故障转移群集中的新增功能What's new in Failover Clustering

适用于:Windows Server 2019,Windows Server 2016 中,Windows Server (半年频道)Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel)

本主题介绍了在故障转移群集的 Windows Server 2019,Windows Server 2016 中的新功能和更改功能和 Windows Server 半年频道发布。This topic explains the new and changed functionality in Failover Clustering for Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, and Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel releases.

Windows Server 2019 中的新增功能What's new in Windows Server 2019

  • 群集设置Cluster sets

    群集设置,可增加到超出群集的当前限制的单个软件定义数据中心 (SDDC) 解决方案中的服务器数目。Cluster sets enable you to increase the number of servers in a single software-defined datacenter (SDDC) solution beyond the current limits of a cluster. 这通过对分组到群集 set--多个故障转移群集的松散耦合分组的多个群集实现: 计算、 存储和超聚合。This is accomplished by grouping multiple clusters into a cluster set--a loosely-coupled grouping of multiple failover clusters: compute, storage and hyper-converged. 使用群集集时,您可以移动联机虚拟机 (实时迁移) 在群集中的群集之间设置。With cluster sets, you can move online virtual machines (live migrate) between clusters within the cluster set.

    有关详细信息,请参阅群集集合For more info, see Cluster sets.

  • Azure 感知群集Azure-aware clusters

    故障转移群集现在自动检测时它们在 Azure IaaS 虚拟机中运行和优化配置以提供主动的故障转移和日志记录的 Azure 计划内的维护事件,以实现最高级别的可用性。Failover clusters now automatically detect when they're running in Azure IaaS virtual machines and optimize the configuration to provide proactive failover and logging of Azure planned maintenance events to achieve the highest levels of availability. 通过删除与群集名称的动态网络名称配置负载均衡器的需要,还简化部署。Deployment is also simplified by removing the need to configure the load balancer with Dynamic Network Name for cluster name.

  • 跨域的群集迁移Cross-domain cluster migration

    故障转移群集现在可以动态移动从一个 Active Directory 域之间,从而简化了域合并,并允许创建由硬件合作伙伴和更高版本连接到客户的域的群集。Failover Clusters can now dynamically move from one Active Directory domain to another, simplifying domain consolidation and allowing clusters to be created by hardware partners and joined to the customer's domain later.

  • USB 见证服务器USB witness

    现在可以使用简单的 USB 驱动器连接到网络交换机为确定群集的仲裁见证。You can now use a simple USB drive attached to a network switch as a witness in determining quorum for a cluster. 这将扩展文件共享见证,以支持任何 SMB2 合规的设备。This extends the File Share Witness to support any SMB2-compliant device.

  • 群集基础结构改进Cluster infrastructure improvements

    默认值现在启用 CSV 缓存来提高虚拟机性能。The CSV cache is now enabled by default to boost virtual machine performance. MSDTC 现在支持群集共享卷,以允许在存储空间直通上部署 MSDTC 工作负载,例如 SQL Server。MSDTC now supports Cluster Shared Volumes, to allow deploying MSDTC workloads on Storage Spaces Direct such as with SQL Server. 增强型逻辑可利用自我修复检测分区节点,以恢复节点的群集成员身份。Enhanced logic to detect partitioned nodes with self-healing to return nodes to cluster membership. 增强型群集网络路由检测和自我修复。Enhanced cluster network route detection and self-healing.

  • 群集感知更新支持存储空间直通Cluster Aware Updating supports Storage Spaces Direct

    现在集成了群集感知更新 (CAU),并可感知存储空间直通,验证并确保了每个节点上数据重新同步完成。Cluster Aware Updating (CAU) is now integrated and aware of Storage Spaces Direct, validating and ensuring data resynchronization completes on each node. 群集感知更新检查更新,以仅在必要时以智能方式重新启动。Cluster Aware Updating inspects updates to intelligently restart only if necessary. 这样安排重新启动计划内维护群集中的所有服务器。This enables orchestrating restarts of all servers in the cluster for planned maintenance.

  • 文件共享见证服务器增强功能我们启用了文件共享见证在以下方案中使用:File share witness enhancements We enabled the use of a file share witness in the following scenarios:

    • 找不到或极差由于远程位置,导致无法使用云见证服务器的 Internet 访问。Absent or extremely poor Internet access because of a remote location, preventing the use of a cloud witness.
    • 缺少的共享驱动器的磁盘见证。Lack of shared drives for a disk witness. 这可能是存储空间直通超聚合配置,SQL Server 始终在可用性组 (AG),或 * Exchange 数据库可用性组 (DAG),其中没有任何使用共享的磁盘。This could be a Storage Spaces Direct hyperconverged configuration, a SQL Server Always On Availability Groups (AG), or an * Exchange Database Availability Group (DAG), none of which use shared disks.
    • 由于正在受 dmz 保护群集的域控制器连接的不足。Lack of a domain controller connection due to the cluster being behind a DMZ.
    • 工作组或跨域群集为其存在是没有 Active Directory 群集名称对象 (CNO)。A workgroup or cross-domain cluster for which there is no Active Directory cluster name object (CNO). 了解有关在服务器和管理博客中的以下文章中的这些增强功能的详细信息:故障转移群集文件共享见证和 DFS。Find out more about these enhancements in the following post in Server & Management Blogs: Failover Cluster File Share Witness and DFS.

      我们现在还显式阻止使用 DFS 命名空间共享作为位置。We now also explicitly block the use of a DFS Namespaces share as a location. 添加文件共享见证到 DFS 共享可能会导致群集稳定性问题和永远不会支持此配置。Adding a file share witness to a DFS share can cause stability issues for your cluster, and this configuration has never been supported. 我们添加了逻辑来检测如果共享使用 DFS 命名空间,并且如果检测到 DFS 命名空间,则故障转移群集管理器阻止的见证服务器创建并显示有关不受支持的错误消息。We added logic to detect if a share uses DFS Namespaces, and if DFS Namespaces is detected, Failover Cluster Manager blocks creation of the witness and displays an error message about not being supported.

  • 群集强化Cluster hardening

    通过群集共享卷和存储空间直通的服务器消息块 (SMB) 进行群集内通信现在可利用证书来提供最安全的平台。Intra-cluster communication over Server Message Block (SMB) for Cluster Shared Volumes and Storage Spaces Direct now leverages certificates to provide the most secure platform. 这样,故障转移群集就可以不依赖于 NTLM 而运行,并实现了安全基线。This allows Failover Clusters to operate with no dependencies on NTLM and enable security baselines.

  • 故障转移群集不再使用 NTLM 身份验证Failover Cluster no longer uses NTLM authentication

    故障转移群集不再使用 NTLM 身份验证。Failover Clusters no longer use NTLM authentication. 而 Kerberos 和基于证书的身份验证是以独占方式使用的。Instead Kerberos and certificate-based authentication is used exclusively. 没有用户或部署工具,才能利用此安全增强功能所需的更改。There are no changes required by the user, or deployment tools, to take advantage of this security enhancement. 它还允许在具有已禁用 NTLM 的环境中部署的故障转移群集。It also allows failover clusters to be deployed in environments where NTLM has been disabled.

什么是 Windows Server 2016 中的新增功能What's new in Windows Server 2016

群集操作系统滚动升级Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade

群集操作系统滚动升级使管理员能够升级群集节点的操作系统从 Windows Server 2012 R2 到较新版本而无需停止 HYPER-V 或横向扩展文件服务器工作负荷。Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes from Windows Server 2012 R2 to a newer version without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用此功能可以避免服务级别协议 (SLA) 的停机时间损失。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?

升级 HYPER-V 或横向扩展文件服务器群集从 Windows Server 2012 R2 到 Windows Server 2016 不再需要停机时间。Upgrading a Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server cluster from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 no longer requires downtime. 群集将继续工作在 Windows Server 2012 R2 级别之前在群集中节点的所有运行 Windows Server 2016。The cluster will continue to function at a Windows Server 2012 R2 level until all of the nodes in the cluster are running Windows Server 2016. 群集功能级别升级到 Windows Server 2016 上,通过使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlt Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelThe cluster functional level is upgraded to Windows Server 2016 by using the Windows PowerShell cmdlt Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

警告

  • 更新群集功能级别后,您不能再返回到 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集功能级别。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster functional level.
  • 直到Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel运行 cmdlet,该过程不可逆的并可以将 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点添加和可以删除 Windows Server 2016 节点。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is reversible, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?

HYPER-V 或横向扩展文件服务器故障转移群集可以现在轻松地将升级而无需任何停机时间,或者需要生成新的群集具有运行 Windows Server 2016 操作系统的节点。A Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server failover cluster can now easily be upgraded without any downtime or need to build a new cluster with nodes that are running the Windows Server 2016 operating system. 使现有群集脱机并重新安装新操作系统中,对于每个节点,然后开始使用群集重新联机,涉及到迁移到 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集。Migrating clusters to Windows Server 2012 R2 involved taking the existing cluster offline and reinstalling the new operating system for each nodes, and then bringing the cluster back online. 旧进程过于繁琐,而且所需的停机时间。The old process was cumbersome and required downtime. 但是,在 Windows Server 2016 中,群集不会不需要进入脱机状态,任何时候。However, in Windows Server 2016, the cluster does not need to go offline at any point.

在阶段中升级群集的操作系统,如下所示适用于在群集中每个节点:The cluster operating systems for the upgrade in phases are as follows for each node in a cluster:

  • 节点是暂停和排除其上运行的所有虚拟机。The node is paused and drained of all virtual machines that are running on it.
  • 虚拟机 (或其他群集工作负荷) 迁移到群集中的另一个节点。The virtual machines (or other cluster workload) are migrated to another node in the cluster.
  • 删除现有的操作系统,并执行清理安装在节点上的 Windows Server 2016 操作系统。The existing operating system is removed and a clean installation of the Windows Server 2016 operating system on the node is performed.
  • 运行 Windows Server 2016 操作系统的节点添加回群集。The node running the Windows Server 2016 operating system is added back to the cluster.
  • 在此情况下,群集被认为运行在混合模式下,因为群集节点都在运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 或 Windows Server 2016。At this point, the cluster is said to be running in mixed mode, because the cluster nodes are running either Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016.
  • 群集功能级别会停留在 Windows Server 2012 R2。The cluster functional level stays at Windows Server 2012 R2. 在此功能级别,Windows Server 2016 的会影响与以前版本的操作系统的兼容性的新功能将不可用。At this functional level, new features in Windows Server 2016 that affect compatibility with previous versions of the operating system will be unavailable.
  • 最终,所有节点将都升级到 Windows Server 2016。Eventually, all nodes are upgraded to Windows Server 2016.
  • 群集功能级别然后更改为使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 的 Windows Server 2016 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelCluster functional level is then changed to Windows Server 2016 using the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel. 此时,您可以利用 Windows Server 2016 功能。At this point, you can take advantage of the Windows Server 2016 features.

有关详细信息,请参阅群集操作系统滚动升级For more information, see Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

存储副本Storage Replica

存储副本是实现存储不可知的新功能、 块级、 同步服务器或群集的灾难恢复以及扩展的站点之间故障转移群集之间的复制。Storage Replica is a new feature that enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster between sites. 同步复制支持物理站点中的镜像数据和在崩溃时保持一致的卷,以确保文件系统级别的数据损失为零。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes to ensure zero data loss at the file-system level. 异步复制允许超出都市范围、可能存在数据损失的站点扩展。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges with the possibility of data loss.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?

存储副本,可执行以下操作:Storage Replica enables you to do the following:

  • 为关键任务工作负荷的计划内和计划外中断提供单一供应商灾难恢复解决方案。Provide a single vendor disaster recovery solution for planned and unplanned outages of mission critical workloads.

  • 使用具有广为赞誉的可靠性、可伸缩性和高性能的 SMB3 传输。Use SMB3 transport with proven reliability, scalability, and performance.

  • 将 Windows 故障转移群集扩展到都市距离。Stretch Windows failover clusters to metropolitan distances.

  • 用于存储和聚类分析,如 HYPER-V、 存储副本,存储空间、 群集、 横向扩展文件服务器、 SMB3、 重复数据删除和 ReFS/NTFS 的端到端的 Microsoft 软件。Use Microsoft software end to end for storage and clustering, such as Hyper-V, Storage Replica, Storage Spaces, Cluster, Scale-Out File Server, SMB3, Data Deduplication, and ReFS/NTFS.

  • 可帮助降低成本和复杂性,如下所示:Help reduce cost and complexity as follows:

    • 与硬件无关,对特定存储配置(例如 DAS 或 SAN)没有要求。Is hardware agnostic, with no requirement for a specific storage configuration like DAS or SAN.

    • 允许使用商品存储和网络技术。Allows commodity storage and networking technologies.

    • 通过故障转移群集管理器轻松对单独的节点和群集进行图形管理的功能。Features ease of graphical management for individual nodes and clusters through Failover Cluster Manager.

    • 包括通过 Windows PowerShell 的全面、大型的脚本选项。Includes comprehensive, large-scale scripting options through Windows PowerShell.

  • 有助于减少停机时间,提高可靠性和 Windows 内部的工作效率。Help reduce downtime, and increase reliability and productivity intrinsic to Windows.

  • 提供支持能力、性能度量标准和诊断功能。Provide supportability, performance metrics, and diagnostic capabilities.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 2016 中的存储副本For more information, see the Storage Replica in Windows Server 2016.

云见证Cloud Witness

云见证是 Windows Server 2016 中一种新型的故障转移群集仲裁见证,它将 Microsoft Azure 作为仲裁点。Cloud Witness is a new type of Failover Cluster quorum witness in Windows Server 2016 that leverages Microsoft Azure as the arbitration point. 与其他仲裁见证一样,云见证获取投票,并可以参与仲裁计算。The Cloud Witness, like any other quorum witness, gets a vote and can participate in the quorum calculations. 可以使用“配置群集仲裁向导”将云见证配置为仲裁见证。You can configure cloud witness as a quorum witness using the Configure a Cluster Quorum Wizard.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?

使用云见证服务器作为故障转移群集仲裁见证服务器提供以下优势:Using Cloud Witness as a Failover Cluster quorum witness provides the following advantages:

  • 利用 Microsoft Azure,无需第三个单独的数据中心。Leverages Microsoft Azure and eliminates the need for a third separate datacenter.

  • 使用标准公开发布 Microsoft Azure Blob 存储而不在公有云中托管的 Vm 的额外维护开销。Uses the standard publicly available Microsoft Azure Blob Storage which eliminates the extra maintenance overhead of VMs hosted in a public cloud.

  • 同一 Microsoft Azure 存储帐户可以用于多个群集 (每个群集的一个 blob 文件; 群集用作 blob 文件名称的唯一 id)。Same Microsoft Azure Storage Account can be used for multiple clusters (one blob file per cluster; cluster unique id used as blob file name).

  • 提供对存储帐户 (写入每个 blob 文件,仅当群集节点的状态发生更改后更新的 blob 文件非常小数据) 的持续成本非常低。Provides a very low on-going cost to the Storage Account (very small data written per blob file, blob file updated only once when cluster nodes' state changes).

有关详细信息,请参阅部署云见证服务器的故障转移群集中For more information, see Deploy a Cloud Witness For a Failover Cluster.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?

此功能是 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

虚拟机复原性Virtual Machine Resiliency

计算复原Windows Server 2016 包括增加的虚拟机计算复原,以帮助减少计算群集中的群集内通信问题,如下所示:Compute Resiliency Windows Server 2016 includes increased virtual machines compute resiliency to help reduce intra-cluster communication issues in your compute cluster as follows:

  • 复原能力选项适用于虚拟机: 现在可以配置在发生暂时性故障期间定义行为的虚拟机的虚拟机复原选项:Resiliency options available for virtual machines: You can now configure virtual machine resiliency options that define behavior of the virtual machines during transient failures:

    • 复原级别: 可以帮助您定义如何处理暂时性故障。Resiliency Level: Helps you define how the transient failures are handled.

    • 复原能力段: 可以帮助您定义多长时间的所有虚拟机都可以运行独立。Resiliency Period: Helps you define how long all the virtual machines are allowed to run isolated.

  • 不正常节点的隔离区: 不正常节点会被隔离,并且不再被允许加入群集。Quarantine of unhealthy nodes: Unhealthy nodes are quarantined and are no longer allowed to join the cluster. 这可以防止摇摆节点造成负面影响的其他节点和整个群集。This prevents flapping nodes from negatively effecting other nodes and the overall cluster.

有关详细信息用于虚拟机计算复原工作流和节点隔离设置控制如何将节点位于隔离或隔离区中,请参阅Windows Server 2016 中的虚拟机计算复原For more information virtual machine compute resiliency workflow and node quarantine settings that control how your node is placed in isolation or quarantine, see Virtual Machine Compute Resiliency in Windows Server 2016.

存储复原能力在 Windows Server 2016 中,虚拟机都出现的暂时性存储故障更具弹性。Storage Resiliency In Windows Server 2016, virtual machines are more resilient to transient storage failures. 改进的虚拟机复原性帮助保持在出现存储中断时的租户虚拟机的会话状态。The improved virtual machine resiliency helps preserve tenant virtual machine session states in the event of a storage disruption. 这被通过对存储基础结构问题的智能和快速虚拟机响应。This is achieved by intelligent and quick virtual machine response to storage infrastructure issues.

当虚拟机将从其基础存储断开连接时,它将暂停并等待存储空间来恢复。When a virtual machine disconnects from its underlying storage, it pauses and waits for storage to recover. 在暂停时,虚拟机将保留在其中运行的应用程序的上下文。While paused, the virtual machine retains the context of applications that are running in it. 还原到其存储的虚拟机的连接后,虚拟机返回到其运行状态。When the virtual machine's connection to its storage is restored, the virtual machine returns to its running state. 因此,租户计算机的会话状态将保留在恢复上。As a result, the tenant machine's session state is retained on recovery.

在 Windows Server 2016 中,虚拟机存储复原能力太感知和优化为来宾群集。In Windows Server 2016, virtual machine storage resiliency is aware and optimized for guest clusters too.

故障转移群集中的诊断改进Diagnostic Improvements in Failover Clustering

为了帮助诊断问题的故障转移群集,Windows Server 2016,包括以下:To help diagnose issues with failover clusters, Windows Server 2016 includes the following:

站点感知故障转移群集Site-aware Failover Clusters

Windows Server 2016 包括启用基于其物理位置 (站点) 的外延式群集中的组节点的站点感知故障转移群集。Windows Server 2016 includes site- aware failover clusters that enable group nodes in stretched clusters based on their physical location (site). 群集站点感知改进了关键操作,例如故障转移行为、 位置策略、 节点和仲裁行为之间的检测信号的群集生命周期。Cluster site-awareness enhances key operations during the cluster lifecycle such as failover behavior, placement policies, heartbeat between the nodes, and quorum behavior. 有关详细信息,请参阅Windows Server 2016 中的站点感知故障转移群集For more information, see Site-aware Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2016.

工作组和多域群集Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters

在 Windows Server 2012 R2 和早期版本中,仅可以加入同一个域的成员节点间创建群集。In Windows Server 2012 R2 and previous versions, a cluster can only be created between member nodes joined to the same domain. Windows Server 2016 打破了这些障碍,并引入了创建故障转移群集的功能,且无需 Active Directory 依赖项。Windows Server 2016 breaks down these barriers and introduces the ability to create a Failover Cluster without Active Directory dependencies. 现在可以按下列配置创建故障转移群集:You can now create failover clusters in the following configurations:

  • 单域群集。Single-domain Clusters. 已加入到同一个域的所有节点的群集。Clusters with all nodes joined to the same domain.

  • 多域群集。Multi-domain Clusters. 哪些是不同的域的成员节点的群集。Clusters with nodes which are members of different domains.

  • 工作组群集。Workgroup Clusters. 这是成员服务器的节点的群集 / 工作组 (未加入域)。Clusters with nodes which are member servers / workgroup (not domain joined).

有关详细信息,请参阅Windows Server 2016 中的工作组和多域群集For more information, see Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters in Windows Server 2016

虚拟机负载平衡Virtual Machine Load Balancing

虚拟机负载平衡是一项新功能,方便的无缝负载平衡的虚拟机在群集中节点之间的故障转移群集。Virtual machine Load Balancing is a new feature in Failover Clustering that facilitates the seamless load balancing of virtual machines across the nodes in a cluster. 处于过载状态的节点都被标识基于虚拟机内存和 CPU 使用率在节点上。Over-committed nodes are identified based on virtual machine Memory and CPU utilization on the node. 然后 (实时迁移) 移动虚拟机处于过载状态节点到节点的可用带宽 (如果适用)。Virtual machines are then moved (live migrated) from an over-committed node to nodes with available bandwidth (if applicable). 可以优化均衡入侵,以确保最佳群集性能和利用率。The aggressiveness of the balancing can be tuned to ensure optimal cluster performance and utilization. Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 中默认情况下启用负载平衡。Load Balancing is enabled by default in Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview. 但是,负载平衡时,禁用 SCVMM 动态优化已启用。However, Load Balancing is disabled when SCVMM Dynamic Optimization is enabled.

虚拟机启动顺序Virtual Machine Start Order

虚拟机启动顺序是在群集中引入了开始顺序业务流程的虚拟机 (和所有组) 的故障转移群集的新功能。Virtual machine Start Order is a new feature in Failover Clustering that introduces start order orchestration for Virtual machines (and all groups) in a cluster. 虚拟机现在可以分组到的层,并启动顺序的依赖项可以创建不同层之间。Virtual machines can now be grouped into tiers, and start order dependencies can be created between different tiers. 这可确保最重要的虚拟机 (例如域控制器或实用程序的虚拟机) 启动的第一个。This ensures that the most important virtual machines (such as Domain Controllers or Utility virtual machines) are started first. 此外启动它们具有依赖关系的虚拟机之前,不会启动虚拟机。Virtual machines are not started until the virtual machines that they have a dependency on are also started.

简化的 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks

故障转移群集网络已不再限制为单个 NIC 每个子网 / 网络。Failover Cluster networks are no longer limited to a single NIC per subnet / network. 使用简化的 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络,网络配置是自动和子网上的每个 NIC 可以用于群集和工作负荷的流量。With Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks, network configuration is automatic and every NIC on the subnet can be used for cluster and workload traffic. 此增强功能允许客户的 HYPER-V、 SQL Server 故障转移群集实例和其他 SMB 工作负荷最大化网络吞吐量。This enhancement allows customers to maximize network throughput for Hyper-V, SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance, and other SMB workloads.

有关详细信息,请参阅简体 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络For more information, see Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks.

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