About VPN Gateway

A VPN gateway is a type of virtual network gateway that sends encrypted traffic across a public connection to an on-premises location. You can also use VPN gateways to send encrypted traffic between Azure virtual networks over the Microsoft network. To send encrypted network traffic between your Azure virtual network and your on-premises site, you must create a VPN gateway for your virtual network.

Each virtual network can have only one VPN gateway, however, you can create multiple connections to the same VPN gateway. An example of this is a Multi-Site connection configuration. When you create multiple connections to the same VPN gateway, all VPN tunnels, including Point-to-Site VPNs, share the bandwidth that is available for the gateway.

What is a virtual network gateway?

A virtual network gateway is composed of two or more virtual machines that are deployed to a specific subnet called the GatewaySubnet. The VMs that are located in the GatewaySubnet are created when you create the virtual network gateway. Virtual network gateway VMs are configured to contain routing tables and gateway services specific to the gateway. You can't directly configure the VMs that are part of the virtual network gateway and you should never deploy additional resources to the GatewaySubnet.

When you create a virtual network gateway using the gateway type 'Vpn', it creates a specific type of virtual network gateway that encrypts traffic; a VPN gateway. A VPN gateway can take up to 45 minutes to create. This is because the VMs for the VPN gateway are being deployed to the GatewaySubnet and configured with the settings that you specified. The Gateway SKU that you select determines how powerful the VMs are.

Configuring a VPN Gateway

A VPN gateway connection relies on multiple resources that are configured with specific settings. Most of the resources can be configured separately, although they must be configured in a certain order in some cases.


The settings that you chose for each resource are critical to creating a successful connection. For information about individual resources and settings for VPN Gateway, see About VPN Gateway settings. The article contains information to help you understand gateway types, VPN types, connection types, gateway subnets, local network gateways, and various other resource settings that you may want to consider.

Deployment tools

You can start out creating and configuring resources using one configuration tool, such as the Azure portal. You can later decide to switch to another tool, such as PowerShell, to configure additional resources, or modify existing resources when applicable. Currently, you can't configure every resource and resource setting in the Azure portal. The instructions in the articles for each connection topology specify when a specific configuration tool is needed.

Deployment model

When you configure a VPN gateway, the steps you take depend on the deployment model that you used to create your virtual network. For example, if you created your VNet using the classic deployment model, you use the guidelines and instructions for the classic deployment model to create and configure your VPN gateway settings. For more information about deployment models, see Understanding Resource Manager and classic deployment models.

Planning table

The following table can help you decide the best connectivity option for your solution.

Point-to-Site Site-to-Site ExpressRoute
Azure Supported Services Cloud Services and Virtual Machines Cloud Services and Virtual Machines Services list
Typical Bandwidths Typically < 100 Mbps aggregate Typically < 1 Gbps aggregate 50 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 200 Mbps, 500 Mbps, 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, 5 Gbps, 10 Gbps
Protocols Supported Secure Sockets Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) IPsec Direct connection over VLANs, NSP's VPN technologies (MPLS, VPLS,...)
Routing RouteBased (dynamic) We support PolicyBased (static routing) and RouteBased (dynamic routing VPN) BGP
Connection resiliency active-passive active-passive or active-active active-active
Typical use case Prototyping, dev / test / lab scenarios for cloud services and virtual machines Dev / test / lab scenarios and small scale production workloads for cloud services and virtual machines Access to all Azure services (validated list), Enterprise-class and mission critical workloads, Backup, Big Data, Azure as a DR site
Pricing Pricing Pricing Pricing
Technical Documentation VPN Gateway Documentation VPN Gateway Documentation ExpressRoute Documentation
FAQ VPN Gateway FAQ VPN Gateway FAQ ExpressRoute FAQ

Gateway SKUs

When you create a virtual network gateway, you need to specify the gateway SKU that you want to use. Select the SKUs that satisfy your requirements based on the types of workloads, throughputs, features, and SLAs.


The new VPN gateway SKUs (VpnGw1, VpnGw2, and VpnGw3) are supported for the Resource Manager deployment model only. Classic virtual networks should continue to use the old SKUs. For more information about the old gateway SKUs, see Working with virtual network gateway SKUs (old). If you are looking for SKUs for ExpressRoute gateways, see Virtual Network Gateways for ExpressRoute.

Azure offers the following VPN gateway SKUs:

SKU S2S/VNet-to-VNet
Throughput Benchmark
VpnGw1 Max. 30 Max. 128 650 Mbps
VpnGw2 Max. 30 Max. 128 1 Gbps
VpnGw3 Max. 30 Max. 128 1.25 Gbps
Basic Max. 10 Max. 128 100 Mbps
  • Aggregate Throughput Benchmark is based on measurements of multiple tunnels aggregated through a single gateway. It is not a guaranteed throughput due to Internet traffic conditions and your application behaviors.

  • Pricing information can be found on the Pricing page.

  • SLA (Service Level Agreement) information can be found on the SLA page.

Production vs. Dev-Test Workloads

Due to the differences in SLAs and feature sets, we recommend the following SKUs for production vs. dev-test:

Workload SKUs
Production, critical workloads VpnGw1, VpnGw2, VpnGw3
Dev-test or proof of concept Basic

If you are using the old SKUs, the production SKU recommendations are Standard and HighPerformance SKUs. For information on the old SKUs, see Gateway SKUs (legacy SKUs).

Gateway SKU feature sets

The new gateway SKUs streamline the feature sets offered on the gateways:

SKU Features
Basic Route-based VPN: 10 tunnels with P2S; no RADIUS authentication for P2S; no IKEv2 for P2S
Policy-based VPN: (IKEv1): 1 tunnel; no P2S
VpnGw1, VpnGw2, and VpnGw3 Route-based VPN: up to 30 tunnels (*), P2S, BGP, active-active, custom IPsec/IKE policy, ExpressRoute/VPN co-existence

(*) You can configure "PolicyBasedTrafficSelectors" to connect a route-based VPN gateway (VpnGw1, VpnGw2, VpnGw3) to multiple on-premises policy-based firewall devices. Refer to Connect VPN gateways to multiple on-premises policy-based VPN devices using PowerShell for details.

Resizing gateway SKUs

  1. You can resize between VpnGw1, VpnGw2, and VpnGw3 SKUs.
  2. When working with the old gateway SKUs, you can resize between Basic, Standard, and HighPerformance SKUs.
  3. You cannot resize from Basic/Standard/HighPerformance SKUs to the new VpnGw1/VpnGw2/VpnGw3 SKUs. You must, instead, migrate to the new SKUs.

Migrating from old SKUs to the new SKUs


  • The VPN gateway Public IP address will change when migrating from an old SKU to a new SKU.
  • You can't migrate classic VPN gateways to the new SKUs. Classic VPN gateways can only use the legacy (old) SKUs.

You can't resize your Azure VPN gateways between the old SKUs and the new SKU families. If you have VPN gateways in the Resource Manager deployment model that are using the older version of the SKUs, you can migrate to the new SKUs. To migrate, you delete the existing VPN gateway for your virtual network, then create a new one.

Migration workflow:

  1. Remove any connections to the virtual network gateway.
  2. Delete the old VPN gateway.
  3. Create the new VPN gateway.
  4. Update your on-premises VPN devices with the new VPN gateway IP address (for Site-to-Site connections).
  5. Update the gateway IP address value for any VNet-to-VNet local network gateways that will connect to this gateway.
  6. Download new client VPN configuration packages for P2S clients connecting to the virtual network through this VPN gateway.
  7. Recreate the connections to the virtual network gateway.

Connection topology diagrams

It's important to know that there are different configurations available for VPN gateway connections. You need to determine which configuration best fits your needs. In the sections below, you can view information and topology diagrams about the following VPN gateway connections: The following sections contain tables which list:

  • Available deployment model
  • Available configuration tools
  • Links that take you directly to an article, if available

Use the diagrams and descriptions to help select the connection topology to match your requirements. The diagrams show the main baseline topologies, but it's possible to build more complex configurations using the diagrams as a guideline.

Site-to-Site and Multi-Site (IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel)


A Site-to-Site (S2S) VPN gateway connection is a connection over IPsec/IKE (IKEv1 or IKEv2) VPN tunnel. S2S connections can be used for cross-premises and hybrid configurations. A S2S connection requires a VPN device located on-premises that has a public IP address assigned to it and is not located behind a NAT. For information about selecting a VPN device, see the VPN Gateway FAQ - VPN devices.

Azure VPN Gateway Site-to-Site connection example


This type of connection is a variation of the Site-to-Site connection. You create more than one VPN connection from your virtual network gateway, typically connecting to multiple on-premises sites. When working with multiple connections, you must use a RouteBased VPN type (known as a dynamic gateway when working with classic VNets). Because each virtual network can only have one VPN gateway, all connections through the gateway share the available bandwidth. This is often called a "multi-site" connection.

Azure VPN Gateway Multi-Site connection example

Deployment models and methods for Site-to-Site and Multi-Site

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal PowerShell Azure CLI
Resource Manager Article Article Article
Classic Article** Article+ Not Supported

(**) denotes that this method contains steps that require PowerShell.

(+) denotes that this article is written for multi-site connections.

Point-to-Site (VPN over IKEv2 or SSTP)

A Point-to-Site (P2S) VPN gateway connection lets you create a secure connection to your virtual network from an individual client computer. A P2S connection is established by starting it from the client computer. This solution is useful for telecommuters who want to connect to Azure VNets from a remote location, such as from home or a conference. P2S VPN is also a useful solution to use instead of S2S VPN when you have only a few clients that need to connect to a VNet.

Unlike S2S connections, P2S connections do not require an on-premises public-facing IP address or a VPN device. P2S connections can be used with S2S connections through the same VPN gateway, as long as all the configuration requirements for both connections are compatible. For more information about Point-to-Site connections, see About Point-to-Site VPN.

Azure VPN Gateway Point-to-Site connection example

Deployment models and methods for P2S

Azure native certificate authentication

Deployment model/method Azure portal PowerShell
Resource Manager Article Article
Classic Article Supported

RADIUS authentication

Deployment model/method Azure portal PowerShell
Resource Manager Supported Article
Classic Not Supported Not Supported

VNet-to-VNet connections (IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel)

Connecting a virtual network to another virtual network (VNet-to-VNet) is similar to connecting a VNet to an on-premises site location. Both connectivity types use a VPN gateway to provide a secure tunnel using IPsec/IKE. You can even combine VNet-to-VNet communication with multi-site connection configurations. This lets you establish network topologies that combine cross-premises connectivity with inter-virtual network connectivity.

The VNets you connect can be:

  • in the same or different regions
  • in the same or different subscriptions
  • in the same or different deployment models

Azure VPN Gateway VNet to VNet connection example

Connections between deployment models

Azure currently has two deployment models: classic and Resource Manager. If you have been using Azure for some time, you probably have Azure VMs and instance roles running in a classic VNet. Your newer VMs and role instances may be running in a VNet created in Resource Manager. You can create a connection between the VNets to allow the resources in one VNet to communicate directly with resources in another.

VNet peering

You may be able to use VNet peering to create your connection, as long as your virtual network meets certain requirements. VNet peering does not use a virtual network gateway. For more information, see VNet peering.

Deployment models and methods for VNet-to-VNet

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal PowerShell Azure CLI
Classic Article* Supported Not Supported
Resource Manager Article+ Not Supported Article
Connections between different deployment models Article* Article Not Supported

(+) denotes this deployment method is available only for VNets in the same subscription.
(*) denotes that this deployment method also requires PowerShell.

ExpressRoute (private connection)

Microsoft Azure ExpressRoute lets you extend your on-premises networks into the Microsoft cloud over a private connection facilitated by a connectivity provider. With ExpressRoute, you can establish connections to Microsoft cloud services, such as Microsoft Azure, Office 365, and CRM Online. Connectivity can be from an any-to-any (IP VPN) network, a point-to-point Ethernet network, or a virtual cross-connection through a connectivity provider at a co-location facility.

ExpressRoute connections do not go over the public Internet. This allows ExpressRoute connections to offer more reliability, faster speeds, lower latencies, and higher security than typical connections over the Internet.

An ExpressRoute connection does not use a VPN gateway, although it does use a virtual network gateway as part of its required configuration. In an ExpressRoute connection, the virtual network gateway is configured with the gateway type 'ExpressRoute', rather than 'Vpn'. For more information about ExpressRoute, see the ExpressRoute technical overview.

Site-to-Site and ExpressRoute coexisting connections

ExpressRoute is a direct, private connection from your WAN (not over the public Internet) to Microsoft Services, including Azure. Site-to-Site VPN traffic travels encrypted over the public Internet. Being able to configure Site-to-Site VPN and ExpressRoute connections for the same virtual network has several advantages.

You can configure a Site-to-Site VPN as a secure failover path for ExpressRoute, or use Site-to-Site VPNs to connect to sites that are not part of your network, but that are connected through ExpressRoute. Notice that this configuration requires two virtual network gateways for the same virtual network, one using the gateway type 'Vpn', and the other using the gateway type 'ExpressRoute'.

ExpressRoute and VPN Gateway coexisting connections example

Deployment models and methods for S2S and ExpressRoute coexist

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal PowerShell
Resource Manager Not Supported Article
Classic Not Supported Article


You pay for two things: the hourly compute costs for the virtual network gateway, and the egress data transfer from the virtual network gateway. Pricing information can be found on the Pricing page.

Virtual network gateway compute costs
Each virtual network gateway has an hourly compute cost. The price is based on the gateway SKU that you specify when you create a virtual network gateway. The cost is for the gateway itself and is in addition to the data transfer that flows through the gateway.

Data transfer costs
Data transfer costs are calculated based on egress traffic from the source virtual network gateway.

  • If you are sending traffic to your on-premises VPN device, it will be charged with the Internet egress data transfer rate.
  • If you are sending traffic between virtual networks in different regions, the pricing is based on the region.
  • If you are sending traffic only between virtual networks that are in the same region, there are no data costs. Traffic between VNets in the same region is free.

For more information about gateway SKUs for VPN Gateway, see Gateway SKUs.


For frequently asked questions about VPN gateway, see the VPN Gateway FAQ.

Next steps