System Namespace

System 命名空間 (Namespace) 含有定義常用值和參考資料型別 (Data Type)、事件和事件處理常式、介面、屬性 (Attribute) 和處理例外狀況的主要類別和基底類別。 The System namespace contains fundamental classes and base classes that define commonly-used value and reference data types, events and event handlers, interfaces, attributes, and processing exceptions.

類別

AccessViolationException

嘗試讀取或寫入受保護的記憶體時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to read or write protected memory.

ActivationContext

識別目前應用程式的啟動內容。Identifies the activation context for the current application. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

Activator

包含本機或遠端建立物件類型的方法,或者取得對現有遠端物件的參考。Contains methods to create types of objects locally or remotely, or obtain references to existing remote objects. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

AggregateException

代表應用程式執行期間所發生的一或多個錯誤。Represents one or more errors that occur during application execution.

AppContext

提供成員,用於設定和擷取應用程式內容的相關資料。Provides members for setting and retrieving data about an application's context.

AppDomain

表示應用程式定義域,也就是應用程式執行的獨立環境。Represents an application domain, which is an isolated environment where applications execute. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

AppDomainManager

提供 Unmanaged 主機的 Managed 對等項目。Provides a managed equivalent of an unmanaged host.

AppDomainSetup

表示可加入至 AppDomain 的執行個體的組件 (Assembly) 繫結資訊。Represents assembly binding information that can be added to an instance of AppDomain.

AppDomainUnloadedException

嘗試存取已卸載應用程式定義域時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt is made to access an unloaded application domain.

ApplicationException

作為應用程式定義例外狀況的基底類別。Serves as the base class for application-defined exceptions.

ApplicationId

包含用來唯一識別資訊清單架構應用程式的資訊。Contains information used to uniquely identify a manifest-based application. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

ApplicationIdentity

提供唯一識別由資訊清單啟動的應用程式的能力。Provides the ability to uniquely identify a manifest-activated application. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

ArgumentException

當其中一個提供給方法的引數為無效時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when one of the arguments provided to a method is not valid.

ArgumentNullException

例外狀況,這個例外狀況會在 Null 參考 (在 Visual Basic 中為 Nothing) 被傳遞至不接受其為有效引數的方法時擲回。The exception that is thrown when a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) is passed to a method that does not accept it as a valid argument.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException

當引數值超出了叫用 (Invoke) 方法所定義值的容許範圍時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the value of an argument is outside the allowable range of values as defined by the invoked method.

ArithmeticException

當算術、轉型或轉換作業發生錯誤時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown for errors in an arithmetic, casting, or conversion operation.

Array

提供建立、管理、搜尋和排序陣列的方法,可在 Common Language Runtime 時做為所有陣列的基底類別。Provides methods for creating, manipulating, searching, and sorting arrays, thereby serving as the base class for all arrays in the common language runtime.

ArrayTypeMismatchException

嘗試在陣列中儲存錯誤型別的元素時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt is made to store an element of the wrong type within an array.

AssemblyLoadEventArgs

提供 AssemblyLoad 事件的資料。Provides data for the AssemblyLoad event.

Attribute

代表自訂屬性的基底類別。Represents the base class for custom attributes.

AttributeUsageAttribute

指定另一個屬性 (Attribute) 類別的使用方法。Specifies the usage of another attribute class. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

BadImageFormatException

當動態連結程式庫 (DLL) 或可執行程式的檔案映像無效時擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the file image of a dynamic link library (DLL) or an executable program is invalid.

BitConverter

將基底資料類型與位元組陣列相互轉換。Converts base data types to an array of bytes, and an array of bytes to base data types.

Buffer

操作基本類型的陣列。Manipulates arrays of primitive types.

CannotUnloadAppDomainException

嘗試卸載應用程式定義域失敗時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt to unload an application domain fails.

CharEnumerator

支援逐一查看 String 物件和讀取其個別字元。Supports iterating over a String object and reading its individual characters. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

CLSCompliantAttribute

表示程式項目是否符合 Common Language Specification (CLS) 標準。Indicates whether a program element is compliant with the Common Language Specification (CLS). 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

Console

表示主控台應用程式 (Console Application) 的標準輸入、輸出和錯誤資料流。Represents the standard input, output, and error streams for console applications. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

ConsoleCancelEventArgs

提供 CancelKeyPress 事件的資料。Provides data for the CancelKeyPress event. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

ContextBoundObject

定義所有內容繫結類別的基底類別。Defines the base class for all context-bound classes.

ContextMarshalException

嘗試跨內容界限封送處理物件失敗時,擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt to marshal an object across a context boundary fails.

ContextStaticAttribute

指示特定內容的靜態欄位值是唯一的。Indicates that the value of a static field is unique for a particular context.

Convert

將基底資料類型轉換為其他基底資料類型。Converts a base data type to another base data type.

DataMisalignedException

從位址讀取資料單元,或將資料單元寫入位址時,若資料單元不是資料大小的倍數,就會擲回例外狀況 (Exception)。The exception that is thrown when a unit of data is read from or written to an address that is not a multiple of the data size. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

DBNull

表示不存在的值。Represents a nonexistent value. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

Delegate

表示委派,它是參考到靜態方法或該類別的類別執行個體和執行個體方法 (Instance Method) 的資料結構。Represents a delegate, which is a data structure that refers to a static method or to a class instance and an instance method of that class.

DivideByZeroException

嘗試將整數或 Decimal 值除以零時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to divide an integral or Decimal value by zero.

DllNotFoundException

DLL 匯入中所指定的 DLL 找不到時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a DLL specified in a DLL import cannot be found.

DuplicateWaitObjectException

當物件在同步物件 (Synchronization Object) 陣列中出現一次以上時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an object appears more than once in an array of synchronization objects.

EntryPointNotFoundException

當試著載入類別卻因沒有進入方法而告失敗時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt to load a class fails due to the absence of an entry method.

Enum

提供列舉的基底類別。Provides the base class for enumerations.

Environment

提供有關目前環境和平台的資訊,以及操作的方法。Provides information about, and means to manipulate, the current environment and platform. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

EventArgs

表示含有事件資料之類別的基底類別,並提供值以用於不包含事件資料的事件。Represents the base class for classes that contain event data, and provides a value to use for events that do not include event data.

Exception

代表應用程式執行期間所發生的錯誤。Represents errors that occur during application execution.

ExecutionEngineException

當 Common Language Runtime 執行引擎中有內部錯誤時,會擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an internal error in the execution engine of the common language runtime. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

FieldAccessException

當嘗試存取類別內私用的或保護的欄位為不合法時,會擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an invalid attempt to access a private or protected field inside a class.

FileStyleUriParser

根據檔案配置的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser based on the File scheme.

FlagsAttribute

指出可將列舉視為位元欄位,也就是一組旗標。Indicates that an enumeration can be treated as a bit field; that is, a set of flags.

FormatException

引數格式無效或複合格式字串格式不正確時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the format of an argument is invalid, or when a composite format string is not well formed.

FormattableString

代表複合格式字串以及要格式化的引數。Represents a composite format string, along with the arguments to be formatted.

FtpStyleUriParser

根據檔案傳輸通訊協定 (File Transfer Protocol,FTP) 配置的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser based on the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) scheme.

GC

控制系統記憶體回收行程,它是自動回收未使用之記憶體的服務。Controls the system garbage collector, a service that automatically reclaims unused memory.

GenericUriParser

階層式 URI 的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser for a hierarchical URI.

GopherStyleUriParser

根據 Gopher 配置的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser based on the Gopher scheme.

HttpStyleUriParser

根據 HTTP 配置的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser based on the HTTP scheme.

IndexOutOfRangeException

嘗試使用陣列或集合以外索引來存取陣列或集合項目時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt is made to access an element of an array or collection with an index that is outside its bounds.

InsufficientExecutionStackException

當沒有足夠可用的執行堆疊以允許大部分的方法執行時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is insufficient execution stack available to allow most methods to execute.

InsufficientMemoryException

記憶體是否足夠的檢查失敗時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a check for sufficient available memory fails. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

InvalidCastException

無效的轉型 (Casting) 或明確轉換所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown for invalid casting or explicit conversion.

InvalidOperationException

當方法呼叫對物件的目前狀態無效時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a method call is invalid for the object's current state.

InvalidProgramException

例外狀況,當程式包含無效的 Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) 或中繼資料 (Metadata) 時會擲回這個例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a program contains invalid Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) or metadata. 通常,這表示在產生程式的編譯中有錯誤。Generally this indicates a bug in the compiler that generated the program.

InvalidTimeZoneException

時區資訊無效時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when time zone information is invalid.

Lazy<T>

提供延遲初始設定的支援。Provides support for lazy initialization.

Lazy<T,TMetadata>

提供對物件和其相關聯中繼資料的延遲間接參考,供 Managed Extensibility Framework 使用。Provides a lazy indirect reference to an object and its associated metadata for use by the Managed Extensibility Framework.

LdapStyleUriParser

根據輕量型目錄存取協定 (LDAP) 配置的可自訂剖析器。A customizable parser based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) scheme.

LoaderOptimizationAttribute

用來為可執行應用程式的主要方法設定預設的載入器最佳化原則。Used to set the default loader optimization policy for the main method of an executable application.

LocalDataStoreSlot

封裝記憶體位置以儲存區域資料。Encapsulates a memory slot to store local data. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

MarshalByRefObject

在支援遠端處理的應用程式中啟用跨應用程式定義域界限存取物件。Enables access to objects across application domain boundaries in applications that support remoting.

Math

提供三角函數、對數函數和其他一般數學函數的常數和靜態方法。Provides constants and static methods for trigonometric, logarithmic, and other common mathematical functions.

MathF

提供三角函數、對數函數和其他一般數學函數的常數和靜態方法。Provides constants and static methods for trigonometric, logarithmic, and other common mathematical functions.

MemberAccessException

嘗試存取類別成員失敗時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an attempt to access a class member fails.

MemoryExtensions
MethodAccessException

當嘗試存取某個方法 (例如,從部分信任的程式碼中存取私用方法) 而無效時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an invalid attempt to access a method, such as accessing a private method from partially trusted code.

MissingFieldException

當嘗試動態存取不存在的欄位時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to dynamically access a field that does not exist. 如果類別庫 (Class Library) 中的欄位被移除或重新命名,請重新編譯參考該類別庫的任何組件。If a field in a class library has been removed or renamed, recompile any assemblies that reference that library.

MissingMemberException

嘗試動態存取不存在或未宣告為公開的類別成員時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to dynamically access a class member that does not exist or that is not declared as public. 如果移除或重新命名類別庫 (Class Library) 中的成員,請重新編譯參考該類別庫的任何組件。If a member in a class library has been removed or renamed, recompile any assemblies that reference that library.

MissingMethodException

當嘗試動態存取不存在的方法時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to dynamically access a method that does not exist.

MTAThreadAttribute

指示應用程式的 COM 執行緒模型為多執行緒 Apartment (Multithreaded Apartment,MTA)。Indicates that the COM threading model for an application is multithreaded apartment (MTA).

MulticastDelegate

表示多重傳送的委派 (Delegate);也就是說,委派可以在它的引動過程清單中包含一個以上的項目。Represents a multicast delegate; that is, a delegate that can have more than one element in its invocation list.

MulticastNotSupportedException

例外狀況,擲回於嘗試組合以 Delegate 型別 (而不是 MulticastDelegate 型別) 為基礎的兩個委派 (Delegate) 時。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to combine two delegates based on the Delegate type instead of the MulticastDelegate type. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

NetPipeStyleUriParser

以 "Indigo" 系統的 NetPipe 機制為根據的剖析器。A parser based on the NetPipe scheme for the "Indigo" system.

NetTcpStyleUriParser

以 "Indigo" 系統的 NetTcp 機制為根據的剖析器。A parser based on the NetTcp scheme for the "Indigo" system.

NewsStyleUriParser

根據使用網路新聞傳送通訊協定 (Network News Transfer Protocol,NNTP) 的新聞配置,自訂的剖析器。A customizable parser based on the news scheme using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP).

NonSerializedAttribute

指示可序列化類別的欄位不應該序列化。Indicates that a field of a serializable class should not be serialized. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

NotFiniteNumberException

當浮點數值為正無限大、負無限大或非數字 (NaN) 時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a floating-point value is positive infinity, negative infinity, or Not-a-Number (NaN).

NotImplementedException

當要求的方法或作業不實作時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a requested method or operation is not implemented.

NotSupportedException

當不支援叫用的方法,或是嘗試讀取、搜尋或寫入不支援叫用功能的資料流時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an invoked method is not supported, or when there is an attempt to read, seek, or write to a stream that does not support the invoked functionality.

Nullable

支援可以指派 null 的實值類型。Supports a value type that can be assigned null. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

NullReferenceException

當嘗試對 Null 物件取值時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to dereference a null object reference.

Object

支援.NET 類別階層架構中的所有類別,並為衍生類別提供低階服務。Supports all classes in the .NET class hierarchy and provides low-level services to derived classes. 這是所有的.NET 類別; 的 ultimate 基底類別它是類型階層的根。This is the ultimate base class of all .NET classes; it is the root of the type hierarchy.

ObjectDisposedException

當作業在處置物件上執行時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an operation is performed on a disposed object.

ObsoleteAttribute

標記不再使用的程式項目。Marks the program elements that are no longer in use. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

OperatingSystem

表示作業系統的資訊,例如版本和平台識別項。Represents information about an operating system, such as the version and platform identifier. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

OperationCanceledException

在取消執行緒執行的作業之後,在執行緒中擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown in a thread upon cancellation of an operation that the thread was executing.

OutOfMemoryException

當沒有足夠的記憶體繼續執行程式時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is not enough memory to continue the execution of a program.

OverflowException

當檢查內容中的算數、轉型 (Casting) 或轉換作業發生溢位時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an arithmetic, casting, or conversion operation in a checked context results in an overflow.

ParamArrayAttribute

表示方法將允許在引動過程中使用不定數目的引數。Indicates that a method will allow a variable number of arguments in its invocation. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

PlatformNotSupportedException

當某功能不在特定平台上執行時擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a feature does not run on a particular platform.

Progress<T>

提供 IProgress<T>,會針對每個報告進度值叫用回呼。Provides an IProgress<T> that invokes callbacks for each reported progress value.

Random

表示虛擬亂數產生器,為產生數字序列的裝置,符合隨機方式的特定統計需求。Represents a pseudo-random number generator, which is a device that produces a sequence of numbers that meet certain statistical requirements for randomness.

RankException

當將錯誤維度 (Dimension) 數目的陣列傳遞給方法時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an array with the wrong number of dimensions is passed to a method.

ResolveEventArgs

提供載入器解析事件 (例如,TypeResolveResourceResolveReflectionOnlyAssemblyResolveAssemblyResolve 事件) 的資料。Provides data for loader resolution events, such as the TypeResolve, ResourceResolve, ReflectionOnlyAssemblyResolve, and AssemblyResolve events.

SerializableAttribute

指示類別可以序列化。Indicates that a class can be serialized. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

StackOverflowException

例外狀況,擲回於執行堆疊因為包含過多巢狀方法呼叫而溢位時。The exception that is thrown when the execution stack overflows because it contains too many nested method calls. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

STAThreadAttribute

指示應用程式的 COM 執行緒模型為單一執行緒 Apartment (Single-Threaded Apartment,STA)。Indicates that the COM threading model for an application is single-threaded apartment (STA).

String

以一連串的 UTF-16 字碼單位表示文字。Represents text as a sequence of UTF-16 code units.

StringComparer

表示使用特定大小寫和文化特性架構或序數比較規則的字串比較作業。Represents a string comparison operation that uses specific case and culture-based or ordinal comparison rules.

StringNormalizationExtensions

提供擴充方法以使用字串正規化。Provides extension methods to work with string normalization.

SystemException

做為系統例外狀況命名空間的基底類別。Serves as the base class for system exceptions namespace.

ThreadStaticAttribute

表示每個執行緒的靜態欄位值是唯一的。Indicates that the value of a static field is unique for each thread.

TimeoutException

分配給處理或作業的時間已經過期時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the time allotted for a process or operation has expired.

TimeZone

表示時區。Represents a time zone.

TimeZoneInfo

表示世界的任意時區。Represents any time zone in the world.

TimeZoneInfo.AdjustmentRule

提供關於時區調整的資訊,例如日光節約時間的開始與結束。Provides information about a time zone adjustment, such as the transition to and from daylight saving time.

TimeZoneNotFoundException

找不到時區而擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a time zone cannot be found.

Tuple

提供用於建立 Tuple 物件的靜態方法。Provides static methods for creating tuple objects.

Tuple<T1>

表示 1-Tuple 或單一 (Singleton) 物件。Represents a 1-tuple, or singleton.

Tuple<T1,T2>

表示 2-Tuple 或雙重 (Pair) 物件。Represents a 2-tuple, or pair.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3>

表示 3-Tuple 或三重 (Triple) 物件。Represents a 3-tuple, or triple.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3,T4>

表示 4-Tuple 或四重 (Quadruple) 物件。Represents a 4-tuple, or quadruple.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5>

表示 5-Tuple 或五重 (Quintuple) 物件。Represents a 5-tuple, or quintuple.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6>

表示 6-Tuple 或六重 (Sextuple) 物件。Represents a 6-tuple, or sextuple.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7>

表示 7-Tuple 或七重 (Septuple) 物件。Represents a 7-tuple, or septuple.

Tuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,TRest>

代表 n-Tuple,其中 n 大於或等於 8。Represents an n-tuple, where n is 8 or greater.

TupleExtensions

提供適用於元組的擴充方法,以便與 C# 中適用於元組的語言支援相互溝通。Provides extension methods for tuples to interoperate with language support for tuples in C#.

Type

代表類型宣告:類別類型、介面類型、陣列類型、值類型、列舉類型、類型參數、泛型類型定義,以及開放式或封閉式的建構泛型類型。Represents type declarations: class types, interface types, array types, value types, enumeration types, type parameters, generic type definitions, and open or closed constructed generic types.

TypeAccessException

當方法嘗試使用其無權存取的型別時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when a method attempts to use a type that it does not have access to.

TypeInitializationException

因為當做類別初始設定式 (Class Initializer) 所擲回例外狀況的包裝函式,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown as a wrapper around the exception thrown by the class initializer. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

TypeLoadException

當發生型別載入錯誤時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when type-loading failures occur.

TypeUnloadedException

當試著存取已卸載的類別時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to access an unloaded class.

UnauthorizedAccessException

當作業系統因為 I/O 錯誤或特定類型的安全性錯誤而拒絕存取時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the operating system denies access because of an I/O error or a specific type of security error.

UnhandledExceptionEventArgs

提供在任何應用程式定義域中有未處理的例外狀況 (Exception) 時所引發之事件的資料。Provides data for the event that is raised when there is an exception that is not handled in any application domain.

Uri

提供統一資源識別元 (URI) 的物件表示,以及對 URI 各部分的簡易存取。Provides an object representation of a uniform resource identifier (URI) and easy access to the parts of the URI.

UriBuilder

提供統一資源識別元 (URI) 的自訂建構函式,並修改 Uri 類別的 URI。Provides a custom constructor for uniform resource identifiers (URIs) and modifies URIs for the Uri class.

UriFormatException

當偵測到無效的統一資源識別元 (URI) 時,所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when an invalid Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is detected.

UriParser

剖析新的 URI 配置。Parses a new URI scheme. 這是 abstract 類別。This is an abstract class.

UriTemplate

代表統一資源識別元 (URI) 樣板的類別。A class that represents a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) template.

UriTemplateEquivalenceComparer

用來針對結構 (而非參考) 等價比較 UriTemplate 執行個體的類別。A class used to compare UriTemplate instances for structural (instead of reference) equivalence.

UriTemplateMatch

表示 UriTemplate 執行個體比對作業結果的類別。A class that represents the results of a match operation on a UriTemplate instance.

UriTemplateMatchException

代表比對 UriUriTemplateTable 時的錯誤。Represents an error when matching a Uri to a UriTemplateTable.

UriTemplateTable

表示一組關聯之 UriTemplate 物件的類別。A class that represents an associative set of UriTemplate objects.

UriTypeConverter

String 型別轉換成 Uri 型別,反之亦然。Converts a String type to a Uri type, and vice versa.

ValueType

提供實值型別 (Value Type) 的基底類別。Provides the base class for value types.

Version

表示組件的版本號碼、作業系統或 Common Language Runtime。Represents the version number of an assembly, operating system, or the common language runtime. 這個類別無法被繼承。This class cannot be inherited.

WeakReference

表示弱式參考,即在參考物件的同時,仍允許系統透過記憶體回收來回收該物件。Represents a weak reference, which references an object while still allowing that object to be reclaimed by garbage collection.

WeakReference<T>

表示具型別的弱式參考,即在參考物件的同時,仍允許系統透過記憶體回收來回收該物件。Represents a typed weak reference, which references an object while still allowing that object to be reclaimed by garbage collection.

WindowsRuntimeSystemExtensions

提供擴充方法來轉換工作以及 Windows 執行階段非同步動作和作業。Provides extension methods for converting between tasks and Windows Runtime asynchronous actions and operations.

結構

ArgIterator

表示可變長度的引數清單,也就是說,使用引數變數的函式參數。Represents a variable-length argument list; that is, the parameters of a function that takes a variable number of arguments.

ArraySegment<T>.Enumerator
ArraySegment<T>

分隔一維陣列的區段。Delimits a section of a one-dimensional array.

Boolean

代表布林值 (truefalse)。Represents a Boolean (true or false) value.

Byte

代表 8 位元不帶正負號的整數。Represents an 8-bit unsigned integer.

Char

表示 UTF-16 程式碼單位 字元。Represents a character as a UTF-16 code unit.

ConsoleKeyInfo

說明按下的主控台按鍵,包括主控台按鍵表示的字元,以及 SHIFT、ALT 和 CTRL 輔助按鍵 (Modifier Key) 的狀態。Describes the console key that was pressed, including the character represented by the console key and the state of the SHIFT, ALT, and CTRL modifier keys.

DateTime

表示時間的瞬間,通常以一天的日期和時間表示。Represents an instant in time, typically expressed as a date and time of day.

DateTimeOffset

表示一個時間點,通常以一天的日期和時間表示 (相對於國際標準時間)。Represents a point in time, typically expressed as a date and time of day, relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Decimal

代表十進位浮點數。Represents a decimal floating-point number.

Double

表示雙精度浮點數。Represents a double-precision floating-point number.

Guid

表示全域唯一識別項 (GUID)。Represents a globally unique identifier (GUID).

HashCode

將多個值的雜湊碼合併成單一雜湊碼。Combines the hash code for multiple values into a single hash code.

Index
Int16

表示 16 位元帶正負號的整數。Represents a 16-bit signed integer.

Int32

表示 32 位元帶正負號的整數。Represents a 32-bit signed integer.

Int64

表示 64 位元帶正負號的整數。Represents a 64-bit signed integer.

IntPtr

平台專用的類型,用以代表指標或控點。A platform-specific type that is used to represent a pointer or a handle.

Memory<T>

代表連續的記憶體區域。Represents a contiguous region of memory.

ModuleHandle

表示模組的執行階段控制代碼。Represents a runtime handle for a module.

Nullable<T>

表示可以指派 null 的實值類型。Represents a value type that can be assigned null.

Range
Range.OffsetAndLength
ReadOnlyMemory<T>
ReadOnlySpan<T>.Enumerator

提供 ReadOnlySpan<T> 項目的列舉值。Provides an enumerator for the elements of a ReadOnlySpan<T>.

ReadOnlySpan<T>

提供任意記憶體之連續區域的型別安全和記憶體安全唯讀表示。Provides a type-safe and memory-safe read-only representation of a contiguous region of arbitrary memory.

RuntimeArgumentHandle

參考可變長度的引數清單。References a variable-length argument list.

RuntimeFieldHandle

使用內部中繼資料 (Metadata) 語彙基元 (Token) 來表示欄位。Represents a field using an internal metadata token.

RuntimeMethodHandle

RuntimeMethodHandle 是方法內部中繼資料表示的控制碼。RuntimeMethodHandle is a handle to the internal metadata representation of a method.

RuntimeTypeHandle

使用內部中繼資料 (Metadata) 語彙基元 (Token) 來表示型別。Represents a type using an internal metadata token.

SByte

代表 8 位元帶正負號的整數。Represents an 8-bit signed integer.

SequencePosition
Single

表示單精確度浮點數。Represents a single-precision floating-point number.

Span<T>.Enumerator

提供 Span<T> 項目的列舉值。Provides an enumerator for the elements of a Span<T>.

Span<T>

提供任意記憶體之連續區域的型別和記憶體安全表示。Provides a type- and memory-safe representation of a contiguous region of arbitrary memory.

TimeSpan

表示時間間隔。Represents a time interval.

TimeZoneInfo.TransitionTime

提供某時區中之特定時間變更的相關資訊,例如從日光節約時間變更為標準時間,或從標準時間變更為日光節約時間。Provides information about a specific time change, such as the change from daylight saving time to standard time or vice versa, in a particular time zone.

TypedReference

描述同時包含位置的 Managed 指標和可能儲存於該位置之型別的 Runtime 表示的物件。Describes objects that contain both a managed pointer to a location and a runtime representation of the type that may be stored at that location.

UInt16

表示 16 位元不帶正負號的整數 (Unsigned Integer)。Represents a 16-bit unsigned integer.

UInt32

表示 32 位元不帶正負號的整數 (Unsigned Integer)。Represents a 32-bit unsigned integer.

UInt64

表示 64 位元不帶正負號的整數 (Unsigned Integer)。Represents a 64-bit unsigned integer.

UIntPtr

平台專用的類型,用以代表指標或控點。A platform-specific type that is used to represent a pointer or a handle.

ValueTuple

提供用於建立值元組的靜態方法。Provides static methods for creating value tuples.

ValueTuple<T1>

表示含有單一元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with a single component.

ValueTuple<T1,T2>

表示含有 2 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 2 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3>

表示含有 3 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 3 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3,T4>

表示含有 4 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 4 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5>

表示含有 5 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 5 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6>

表示含有 6 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 6 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7>

表示含有 7 個元件的值元組。Represents a value tuple with 7 components.

ValueTuple<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,TRest>

代表 n 個值的元組,其中 n 大於或等於 8。Represents an n-value tuple, where n is 8 or greater.

Void

為不傳回任何值的方法指定傳回實值型別 (Value Type)。Specifies a return value type for a method that does not return a value.

介面

_AppDomain

公開 AppDomain 類別的公用成員至 Unmanaged 程式碼。Exposes the public members of the AppDomain class to unmanaged code.

IAppDomainSetup

表示可加入至 AppDomain 的執行個體的組件 (Assembly) 繫結資訊。Represents assembly binding information that can be added to an instance of AppDomain.

IAsyncDisposable
IAsyncResult

表示非同步作業 (Asynchronous Operation) 的狀態。Represents the status of an asynchronous operation.

ICloneable

支援複製 (Clone),使用與現有執行個體 (Instance) 相同的值建立新的執行個體。Supports cloning, which creates a new instance of a class with the same value as an existing instance.

IComparable

定義通用的型別特定比較方法,實值型別 (Value Type) 或類別 (Class) 會實作這個方法,以排列或排序其執行個體。Defines a generalized type-specific comparison method that a value type or class implements to order or sort its instances.

IComparable<T>

定義通用的比較方法,實值型別或類別會實作這個方法,以建立特定類型的比較方法來排序其執行個體。Defines a generalized comparison method that a value type or class implements to create a type-specific comparison method for ordering or sorting its instances.

IConvertible

定義方法,該方法會將實作參考的值或 實值類型轉換成具有等值的 Common Language Runtime 類型。Defines methods that convert the value of the implementing reference or value type to a common language runtime type that has an equivalent value.

ICustomFormatter

定義可支援物件值之自訂格式的方法。Defines a method that supports custom formatting of the value of an object.

IDisposable

提供用於釋放 Unmanaged 資源的機制。Provides a mechanism for releasing unmanaged resources.

IEquatable<T>

定義通用的方法,實值類型或類別會實作這個方法,以建立特定類型的方法來判斷執行個體是否相等。Defines a generalized method that a value type or class implements to create a type-specific method for determining equality of instances.

IFormatProvider

提供機制來擷取要控制格式的物件。Provides a mechanism for retrieving an object to control formatting.

IFormattable

提供將物件的值格式化成以字串表示的功能。Provides functionality to format the value of an object into a string representation.

IObservable<T>

定義推入型通知的提供者。Defines a provider for push-based notification.

IObserver<T>

提供接收推入型通知的機制。Provides a mechanism for receiving push-based notifications.

IProgress<T>

定義進度更新的提供者。Defines a provider for progress updates.

IServiceProvider

定義機制來擷取服務物件,也就是為其他物件提供自訂支援的物件。Defines a mechanism for retrieving a service object; that is, an object that provides custom support to other objects.

列舉

ActivationContext.ContextForm

表示資訊清單啟動應用程式的內容。Indicates the context for a manifest-activated application.

AppDomainManagerInitializationOptions

指定自訂應用程式定義域管理員初始化新定義域時採取的動作。Specifies the action that a custom application domain manager takes when initializing a new domain.

AttributeTargets

指定有效套用屬性的應用程式項目。Specifies the application elements on which it is valid to apply an attribute.

Base64FormattingOptions

設定相關的 ToBase64CharArrayToBase64String 方法是否應在其輸出中放入分行符號。Specifies whether relevant ToBase64CharArray and ToBase64String methods insert line breaks in their output.

ConsoleColor

指定定義主控台前景與背景顏色的常數。Specifies constants that define foreground and background colors for the console.

ConsoleKey

指定主控台 (Console) 上的標準按鍵。Specifies the standard keys on a console.

ConsoleModifiers

代表鍵盤上的 SHIFT、ALT 與 CTRL 等輔助按鍵。Represents the SHIFT, ALT, and CTRL modifier keys on a keyboard.

ConsoleSpecialKey

指定用來中斷現行程序的輔助按鍵與主控台按鍵組合。Specifies combinations of modifier and console keys that can interrupt the current process.

DateTimeKind

指定 DateTime 物件是否表示本地時間、Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) 或是兩者皆非。Specifies whether a DateTime object represents a local time, a Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), or is not specified as either local time or UTC.

DayOfWeek

指定一週中的星期名稱。Specifies the day of the week.

Environment.SpecialFolder

指定用來擷取系統特殊資料夾目錄路徑的列舉常數。Specifies enumerated constants used to retrieve directory paths to system special folders.

Environment.SpecialFolderOption

指定用於取得特殊資料夾路徑的選項。Specifies options to use for getting the path to a special folder.

EnvironmentVariableTarget

指定在 set 或 get 作業中要儲存或擷取環境變數的位置。Specifies the location where an environment variable is stored or retrieved in a set or get operation.

GCCollectionMode

指定強制進行記憶體回收的行為。Specifies the behavior for a forced garbage collection.

GCNotificationStatus

提供有關下次完整記憶體回收的目前通知註冊資訊。Provides information about the current registration for notification of the next full garbage collection.

GenericUriParserOptions

指定 UriParser 的選項。Specifies options for a UriParser.

LoaderOptimization

LoaderOptimizationAttribute 類別一起用來指定可執行檔之載入器最佳化的列舉型別 (Enumeration)。An enumeration used with the LoaderOptimizationAttribute class to specify loader optimizations for an executable.

MidpointRounding

指定數學捨入方法遇到剛好位於兩個數字中間的數字時,應採用何種處理方式。Specifies how mathematical rounding methods should process a number that is midway between two numbers.

PlatformID

識別組件所支援的作業系統或平台。Identifies the operating system, or platform, supported by an assembly.

StringComparison

指定 Compare(String, String)Equals(Object) 方法的特定多載所要使用的文化特性、大小寫和排序規則。Specifies the culture, case, and sort rules to be used by certain overloads of the Compare(String, String) and Equals(Object) methods.

StringSplitOptions

指定適用的 Split 方法多載是否會加入或省略傳回值中的空子字串。Specifies whether applicable Split method overloads include or omit empty substrings from the return value.

TypeCode

指定物件的型別。Specifies the type of an object.

UriComponents

指定 Uri 的組件。Specifies the parts of a Uri.

UriFormat

控制 URI 資訊的逸出方式。Controls how URI information is escaped.

UriHostNameType

定義 CheckHostName(String) 方法的主機名稱類型。Defines host name types for the CheckHostName(String) method.

UriIdnScope

提供 IdnElement 命名空間中 System.Configuration 的可能組態設定值。Provides the possible values for the configuration setting of the IdnElement in the System.Configuration namespace.

UriKind

定義不同種類的 URI。Defines the different kinds of URIs.

UriPartial

定義 GetLeftPart(UriPartial) 方法 URI 的部分。Defines the parts of a URI for the GetLeftPart(UriPartial) method.

委派

Action

封裝沒有參數且沒有傳回值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has no parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T>

封裝具有單一參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has a single parameter and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2>

封裝有兩個參數且沒有傳回值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has two parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3>

封裝具有三個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has three parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4>

封裝有四個參數且沒有傳回值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has four parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5>

封裝有具有五個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has five parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6>

封裝具有六個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has six parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7>

封裝具有七個參數且沒有傳回值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has seven parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8>

封裝具有八個參數且沒有傳回值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has eight parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9>

封裝具有九個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has nine parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10>

封裝有 10 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 10 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11>

封裝有 11 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 11 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12>

封裝有 12 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 12 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13>

封裝有 13 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 13 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14>

封裝有 14 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 14 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14,T15>

封裝有 15 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 15 parameters and does not return a value.

Action<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14,T15,T16>

封裝有 16 個參數的方法,並且不會傳回值。Encapsulates a method that has 16 parameters and does not return a value.

AppDomainInitializer

表示應用程式定義域初始化時叫用的回呼方法。Represents the callback method to invoke when the application domain is initialized.

AssemblyLoadEventHandler

表示處理 AssemblyLoadAppDomain 事件的方法。Represents the method that handles the AssemblyLoad event of an AppDomain.

AsyncCallback

參考要在對應之非同步 (Asynchronous) 作業完成時呼叫的方法。References a method to be called when a corresponding asynchronous operation completes.

Comparison<T>

表示比較兩個相同型別之物件的方法。Represents the method that compares two objects of the same type.

ConsoleCancelEventHandler

代表將處理 CancelKeyPressConsole 事件的方法。Represents the method that will handle the CancelKeyPress event of a Console.

Converter<TInput,TOutput>

表示將物件從某個型別轉換成另一個型別的方法。Represents a method that converts an object from one type to another type.

CrossAppDomainDelegate

DoCallBack(CrossAppDomainDelegate) 用來進行跨應用程式定義域的呼叫。Used by DoCallBack(CrossAppDomainDelegate) for cross-application domain calls.

EventHandler

代表處理不含事件資料之事件的方法。Represents the method that will handle an event that has no event data.

EventHandler<TEventArgs>

代表事件提供資料時處理事件的方法。Represents the method that will handle an event when the event provides data.

Func<TResult>

封裝沒有參數並傳回 TResult 參數所指定之型別值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has no parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T,TResult>

封裝具有一個參數並傳回 TResult 參數所指定之型別值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has one parameter and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,TResult>

封裝具有兩個參數的方法,並傳回 TResult 參數所指定的型別值。Encapsulates a method that has two parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,TResult>

封裝具有三個參數並傳回 TResult 參數所指定之型別值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has three parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,TResult>

封裝具有四個參數並傳回 TResult 參數所指定之型別值的方法。Encapsulates a method that has four parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,TResult>

封裝具有五個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has five parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,TResult>

封裝具有六個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has six parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,TResult>

封裝具有七個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has seven parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,TResult>

封裝具有八個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has eight parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,TResult>

封裝具有九個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has nine parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,TResult>

封裝具有 10 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之型別的值。Encapsulates a method that has 10 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,TResult>

封裝具有 11 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 11 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,TResult>

封裝具有 12 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 12 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,TResult>

封裝具有 13 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 13 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14,TResult>

封裝具有 14 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 14 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14,T15,TResult>

封裝具有 15 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 15 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Func<T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12,T13,T14,T15,T16,TResult>

封裝具有 16 個參數的方法,並傳回由 TResult 參數指定之類型的值。Encapsulates a method that has 16 parameters and returns a value of the type specified by the TResult parameter.

Predicate<T>

表示定義一組準則的方法,並判斷指定的物件是否符合這些準則。Represents the method that defines a set of criteria and determines whether the specified object meets those criteria.

ResolveEventHandler

表示處理 TypeResolveResourceResolveAssemblyResolveAppDomain 事件的方法。Represents a method that handles the TypeResolve, ResourceResolve, or AssemblyResolve event of an AppDomain.

UnhandledExceptionEventHandler

表示將處理例外狀況 (Exception) 所引發之事件的方法,而該例外狀況不是由應用程式定義域處理。Represents the method that will handle the event raised by an exception that is not handled by the application domain.

備註

其他類別提供支援資料類型轉換、 方法參數操作、 數學、 遠端和本機程式引動過程,應用程式環境管理和監督的 managed 和 unmanaged 應用程式的服務。Other classes provide services supporting data type conversion, method parameter manipulation, mathematics, remote and local program invocation, application environment management, and supervision of managed and unmanaged applications.

中的存取類型System從 C# 程式碼而不需要提供完整的類型名稱的命名空間包含using System;的原始程式碼檔案開頭的陳述式。To access types in the System namespace from C# code without having to provide fully qualified type names, include the using System; statement at the beginning of your source code file.

中的存取類型System命名空間從 C + + /cli CLI 程式碼,而不需要提供完整的型別名稱,包含using namespace System;的原始程式碼檔案開頭的陳述式。To access types in the System namespace from C++/CLI code without having to provide fully qualified type names, include the using namespace System; statement at the beginning of your source code file. 此外,您必須以編譯/clr切換。In addition, you must compile with the /clr switch.