Manage web traffic with an application gateway using Azure PowerShell

Application gateway is used to manage and secure web traffic to servers that you maintain. You can use Azure PowerShell to create an application gateway that uses a virtual machine scale set for backend servers to manage web traffic. In this example, the scale set contains two virtual machine instances that are added to the default backend pool of the application gateway.

In this article, you learn how to:

  • Set up the network
  • Create an application gateway
  • Create a virtual machine scale set with the default backend pool

If you prefer, you can complete this procedure using Azure CLI.

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Note

This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. For Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

Use Azure Cloud Shell

Azure hosts Azure Cloud Shell, an interactive shell environment that you can use through your browser. Cloud Shell lets you use either bash or PowerShell to work with Azure services. You can use the Cloud Shell pre-installed commands to run the code in this article without having to install anything on your local environment.

To launch Azure Cloud Shell:

Option Example/Link
Select Try It in the upper-right corner of a code block. Selecting Try It doesn't automatically copy the code to Cloud Shell. Example of Try It for Azure Cloud Shell
Go to https://shell.azure.com or select the Launch Cloud Shell button to open Cloud Shell in your browser.
Select the Cloud Shell button on the top-right menu bar in the Azure portal. Cloud Shell button in the Azure portal

To run the code in this article in Azure Cloud Shell:

  1. Launch Cloud Shell.
  2. Select the Copy button on a code block to copy the code.
  3. Paste the code into the Cloud Shell session with Ctrl+Shift+V on Windows and Linux, or Cmd+Shift+V on macOS.
  4. Press Enter to run the code.

If you choose to install and use PowerShell locally, this article requires the Azure PowerShell module version 1.0.0 or later. To find the version, run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az. If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. If you are running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Login-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

Create a resource group

A resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. Create an Azure resource group using New-AzResourceGroup.

New-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG -Location eastus

Create network resources

Configure the subnets named myBackendSubnet and myAGSubnet using New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig. Create the virtual network myVNet using New-AzVirtualNetwork with the subnet configurations. And finally, create the public IP address named myAGPublicIPAddress using New-AzPublicIpAddress. These resources are used to provide network connectivity to the application gateway and its associated resources.

$backendSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myBackendSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.1.0/24

$agSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myAGSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.2.0/24

$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -Name myVNet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.0.0/16 `
  -Subnet $backendSubnetConfig, $agSubnetConfig

$pip = New-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -Name myAGPublicIPAddress `
  -AllocationMethod Dynamic

Create an application gateway

In this section you create resources that support the application gateway, and then finally create it. The resources that you create include:

  • IP configurations and frontend port - Associates the subnet that you previously created to the application gateway and assigns a port to use to access it.
  • Default pool - All application gateways must have at least one backend pool of servers.
  • Default listener and rule - The default listener listens for traffic on the port that was assigned and the default rule sends traffic to the default pool.

Create the IP configurations and frontend port

Associate myAGSubnet that you previously created to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration. Assign myAGPublicIPAddress to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet

$subnet=$vnet.Subnets[1]

$gipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration `
  -Name myAGIPConfig `
  -Subnet $subnet

$fipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -Name myAGFrontendIPConfig `
  -PublicIPAddress $pip

$frontendport = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name myFrontendPort `
  -Port 80

Create the backend pool and settings

Create the backend pool named appGatewayBackendPool for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool. Configure the settings for the backend address pools using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings.

$defaultPool = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool

$poolSettings = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings `
  -Name myPoolSettings `
  -Port 80 `
  -Protocol Http `
  -CookieBasedAffinity Enabled `
  -RequestTimeout 120

Create the default listener and rule

A listener is required to enable the application gateway to route traffic appropriately to the backend pool. In this example, you create a basic listener that listens for traffic at the root URL.

Create a listener named mydefaultListener using New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener with the frontend configuration and frontend port that you previously created. A rule is required for the listener to know which backend pool to use for incoming traffic. Create a basic rule named rule1 using New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$defaultlistener = New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name mydefaultListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $frontendport

$frontendRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name rule1 `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $defaultlistener `
  -BackendAddressPool $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings

Create the application gateway

Now that you created the necessary supporting resources, specify parameters for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewaySku, and then create it using New-AzApplicationGateway.

$sku = New-AzApplicationGatewaySku `
  -Name Standard_Medium `
  -Tier Standard `
  -Capacity 2

$appgw = New-AzApplicationGateway `
  -Name myAppGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -BackendAddressPools $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettingsCollection $poolSettings `
  -FrontendIpConfigurations $fipconfig `
  -GatewayIpConfigurations $gipconfig `
  -FrontendPorts $frontendport `
  -HttpListeners $defaultlistener `
  -RequestRoutingRules $frontendRule `
  -Sku $sku

Create a virtual machine scale set

In this example, you create a virtual machine scale set to provide servers for the backend pool in the application gateway. You assign the scale set to the backend pool when you configure the IP settings.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway

$backendPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

$ipConfig = New-AzVmssIpConfig `
  -Name myVmssIPConfig `
  -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[0].Id `
  -ApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPoolsId $backendPool.Id

$vmssConfig = New-AzVmssConfig `
  -Location eastus `
  -SkuCapacity 2 `
  -SkuName Standard_DS2_v2 `
  -UpgradePolicyMode Automatic

Set-AzVmssStorageProfile $vmssConfig `
  -ImageReferencePublisher MicrosoftWindowsServer `
  -ImageReferenceOffer WindowsServer `
  -ImageReferenceSku 2016-Datacenter `
  -ImageReferenceVersion latest `
  -OsDiskCreateOption FromImage

Set-AzVmssOsProfile $vmssConfig `
  -AdminUsername azureuser `
  -AdminPassword "Azure123456!" `
  -ComputerNamePrefix myvmss

Add-AzVmssNetworkInterfaceConfiguration `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig `
  -Name myVmssNetConfig `
  -Primary $true `
  -IPConfiguration $ipConfig

New-AzVmss `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myvmss `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig

Install IIS

$publicSettings = @{ "fileUris" = (,"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-docs-powershell-samples/master/application-gateway/iis/appgatewayurl.ps1"); 
  "commandToExecute" = "powershell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File appgatewayurl.ps1" }

$vmss = Get-AzVmss -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -VMScaleSetName myvmss

Add-AzVmssExtension -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss `
  -Name "customScript" `
  -Publisher "Microsoft.Compute" `
  -Type "CustomScriptExtension" `
  -TypeHandlerVersion 1.8 `
  -Setting $publicSettings

Update-AzVmss `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myvmss `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss

Test the application gateway

Use Get-AzPublicIPAddress to get the public IP address of the application gateway. Copy the public IP address, and then paste it into the address bar of your browser.

Get-AzPublicIPAddress -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -Name myAGPublicIPAddress

Test base URL in application gateway

Clean up resources

When no longer needed, remove the resource group, application gateway, and all related resources using Remove-AzResourceGroup.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG

Next steps

Restrict web traffic with a web application firewall