0.75))
            myHorizontalGradient.GradientStops.Add(New GradientStop(Colors.LimeGreen, 1.0))

            ' Define material and apply to the mesh geometries.
            Dim myMaterial As New DiffuseMaterial(myHorizontalGradient)
            myGeometryModel.Material = myMaterial

            ' Apply a transform to the object. In this sample, a rotation transform is applied,  
            ' rendering the 3D object rotated.
            Dim myRotateTransform3D As New RotateTransform3D()
            Dim myAxisAngleRotation3d As New AxisAngleRotation3D()
            myAxisAngleRotation3d.Axis = New Vector3D(0,3,0)
            myAxisAngleRotation3d.Angle = 40
            myRotateTransform3D.Rotation = myAxisAngleRotation3d
            myGeometryModel.Transform = myRotateTransform3D

            ' Add the geometry model to the model group.
            myModel3DGroup.Children.Add(myGeometryModel)

            ' Add the group of models to the ModelVisual3d.
            myModelVisual3D.Content = myModel3DGroup

            ' 
            myViewport3D.Children.Add(myModelVisual3D)

            ' Apply the viewport to the page so it will be rendered.
            Me.Content = myViewport3D
        End Sub
    End Class
End Namespace

See also