Command Object Parameters

The previous topic discussed Creating and Executing a Simple Command. A more interesting use for the Command object is shown in the next example, in which the SQL command has been parameterized. This modification makes it possible to reuse the command, passing in a different value for the parameter each time. Because the Prepared Property property on the Command object is set to true, ADO will require the provider to compile the command specified in CommandText before executing it for the first time. It also will retain the compiled command in memory. This slows the execution of the command slightly the first time it is executed because of the overhead required to prepare it, but results in a performance gain each time the command is called thereafter. Therefore, commands should be prepared only if they will be used more than one time.

'BeginManualParamCmd  
    On Error GoTo ErrHandler:  

    Dim objConn As New ADODB.Connection  
    Dim objCmd As New ADODB.Command  
    Dim objParm1 As New ADODB.Parameter  
    Dim objRs As New ADODB.Recordset  

    ' Set the CommandText as a parameterized SQL query.  
    objCmd.CommandText = "SELECT OrderID, OrderDate, " & _  
                         "RequiredDate, ShippedDate " & _  
                         "FROM Orders " & _  
                         "WHERE CustomerID = ? " & _  
                         "ORDER BY OrderID"  
    objCmd.CommandType = adCmdText  

    ' Prepare command because we will be executing it more than once.  
    objCmd.Prepared = True  

    ' Create new parameter for CustomerID. Initial value is ALFKI.  
    Set objParm1 = objCmd.CreateParameter("CustId", adChar, _  
                    adParamInput, 5, "ALFKI")  
    objCmd.Parameters.Append objParm1  

    ' Connect to the data source.  
    Set objConn = GetNewConnection  
    objCmd.ActiveConnection = objConn  

    ' Execute once and display.  
    Set objRs = objCmd.Execute  

    Debug.Print objParm1.Value  
    Do While Not objRs.EOF  
        Debug.Print vbTab & objRs(0) & vbTab & objRs(1) & vbTab & _  
                    objRs(2) & vbTab & objRs(3)  
        objRs.MoveNext  
    Loop  

    ' .Set new param value, re-execute command, and display.  
    objCmd("CustId") = "CACTU"  
    Set objRs = objCmd.Execute  

    Debug.Print objParm1.Value  
    Do While Not objRs.EOF  
        Debug.Print vbTab & objRs(0) & vbTab & objRs(1) & vbTab & _  
                    objRs(2) & vbTab & objRs(3)  
        objRs.MoveNext  
    Loop  

    'clean up  
    objRs.Close  
    objConn.Close  
    Set objRs = Nothing  
    Set objConn = Nothing  
    Set objCmd = Nothing  
    Set objParm1 = Nothing  
    Exit Sub  

ErrHandler:  
    'clean up  
    If objRs.State = adStateOpen Then  
        objRs.Close  
    End If  

    If objConn.State = adStateOpen Then  
        objConn.Close  
    End If  

    Set objRs = Nothing  
    Set objConn = Nothing  
    Set objCmd = Nothing  
    Set objParm1 = Nothing  

    If Err <> 0 Then  
        MsgBox Err.Source & "-->" & Err.Description, , "Error"  
    End If  
'EndManualParamCmd  

'BeginNewConnection  
Private Function GetNewConnection() As ADODB.Connection  
    Dim oCn As New ADODB.Connection  
    Dim sCnStr As String  

    sCnStr = "Provider='SQLOLEDB';Data Source='MySqlServer';" & _  
             "Integrated Security='SSPI';Initial Catalog='Northwind';"  
    oCn.Open sCnStr  

    If oCn.State = adStateOpen Then  
        Set GetNewConnection = oCn  
    End If  

End Function  
'EndNewConnection  

Not all providers support prepared commands. If the provider does not support command preparation, it might return an error as soon as this property is set to True. If it does not return an error, it ignores the request to prepare the command and sets the Prepared property to false.