Windows Server 2016 中儲存空間的新功能What's new in Storage in Windows Server 2016

適用於︰Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2016

本主題說明 Windows Server 2016 上「儲存空間」的新功能和已變更的功能。This topic explains the new and changed functionality in Storage in Windows Server 2016.

儲存空間直接存取Storage Spaces Direct

「儲存空間直接存取」能讓您使用具本機磁碟的伺服器,建置高可用且可調整的儲存空間。Storage Spaces Direct enables building highly available and scalable storage using servers with local storage. 它簡化了軟體定義儲存體系統的部署和管理,也解除了先前使用共用磁碟的叢集儲存空間限制,而能夠使用新的磁碟裝置類型 (例如 SATA SSD 和 NVMe 磁碟裝置)。It simplifies the deployment and management of software-defined storage systems and unlocks use of new classes of disk devices, such as SATA SSD and NVMe disk devices, that were previously not possible with clustered Storage Spaces with shared disks.

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
「儲存空間直接存取」能讓服務提供者和企業使用具本機存放區的業界標準伺服器,建立高可用且可調整的軟體定義儲存空間。Storage Spaces Direct enables service providers and enterprises to use industry standard servers with local storage to build highly available and scalable software defined storage. 使用具本機存放區的伺服器可降低複雜性、提升延展性,並能夠使用之前不支援的存放裝置 (例如 SATA 固態硬碟) 以降低快閃儲存體成本,或是使用 NVMe 固態硬碟以取得較佳的效能。Using servers with local storage decreases complexity, increases scalability, and enables use of storage devices that were not previously possible, such as SATA solid state disks to lower cost of flash storage, or NVMe solid state disks for better performance.

「儲存空間直接存取」免除了共用 SAS 結構的需求,以針對部署及設定做出簡化。Storage Spaces Direct removes the need for a shared SAS fabric, simplifying deployment and configuration. 它改為以網路做為存放結構,利用 SMB3 和 SMB 直接傳輸 (RDMA) 來取得高速、低延遲,並能有效運用 CPU 的儲存空間。Instead it uses the network as a storage fabric, leveraging SMB3 and SMB Direct (RDMA) for high-speed, low-latency CPU efficient storage. 如需進行擴充,只需要新增更多伺服器即可增加儲存空間和 I/O 效能To scale out, simply add more servers to increase storage capacity and I/O performance
如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Windows Server 2016 中的儲存空間直接存取For more information, see the Storage Spaces Direct in Windows Server 2016.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
這是 Windows Server 2016 中的新功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

儲存體複本Storage Replica

儲存體複本可在伺服器或叢集之間啟用與存放裝置無關、區塊層級及同步的複寫來進行災害復原,以及在站台之間延伸容錯移轉叢集。Storage Replica enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster between sites. 同步複寫能以當機時保持一致的磁碟區啟用對實體站台中資料的鏡像,來確保檔案系統層級零資料遺失。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes to ensure zero data loss at the file-system level. 非同步複寫允許都會範圍外的站台擴充功能,但有資料遺失的可能性。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges with the possibility of data loss.

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
儲存體複寫可讓您執行下列操作︰Storage Replication enables you to do the following:

  • 針對任務關鍵性工作負載的計畫與非計畫中斷,提供單一廠商災害復原解決方案。Provide a single vendor disaster recovery solution for planned and unplanned outages of mission critical workloads.
  • 使用經證明具可靠性、可調整性和效能的 SMB3 傳輸。Use SMB3 transport with proven reliability, scalability, and performance.
  • 將 Windows 容錯移轉叢集延伸至都會距離。Stretch Windows failover clusters to metropolitan distances.
  • 針對儲存體和叢集端對端地使用 Microsoft 軟體,例如 Hyper-V、儲存體複本、儲存空間、叢集、向外延展檔案伺服器、SMB3、重複資料刪除,以及 ReFS/NTFS。Use Microsoft software end to end for storage and clustering, such as Hyper-V, Storage Replica, Storage Spaces, Cluster, Scale-Out File Server, SMB3, Deduplication, and ReFS/NTFS.
  • 以下列方式協助降低成本和複雜性:Help reduce cost and complexity as follows:
    • 與硬體無關,不具有像 DAS 或 SAN 的特定儲存體組態需求。Is hardware agnostic, with no requirement for a specific storage configuration like DAS or SAN.
    • 允許平價儲存體和網路技術。Allows commodity storage and networking technologies.
    • 透過容錯移轉叢集管理員,針對個別的節點和叢集提供易於使用的圖形化管理。Features ease of graphical management for individual nodes and clusters through Failover Cluster Manager.
    • 透過 Windows PowerShell,提供完整、大規模的指令碼選項。Includes comprehensive, large-scale scripting options through Windows PowerShell.
  • 協助降低停機時間,並提升 Windows 本身的可靠性和生產力。Help reduce downtime, and increase reliability and productivity intrinsic to Windows.
  • 提供支援能力、效能標準及診斷功能。Provide supportability, performance metrics, and diagnostic capabilities.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Windows Server 2016 中的儲存體複本For more information, see the Storage Replica in Windows Server 2016.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
這是 Windows Server 2016 中的新功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

存放裝置服務品質Storage Quality of Service

您現在可以在 Windows Server 2016 中,使用存放裝置服務品質 (QoS) 集中監視端對端儲存體效能,以及使用 Hyper-V 和 CSV 叢集建立管理原則。You can now use storage quality of service (QoS) to centrally monitor end-to-end storage performance and create management policies using Hyper-V and CSV clusters in Windows Server 2016.

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
您現在可在 CSV 叢集上建立存放裝置 QoS 原則,並將它們指派給 Hyper-V 虛擬機器上的一或多個虛擬磁碟。You can now create storage QoS policies on a CSV cluster and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. 存放裝置效能會隨工作負載和存放裝置負載的變動自動進行調整以符合原則。Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the workloads and storage loads fluctuate.

  • 每個原則都可以指定要套用到資料流集合 (例如虛擬硬碟、單一或群組的虛擬機器、服務,或租用戶) 的保留 (最小值) 和/或上限 (最大值)。Each policy can specify a reserve (minimum) and/or a limit (maximum) to be applied to a collection of data flows, such as a virtual hard disk, a single virtual machine or a group of virtual machines, a service, or a tenant.
  • 透過 Windows PowerShell 或 WMI,您可以執行下列工作︰Using Windows PowerShell or WMI, you can perform the following tasks:
    • 在 CSV 叢集上建立原則。Create policies on a CSV cluster.
    • 列舉 CSV 叢集上可用的原則。Enumerate policies available on a CSV cluster.
    • 將原則指派至 Hyper-V 虛擬機器的虛擬硬碟。Assign a policy to a virtual hard disk of a Hyper-V virtual machine.
    • 監視原則內每個流程和狀態的效能。Monitor the performance of each flow and status within the policy.
  • 如果有多個虛擬硬碟共用同一個原則,則效能會均勻分散以符合原則之最小值和最大值設定內的要求。If multiple virtual hard disks share the same policy, performance is fairly distributed to meet demand within the policy's minimum and maximum settings. 因此,原則可用來管理一個虛擬硬碟、一部虛擬機器、組成服務的多部虛擬機器,或是由租用戶擁有的所有虛擬機器。Therefore, a policy can be used to manage a virtual hard disk, a virtual machine, multiple virtual machines comprising a service, or all virtual machines owned by a tenant.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
這是 Windows Server 2016 中的新功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016. 在舊版 Windows Server 中,無法管理最小保留值、透過單一命令來監視叢集中所有虛擬磁碟的流程,以及進行集中式原則管理。Managing minimum reserves, monitoring flows of all virtual disks across the cluster via a single command, and centralized policy based management were not possible in previous releases of Windows Server.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱存放裝置服務品質For more information, see Storage Quality of Service

重複資料刪除Data Deduplication

功能Functionality 新功能或更新功能New or Updated 描述Description
支援大型磁碟區Support for Large Volumes 已更新Updated 在 Windows Server 2016 之前,使用者必須特別針對預期的變動設定磁碟區大小,而大於 10 TB 的磁碟區並不是重複資料刪除的良好候選項目。Prior to Windows Server 2016, volumes had to specifically sized for the expected churn, with volume sizes above 10 TB not being good candidates for deduplication. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,重複資料刪除支援最高 64 TB 的磁碟區大小。In Windows Server 2016, Data Deduplication supports volume sizes up to 64 TB.
支援大型檔案Support for Large Files 已更新Updated 在 Windows Server 2016 之前,大小接近 1 TB 的檔案並不是重複資料刪除的良好候選項目。Prior to Windows Server 2016, files approaching 1 TB in size were not good candidates for deduplication. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,已完全支援最高 1 TB 大小的檔案。In Windows Server 2016, files up to 1 TB are fully supported.
支援 Nano 伺服器Support for Nano Server 新增New Windows Server 2016 的新 Nano 伺服器部署選項可以使用並且完全支援重複資料刪除。Data Deduplication is available and fully supported in the new Nano Server deployment option for Windows Server 2016.
簡化的備份支援Simplified Backup Support 新增New 在 Windows Server 2012 R2 中,虛擬備份應用程式 (例如 Microsoft 的 Data Protection Manager) 必須透過一系列的手動設定步驟來取得支援。In Windows Server 2012 R2, Virtualized Backup Applications, such as Microsoft's Data Protection Manager, were supported through a series of manual configuration steps. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,已加入新的預設使用類型 "Backup",以無接縫地針對虛擬備份應用程式部署重複資料刪除。In Windows Server 2016, a new default Usage Type "Backup", has been added for seamless deployment of Data Deduplication for Virtualized Backup Applications.
支援叢集 OS 輪流升級Support for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrades 新增New 重複資料刪除完整支援 Windows Server 2016 新的叢集 OS 輪流升級功能。Data Deduplication fully supports the new Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade feature of Windows Server 2016.

針對 SYSVOL 和 NETLOGON 連線的 SMB 強化功能改進SMB hardening improvements for SYSVOL and NETLOGON connections

在 Windows 10 和 Windows Server 2016 中,用戶端針對網域控制站上 Active Directory 網域服務之預設 SYSVOL 和 NETLOGON 共用的連線,現在需要 SMB 簽署及相互驗證 (例如 Kerberos)。In Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 client connections to the Active Directory Domain Services default SYSVOL and NETLOGON shares on domain controllers now require SMB signing and mutual authentication (such as Kerberos).

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
這項變更降低了攔截式攻擊的可能性。This change reduces the likelihood of man-in-the-middle attacks.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
如果無法使用 SMB 簽署和相互驗證,Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 電腦將不會處理網域型的群組原則和指令碼。If SMB signing and mutual authentication are unavailable, a Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 computer won't process domain-based Group Policy and scripts.

注意

這些設定的登錄值預設將不會顯示,但仍會套用強化原則,直到由群組原則或其他登錄值覆寫為止。The registry values for these settings aren't present by default, but the hardening rules still apply until overridden by Group Policy or other registry values.

如需這些安全性改進 (也稱為 UNC 強化) 的詳細資訊,請參閱 Microsoft 知識庫文章 3000483MS15-011 與 MS15-014:強化群組原則 (英文)。For more information on these security improvements - also referred to as UNC hardening, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 3000483 and MS15-011 & MS15-014: Hardening Group Policy.

工作資料夾Work Folders

工作資料夾伺服器執行的是 Windows Server 2016 而工作資料夾用戶端為 Windows 10 時的改良變更通知。Improved change notification when the Work Folders sever is running Windows Server 2016 and the Work Folders client is Windows 10.

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
在 Windows Server 2012 R2 中,將檔案變更同步處理到工作資料夾伺服器時,用戶端不會收到變更的通知,而且最多等待 10 分鐘就會收到更新。For Windows Server 2012 R2, when file changes are synced to the Work Folders server, clients are not notified of the change and wait up to 10 minutes to get the update. 使用 Windows Sever 2016 時,工作資料夾伺服器會立即通知 Windows 10 用戶端,並立即同步處理檔案變更。When using Windows Sever 2016, the Work Folders server immediately notifies Windows 10 clients and the file changes are synced immediately.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
這是 Windows Server 2016 中的新功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016. 這需要 Windows Server 2016 工作資料夾伺服器,而且用戶端必須是 Windows 10。This requires a Windows Server 2016 Work Folders server and the client must be Windows 10.

如果您使用的是舊版用戶端,或工作資料夾伺服器是 Windows Server 2012 R2,則用戶端會每隔 10 分鐘繼續輪詢變更。If you're using an older client or the Work Folders server is Windows Server 2012 R2, the client will continue to poll every 10 minutes for changes.

ReFSReFS

ReFS 的下一個反覆運算支援大規模儲存部署並具備多種工作負載,為您的資料提供可靠性、復原及延展性。The next iteration of ReFS provides support for large-scale storage deployments with diverse workloads, delivering reliability, resiliency, and scalability for your data.

這項變更有什麼附加價值?What value does this change add?
ReFS 引入下列改善:ReFS introduces the following improvements:

  • ReFS 實作新儲存層功能,協助提供更快的效能並提升儲存容量。ReFS implements new storage tiers functionality, helping deliver faster performance and increased storage capacity. 此項新功能可以達成:This new functionality enables:
    • 相同虛擬磁碟上的多種復原類型 (例如,在效能層使用鏡像並在容量層使用同位)Multiple resiliency types on the same virtual disk (using mirroring in the performance tier and parity in the capacity tier, for example).
    • 對漂移工作集的回應性提升。Increased responsiveness to drifting working sets.
    • 支援 SMR (疊瓦式磁記錄) 媒體。Support for SMR (Shingled Magnetic Recording) media.
  • 區塊複製的引入大幅改善了 VM 作業的效能,例如 .vhdx 檢查點合併作業。The introduction of block cloning substantially improves the performance of VM operations, such as .vhdx checkpoint merge operations.
  • 新的 ReFS 掃描工具可讓流失的儲存體復原,並協助回收嚴重損毀的資料。The new ReFS scan tool enables the recovery of leaked storage and helps salvage data from critical corruptions.

運作上有何差異?What works differently?
這些為 Windows Server 2016 的新功能。These capabilities are new in Windows Server 2016.

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