在故障转移群集在 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能What's new in Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2016

适用于:Windows Server(半年通道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

本主题介绍了在故障转移群集 Windows Server 2016 中的新的和更改功能。This topic explains the new and changed functionality in Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2016.

滚动升级群集操作系统Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade

在故障转移群集、群集操作系统推出升级,一项新功能允许管理员升级的群集节点操作系统从 Windows Server 2012 R2 对 Windows Server 2016 而无需停止 Hyper-V 或规模文件服务器工作负载。A new feature in Failover Clustering, Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade, enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用此功能,可以避免停机处罚防御服务级别协议 (SLA)。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

此更改添加哪些值?What value does this change add?

升级 Hyper-V 或规模文件服务器的群集运行 Windows Server 2012 r2 对 Windows Server 2016 不再需要宕机。Upgrading a Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server cluster from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 no longer requires downtime. 群集将继续运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 级别,直到的所有中的群集节点运行的 Windows Server 2016。The cluster will continue to function at a Windows Server 2012 R2 level until all of the nodes in the cluster are running Windows Server 2016. 通过使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlt 群集功能级别升级到 Windows Server 2016 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelThe cluster functional level is upgraded to Windows Server 2016 by using the Windows PowerShell cmdlt Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

警告

  • 更新群集功能级别后,你不能回退到 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集功能级别。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster functional level.
  • 直到Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet 运行时,该过程不可逆,可以添加 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点并可以删除 Windows Server 2016 节点。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is reversible, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.

内容的工作方式不同?What works differently?

Hyper-V 或规模文件服务器故障转移群集可以现在轻松升级而无需任何停机或需要生成新的群集与运行 Windows Server 2016 的操作系统的节点。A Hyper-V or Scale-Out File Server failover cluster can now easily be upgraded without any downtime or need to build a new cluster with nodes that are running the Windows Server 2016 operating system. 对 Windows Server 2012 R2 的迁移群集涉及将现有群集离线和重新安装每个节点,新的操作系统,然后将返回到联机群集。Migrating clusters to Windows Server 2012 R2 involved taking the existing cluster offline and reinstalling the new operating system for each nodes, and then bringing the cluster back online. 旧过程已繁琐和所需宕机。The old process was cumbersome and required downtime. 但是,Windows Server 2016,群集不必转到离线在任意点。However, in Windows Server 2016, the cluster does not need to go offline at any point.

升级分阶段群集操作系统中的群集每个节点有如下:The cluster operating systems for the upgrade in phases are as follows for each node in a cluster:

  • 节点是暂停,并且它正在运行的所有虚拟机的耗尽。The node is paused and drained of all virtual machines that are running on it.
  • 虚拟机(或其他群集运行工作负载)迁移到其他 cluster.The 虚拟机迁移到另一台群集节点。The virtual machines (or other cluster workload) are migrated to another node in the cluster.The virtual machines are migrated to another node in the cluster.
  • 在删除现有的操作系统,并执行 Windows Server 2016 操作系统节点上的干净安装。The existing operating system is removed and a clean installation of the Windows Server 2016 operating system on the node is performed.
  • 运行 Windows Server 2016 的操作系统节点回群集添加。The node running the Windows Server 2016 operating system is added back to the cluster.
  • 此时,群集称为型混合运行因为群集节点正在运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 或 Windows Server 2016。At this point, the cluster is said to be running in mixed mode, because the cluster nodes are running either Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016.
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 上一直群集功能级别。The cluster functional level stays at Windows Server 2012 R2. 在此功能的级别,Windows Server 2016 影响与以前版本的操作系统的兼容性的新功能将不提供。At this functional level, new features in Windows Server 2016 that affect compatibility with previous versions of the operating system will be unavailable.
  • 最终,所有节点都升级到 Windows Server 2016。Eventually, all nodes are upgraded to Windows Server 2016.
  • 群集功能级别然后更改为使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 的 Windows Server 2016 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelCluster functional level is then changed to Windows Server 2016 using the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel. 此时,你可以充分利用 Windows Server 2016 功能。At this point, you can take advantage of the Windows Server 2016 features.

有关详细信息,请参阅群集操作系统推出升级For more information, see Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

存储副本Storage Replica

存储副本是一种新的功能,用于存储无关、服务器或灾难恢复以及张开故障转移群集的站点之间的群集之间的阻止级别、同步复制。Storage Replica is a new feature that enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster between sites. 同步复制使镜像的物理崩溃一致的卷,以确保丢失数据的文件系统级别的站点中的数据。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes to ensure zero data loss at the file-system level. 异步复制允许有导致数据丢失大都市范围之外的站点扩展。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges with the possibility of data loss.

此更改添加哪些值?What value does this change add?

存储副本使您能够执行以下操作:Storage Replica enables you to do the following:

  • 提供一次供应商灾难恢复解决方案计划和非计划不可用的使命的代表关键工作负载。Provide a single vendor disaster recovery solution for planned and unplanned outages of mission critical workloads.

  • 使用 SMB3 传输成熟的可靠性、可扩展性和性能。Use SMB3 transport with proven reliability, scalability, and performance.

  • 延长 Windows 故障转移群集到本土距离。Stretch Windows failover clusters to metropolitan distances.

  • 使用 Microsoft 软件端到端存储和群集、Hyper-V、存储副本、存储空间、群集、规模文件服务器、SMB3 数据消除和 ReFS/NTFS 等。Use Microsoft software end to end for storage and clustering, such as Hyper-V, Storage Replica, Storage Spaces, Cluster, Scale-Out File Server, SMB3, Data Deduplication, and ReFS/NTFS.

  • 帮助降低成本和复杂性,如下所示:Help reduce cost and complexity as follows:

    • 是硬件限,而不需要像 DAS 或 SAN 特定存储配置。Is hardware agnostic, with no requirement for a specific storage configuration like DAS or SAN.

    • 允许商品存储和网络的技术。Allows commodity storage and networking technologies.

    • 有关个别节点和群集故障转移群集管理器通过图形管理功能简单。Features ease of graphical management for individual nodes and clusters through Failover Cluster Manager.

    • 包含通过 Windows PowerShell 全面、大规模脚本的选项。Includes comprehensive, large-scale scripting options through Windows PowerShell.

  • 有助于减少停机,并增加可靠性和内置于 Windows 的工作效率。Help reduce downtime, and increase reliability and productivity intrinsic to Windows.

  • 提供性、性能指标和诊断功能。Provide supportability, performance metrics, and diagnostic capabilities.

有关详细信息,请参阅存储在 Windows Server 2016 的副本For more information, see the Storage Replica in Windows Server 2016.

云见证Cloud Witness

云见证是一种新故障转移群集仲裁见证利用作为仲裁点的 Microsoft Azure 的 Windows Server 2016。Cloud Witness is a new type of Failover Cluster quorum witness in Windows Server 2016 that leverages Microsoft Azure as the arbitration point. 云见证,如任何其他仲裁见证获取投票,并且可以参与仲裁计算。The Cloud Witness, like any other quorum witness, gets a vote and can participate in the quorum calculations. 你可以将云见证配置为使用配置群集仲裁向导仲裁见证。You can configure cloud witness as a quorum witness using the Configure a Cluster Quorum Wizard.

此更改添加哪些值?What value does this change add?

作为故障转移群集使用云见证仲裁见证提供以下优势:Using Cloud Witness as a Failover Cluster quorum witness provides the following advantages:

  • 利用 Microsoft Azure 和不再需要单独的第三个数据中心。Leverages Microsoft Azure and eliminates the need for a third separate datacenter.

  • 在公共云使用它消除了虚拟机的功能的额外维护开销公开可用 Microsoft Azure 斑点存储托管的标准。Uses the standard publicly available Microsoft Azure Blob Storage which eliminates the extra maintenance overhead of VMs hosted in a public cloud.

  • 相同的 Microsoft Azure 存储帐户可用于多个群集(群集每一个斑点文件; 群集用作斑点文件名称的唯一 id)。Same Microsoft Azure Storage Account can be used for multiple clusters (one blob file per cluster; cluster unique id used as blob file name).

  • 提供了非常低成本上转到存储帐户(编写每个斑点文件仅当群集节点状态发生更改后,更新斑点文件很小数据)。Provides a very low on-going cost to the Storage Account (very small data written per blob file, blob file updated only once when cluster nodes' state changes).

有关详细信息,请参阅部署云见证为故障转移群集For more information, see Deploy a Cloud Witness For a Failover Cluster.

内容的工作方式不同?What works differently?

此功能是 Windows Server 2016 中的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

虚拟机复原Virtual Machine Resiliency

计算复原Windows Server 2016 包含增加的虚拟机计算复原,以帮助减少群集内部通信中计算群集的问题,如下所示:Compute Resiliency Windows Server 2016 includes increased virtual machines compute resiliency to help reduce intra-cluster communication issues in your compute cluster as follows:

  • 适用于虚拟机复原选项:你现在可以配置期间瞬时失败定义行为虚拟机的虚拟机复原选项:Resiliency options available for virtual machines: You can now configure virtual machine resiliency options that define behavior of the virtual machines during transient failures:

    • 复原级别:可帮助你定义如何处理暂时失败的原因。Resiliency Level: Helps you define how the transient failures are handled.

    • 复原期限:可帮助你定义多久允许独立运行所有虚拟机。Resiliency Period: Helps you define how long all the virtual machines are allowed to run isolated.

  • 隔离的节点不正常:不正常节点隔离和不再允许加入群集。Quarantine of unhealthy nodes: Unhealthy nodes are quarantined and are no longer allowed to join the cluster. 这可以防止扇动翅膀节点其他节点和整个群集造成负面影响。This prevents flapping nodes from negatively effecting other nodes and the overall cluster.

有关详细信息虚拟机计算复原工作流程和节点隔离控制的设置,你节点如何放入隔离或隔离区,请参阅虚拟机 Windows Server 2016 中的计算复原For more information virtual machine compute resiliency workflow and node quarantine settings that control how your node is placed in isolation or quarantine, see Virtual Machine Compute Resiliency in Windows Server 2016.

存储复原虚拟机 Windows Server 2016 中,有更复原来瞬时存储失败情况。Storage Resiliency In Windows Server 2016, virtual machines are more resilient to transient storage failures. 改进了的虚拟机复原有助于保留存储中断时租户虚拟机会话状态。The improved virtual machine resiliency helps preserve tenant virtual machine session states in the event of a storage disruption. 这被通过智能和快速虚拟机响应存储基础结构的问题。This is achieved by intelligent and quick virtual machine response to storage infrastructure issues.

从虚拟机断开连接时这与预期基础存储,它会暂停,并等待存储恢复。When a virtual machine disconnects from its underlying storage, it pauses and waits for storage to recover. 在暂停,虚拟机可以保留在它正在运行的应用程序的上下文。While paused, the virtual machine retains the context of applications that are running in it. 还原到其存储虚拟机的连接后,虚拟机返回到运行状态。When the virtual machine's connection to its storage is restored, the virtual machine returns to its running state. 因此,在恢复保留租户计算机会话状态。As a result, the tenant machine's session state is retained on recovery.

Windows Server 2016,虚拟机存储复原也感知和来宾群集的优化。In Windows Server 2016, virtual machine storage resiliency is aware and optimized for guest clusters too.

在故障转移群集诊断改进Diagnostic Improvements in Failover Clustering

若要帮助诊断故障转移群集的问题,Windows Server 2016 包括:To help diagnose issues with failover clusters, Windows Server 2016 includes the following:

站点感知故障转移群集Site-aware Failover Clusters

Windows Server 2016 包括启用组节点拉伸群集根据他们的物理位置(站点)中的站点-感知故障转移群集。Windows Server 2016 includes site- aware failover clusters that enable group nodes in stretched clusters based on their physical location (site). 群集的站点识别增强了主要操作,如故障转移行为、放置策略、检测信号之间节点,然后仲裁行为群集生命周期。Cluster site-awareness enhances key operations during the cluster lifecycle such as failover behavior, placement policies, heartbeat between the nodes, and quorum behavior. 有关详细信息,请参阅Windows Server 2016 中的网站了解故障转移群集For more information, see Site-aware Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2016.

工作组和多域群集Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters

在 Windows Server 2012 R2 和以前的版本中,只可以成员节点到同一个域加入之间创建群集。In Windows Server 2012 R2 and previous versions, a cluster can only be created between member nodes joined to the same domain. Windows Server 2016 这些障碍,并且引入了创建不 Active Directory 依赖项所执行的情况下进行故障转移群集的功能。Windows Server 2016 breaks down these barriers and introduces the ability to create a Failover Cluster without Active Directory dependencies. 现在,你可以采用以下配置创建故障转移群集:You can now create failover clusters in the following configurations:

  • 单域群集。Single-domain Clusters. 使用所有节点到同一个域加入群集。Clusters with all nodes joined to the same domain.

  • 多域群集。Multi-domain Clusters. 群集节点它不同的域的成员。Clusters with nodes which are members of different domains.

  • 工作组群集。Workgroup Clusters. 与节点它成员服务器群集 / 工作组(不能加入域)。Clusters with nodes which are member servers / workgroup (not domain joined).

有关详细信息,请参阅工作组和多域群集在 Windows Server 2016For more information, see Workgroup and Multi-domain clusters in Windows Server 2016

虚拟机负载平衡Virtual Machine Load Balancing

虚拟机负载平衡是故障转移群集便于无缝负载平衡虚拟机的跨中的群集节点中的新增功能。Virtual machine Load Balancing is a new feature in Failover Clustering that facilitates the seamless load balancing of virtual machines across the nodes in a cluster. 根据虚拟机内存和节点上的 CPU 使用率标识过度提交的节点。Over-committed nodes are identified based on virtual machine Memory and CPU utilization on the node. 然后移虚拟机(实时迁移)从过度提交节点到具有(如果适用)可用带宽节点。Virtual machines are then moved (live migrated) from an over-committed node to nodes with available bandwidth (if applicable). 可以关注平衡,快速以确保获得最佳的群集性能和使用率。The aggressiveness of the balancing can be tuned to ensure optimal cluster performance and utilization. 负载平衡默认 Windows 服务器 2016 Technical Preview。Load Balancing is enabled by default in Windows Sever 2016 Technical Preview. 但是,负载平衡处于禁用状态启用 SCVMM 动态优化。However, Load Balancing is disabled when SCVMM Dynamic Optimization is enabled.

虚拟机开始订单Virtual Machine Start Order

虚拟机开始订单是在群集故障转移群集,其中引入了虚拟机的启动顺序业务流程(以及所有组)中的新增功能。Virtual machine Start Order is a new feature in Failover Clustering that introduces start order orchestration for Virtual machines (and all groups) in a cluster. 现在可以按层,分组虚拟机和相关性开始订单可以创建其他层之间。Virtual machines can now be grouped into tiers, and start order dependencies can be created between different tiers. 这将确保最重要的虚拟机(如域控制器或实用程序虚拟机)会启动第一。This ensures that the most important virtual machines (such as Domain Controllers or Utility virtual machines) are started first. 不启动虚拟机,直到他们具有依赖关系虚拟机还会启动。Virtual machines are not started until the virtual machines that they have a dependency on are also started.

简化的 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络 Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks

不再子网每一个 nic 有限故障转移群集网络 / 网络。Failover Cluster networks are no longer limited to a single NIC per subnet / network. 简化 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络,网络配置自动并上子网每个网络接口卡可用于群集和工作负载的交通。With Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks, network configuration is automatic and every NIC on the subnet can be used for cluster and workload traffic. 此增强使客户能够最大化 Hyper-V、SQL Server 故障转移群集实例和其他 SMB 工作负载的网络吞吐量。This enhancement allows customers to maximize network throughput for Hyper-V, SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance, and other SMB workloads.

有关详细信息,请参阅简体 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络For more information, see Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks.

请参阅See Also