Quickstart: Install SQL Server and create a database on Red Hat
In this quickstart, you first install SQL Server 2017 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.3+. Then connect with sqlcmd to create your first database and run queries.
You must have a RHEL 7.3 or 7.4 machine with at least 2 GB of memory.
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your own machine, go to http://access.redhat.com/products/red-hat-enterprise-linux/evaluation. You can also create RHEL virtual machines in Azure. See Create and Manage Linux VMs with the Azure CLI, and use
--image RHEL in the call to
az vm create.
For other system requirements, see System requirements for SQL Server on Linux.
Install SQL Server
To configure SQL Server on RHEL, run the following commands in a terminal to install the mssql-server package:
If you have previously installed a CTP or RC release of SQL Server 2017, you must first remove the old repository before registering one of the GA repositories. For more information, see Change repositories from the preview repository to the GA repository.
Download the Microsoft SQL Server Red Hat repository configuration file:
sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/mssql-server.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/mssql-server-2017.repo
This is the Cumulative Update (CU) repository. For more information about your repository options and their differences, see Configure repositories for SQL Server on Linux.
Run the following commands to install SQL Server:
sudo yum install -y mssql-server
After the package installation finishes, run mssql-conf setup and follow the prompts to set the SA password and choose your edition.
sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf setup
If you are trying SQL Server 2017 in this tutorial, the following editions are freely licensed: Evaluation, Developer, and Express.
Make sure to specify a strong password for the SA account (Minimum length 8 characters, including uppercase and lowercase letters, base 10 digits and/or non-alphanumeric symbols).
Once the configuration is done, verify that the service is running:
systemctl status mssql-server
To allow remote connections, open the SQL Server port on the firewall on RHEL. The default SQL Server port is TCP 1433. If you are using FirewallD for your firewall, you can use the following commands:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=1433/tcp --permanent sudo firewall-cmd --reload
At this point, SQL Server is running on your RHEL machine and is ready to use!
Install the SQL Server command-line tools
Download the Microsoft Red Hat repository configuration file.
sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/msprod.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/prod.repo
If you had a previous version of mssql-tools installed, remove any older unixODBC packages.
sudo yum remove unixODBC-utf16 unixODBC-utf16-devel
Run the following commands to install mssql-tools with the unixODBC developer package.
sudo yum install -y mssql-tools unixODBC-devel
For convenience, add
/opt/mssql-tools/bin/to your PATH environment variable. This enables you to run the tools without specifying the full path. Run the following commands to modify the PATH for both login sessions and interactive/non-login sessions:
echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bash_profile echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bashrc source ~/.bashrc
Sqlcmd is just one tool for connecting to SQL Server to run queries and perform management and development tasks. Other tools include:
The following steps use sqlcmd to locally connect to your new SQL Server instance.
Run sqlcmd with parameters for your SQL Server name (-S), the user name (-U), and the password (-P). In this tutorial, you are connecting locally, so the server name is
localhost. The user name is
SAand the password is the one you provided for the SA account during setup.
sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P '<YourPassword>'
You can omit the password on the command line to be prompted to enter it.
If you later decide to connect remotely, specify the machine name or IP address for the -S parameter, and make sure port 1433 is open on your firewall.
If successful, you should get to a sqlcmd command prompt:
If you get a connection failure, first attempt to diagnose the problem from the error message. Then review the connection troubleshooting recommendations.
Create and query data
The following sections walk you through using sqlcmd to create a new database, add data, and run a simple query.
Create a new database
The following steps create a new database named
From the sqlcmd command prompt, paste the following Transact-SQL command to create a test database:
CREATE DATABASE TestDB
On the next line, write a query to return the name of all of the databases on your server:
SELECT Name from sys.Databases
The previous two commands were not executed immediately. You must type
GOon a new line to execute the previous commands:
Next create a new table,
Inventory, and insert two new rows.
From the sqlcmd command prompt, switch context to the new
Create new table named
CREATE TABLE Inventory (id INT, name NVARCHAR(50), quantity INT)
Insert data into the new table:
INSERT INTO Inventory VALUES (1, 'banana', 150); INSERT INTO Inventory VALUES (2, 'orange', 154);
GOto execute the previous commands:
Now, run a query to return data from the
From the sqlcmd command prompt, enter a query that returns rows from the
Inventorytable where the quantity is greater than 152:
SELECT * FROM Inventory WHERE quantity > 152;
Execute the command:
Exit the sqlcmd command prompt
To end your sqlcmd session, type
Connect from Windows
SQL Server tools on Windows connect to SQL Server instances on Linux in the same way they would connect to any remote SQL Server instance.
If you have a Windows machine that can connect to your Linux machine, try the same steps in this topic from a Windows command-prompt running sqlcmd. Just verify that you use the target Linux machine name or IP address rather than localhost, and make sure that TCP port 1433 is open. If you have any problems connecting from Windows, see connection troubleshooting recommendations.
For other tools that run on Windows but connect to SQL Server on Linux, see:
For other installation scenarios, see the following resources:
|Upgrade||Learn how to upgrade an existing installation of SQL Server on Linux|
|Uninstall||Uninstall SQL Server on Linux|
|Unattended install||Learn how to script the installation without prompts|
|Offline install||Learn how to manually download the packages for offline installation|
To explore other ways to connect and manage SQL Server, explore the following tools:
|Visual Studio Code||A cross-platform GUI code editor that run Transact-SQL statements with the mssql extension.|
|SQL Server Operations Studio||A cross-platform GUI database management utility.|
|mssql-cli||A cross-platform command-line interface for running Transact-SQL commands.|
|SQL Server Management Studio||A Windows-based GUI database management utility that can connect to and manage SQL Server instances on Linux.|
To learn more about writing Transact-SQL statements and queries, see Tutorial: Writing Transact-SQL Statements.
For answers to frequently asked questions, see the SQL Server on Linux FAQ.