Preview: Log in to a Linux virtual machine in Azure using Azure Active Directory authentication
To improve the security of Linux virtual machines (VMs) in Azure, you can integrate with Azure Active Directory (AD) authentication. When you use Azure AD authentication for Linux VMs, you centrally control and enforce policies that allow or deny access to the VMs. This article shows you how to create and configure a Linux VM to use Azure AD authentication.
There are many benefits of using Azure AD authentication to log in to Linux VMs in Azure, including:
- You can use your corporate AD credentials to log in to Azure Linux VMs. There is no need to create local administrator accounts and manage credential lifetime.
- By reducing your reliance on local administrator accounts, you do not need to worry about credential loss/theft, users configuring weak credentials etc.
- The password complexity and password lifetime policies configured for your Azure AD directory help secure Linux VMs as well.
- To further secure login to Azure virtual machines, you can configure multi-factor authentication.
- The ability to log in to Linux VMs with Azure Active Directory also works for customers that use Federation Services.
Seamless collaboration: With Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), you can specify who can sign in to a given VM as a regular user or with administrator privileges. When users join or leave your team, you can update the RBAC policy for the VM to grant access as appropriate. This experience is much simpler than having to scrub VMs to remove unnecessary SSH public keys. When employees leave your organization and their user account is disabled or removed from Azure AD, they no longer have access to your resources.
Supported Azure regions and Linux distributions
The following Linux distributions are currently supported during the preview of this feature:
|CentOS||CentOS 6, CentOS 7|
|openSUSE||openSUSE Leap 42.3|
|RedHat Enterprise Linux||RHEL 6, RHEL 7|
|SUSE Linux Enterprise Server||SLES 12|
|Ubuntu Server||Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, Ubuntu Server 16.04, and Ubuntu Server 18.04|
The following Azure regions are currently supported during the preview of this feature:
- All global Azure regions
To use this preview feature, only deploy a supported Linux distro and in a supported Azure region. The feature is not supported in Azure Government or sovereign clouds.
If you choose to install and use the CLI locally, this tutorial requires that you are running the Azure CLI version 2.0.31 or later. Run
az --version to find the version. If you need to install or upgrade, see Install Azure CLI.
To enable Azure AD authentication for your Linux VMs in Azure, you need to ensure your VMs network configuration permits outbound access to the following endpoints over TCP port 443:
Currently, Azure network security groups can't be configured for VMs enabled with Azure AD authentication.
Create a Linux virtual machine
Create a resource group with az group create, then create a VM with az vm create using a supported distro and in a supported region. The following example deploys a VM named myVM that uses Ubuntu 16.04 LTS into a resource group named myResourceGroup in the southcentralus region. In the following examples, you can provide your own resource group and VM names as needed.
az group create --name myResourceGroup --location southcentralus az vm create \ --resource-group myResourceGroup \ --name myVM \ --image UbuntuLTS \ --admin-username azureuser \ --generate-ssh-keys
It takes a few minutes to create the VM and supporting resources.
Install the Azure AD login VM extension
If deploying this extension to a previously created VM ensure the machine has at least 1GB of memory allocated else the extension will fail to install
To log in to a Linux VM with Azure AD credentials, install the Azure Active Directory login VM extension. VM extensions are small applications that provide post-deployment configuration and automation tasks on Azure virtual machines. Use az vm extension set to install the AADLoginForLinux extension on the VM named myVM in the myResourceGroup resource group:
az vm extension set \ --publisher Microsoft.Azure.ActiveDirectory.LinuxSSH \ --name AADLoginForLinux \ --resource-group myResourceGroup \ --vm-name myVM
The provisioningState of Succeeded is shown once the extension is successfully installed on the VM.
Configure role assignments for the VM
Azure Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) policy determines who can log in to the VM. Two RBAC roles are used to authorize VM login:
- Virtual Machine Administrator Login: Users with this role assigned can log in to an Azure virtual machine with Windows Administrator or Linux root user privileges.
- Virtual Machine User Login: Users with this role assigned can log in to an Azure virtual machine with regular user privileges.
To allow a user to log in to the VM over SSH, you must assign either the Virtual Machine Administrator Login or Virtual Machine User Login role. An Azure user with the Owner or Contributor roles assigned for a VM do not automatically have privileges to log in to the VM over SSH.
The following example uses az role assignment create to assign the Virtual Machine Administrator Login role to the VM for your current Azure user. The username of your active Azure account is obtained with az account show, and the scope is set to the VM created in a previous step with az vm show. The scope could also be assigned at a resource group or subscription level, and normal RBAC inheritance permissions apply. For more information, see Role-Based Access Controls
username=$(az account show --query user.name --output tsv) vm=$(az vm show --resource-group myResourceGroup --name myVM --query id -o tsv) az role assignment create \ --role "Virtual Machine Administrator Login" \ --assignee $username \ --scope $vm
If your AAD domain and logon username domain do not match, you must specify the object ID of your user account with the --assignee-object-id, not just the username for --assignee. You can obtain the object ID for your user account with az ad user list.
You can also configure Azure AD to require multi-factor authentication for a specific user to sign in to the Linux virtual machine. For more information, see Get started with Azure Multi-Factor Authentication in the cloud.
Log in to the Linux virtual machine
First, view the public IP address of your VM with az vm show:
az vm show --resource-group myResourceGroup --name myVM -d --query publicIps -o tsv
Log in to the Azure Linux virtual machine using your Azure AD credentials. The
-l parameter lets you specify your own Azure AD account address. Replace the example account with your own. Account addresses should be entered in all lowercase. Replace the example IP address with the public IP address of your VM from the previous command.
ssh -l firstname.lastname@example.org 10.11.123.456
You are prompted to sign in to Azure AD with a one-time use code at https://microsoft.com/devicelogin. Copy and paste the one-time use code into the device login page.
When prompted, enter your Azure AD login credentials at the login page.
The following message is shown in the web browser when you have successfully authenticated:
You have signed in to the Microsoft Azure Linux Virtual Machine Sign-In application on your device.
Close the browser window, return to the SSH prompt, and press the Enter key.
You are now signed in to the Azure Linux virtual machine with the role permissions as assigned, such as VM User or VM Administrator. If your user account is assigned the Virtual Machine Administrator Login role, you can use
sudo to run commands that require root privileges.
Sudo and AAD login
The first time that you run sudo, you will be asked to authenticate a second time. If you don't want to have to authenticate again to run sudo, you can edit your sudoers file
/etc/sudoers.d/aad_admins and replace this line:
%aad_admins ALL=(ALL) ALL
With this line:
%aad_admins ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL
Troubleshoot sign-in issues
Some common errors when you try to SSH with Azure AD credentials include no RBAC roles assigned, and repeated prompts to sign in. Use the following sections to correct these issues.
Access denied: RBAC role not assigned
If you see the following error on your SSH prompt, verify that you have configured RBAC policies for the VM that grants the user either the Virtual Machine Administrator Login or Virtual Machine User Login role:
login as: email@example.com Using keyboard-interactive authentication. To sign in, use a web browser to open the page https://microsoft.com/devicelogin and enter the code FJX327AXD to authenticate. Press ENTER when ready. Using keyboard-interactive authentication. Access denied: to sign-in you be assigned a role with action 'Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/login/action', for example 'Virtual Machine User Login' Access denied
Continued SSH sign-in prompts
If you successfully complete the authentication step in a web browser, you may be immediately prompted to sign in again with a fresh code. This error is typically caused by a mismatch between the sign-in name you specified at the SSH prompt and the account you signed in to Azure AD with. To correct this issue:
- Verify that the sign-in name you specified at the SSH prompt is correct. A typo in the sign-in name could cause a mismatch between the sign-in name you specified at the SSH prompt and the account you signed in to Azure AD with. For example, you typed firstname.lastname@example.org instead of email@example.com.
- If you have multiple user accounts, make sure you don't provide a different user account in the browser window when signing in to Azure AD.
- Linux is a case-sensitive operating system. There is a difference between 'Azureuser@contoso.onmicrosoft.com' and 'firstname.lastname@example.org', which can cause a mismatch. Make sure that you specify the UPN with the correct case-sensitivity at the SSH prompt.
Users that inherit access rights through nested groups or role assignments aren't currently supported. The user or group must be directly assigned the required role assignments. For example, the use of management groups or nested group role assignments won't grant the correct permissions to allow the user to sign in.
Share your feedback about this preview feature or report issues using it on the Azure AD feedback forum
For more information on Azure Active Directory, see What is Azure Active Directory