GRANT Server Permissions (Transact-SQL)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO:yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)noAzure SQL DatabasenoAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

Grants permissions on a server.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax


GRANT permission [ ,...n ]   
    TO <grantee_principal> [ ,...n ] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]  
    [ AS <grantor_principal> ]  

<grantee_principal> ::= SQL_Server_login   
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_login  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_group  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_certificate  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_asymmetric_key  
    | server_role  

<grantor_principal> ::= SQL_Server_login   
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_login  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_group  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_certificate  
    | SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_asymmetric_key  
    | server_role  

Arguments

permission
Specifies a permission that can be granted on a server. For a list of the permissions, see the Remarks section later in this topic.

TO <grantee_principal> Specifies the principal to which the permission is being granted.

AS <grantor_principal> Specifies the principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

WITH GRANT OPTION
Indicates that the principal will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

SQL_Server_login
Specifies a SQL Server login.

SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_login
Specifies a SQL Server login mapped to a Windows login.

SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_Windows_group
Specifies a SQL Server login mapped to a Windows group.

SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_certificate
Specifies a SQL Server login mapped to a certificate.

SQL_Server_login_mapped_to_asymmetric_key
Specifies a SQL Server login mapped to an asymmetric key.

server_role
Specifies a user-defined server role.

Remarks

Permissions at the server scope can be granted only when the current database is master.

Information about server permissions can be viewed in the sys.server_permissions catalog view, and information about server principals can be viewed in the sys.server_principals catalog view. Information about membership of server roles can be viewd in the sys.server_role_members catalog view.

A server is the highest level of the permissions hierarchy. The most specific and limited permissions that can be granted on a server are listed in the following table.

Server permission Implied by server permission
ADMINISTER BULK OPERATIONS CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY AVAILABILITY GROUP

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2012 through current version).
CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY CONNECTION CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY CREDENTIAL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY DATABASE CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY ENDPOINT CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY EVENT SESSION CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY LINKED SERVER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY LOGIN CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SERVER ROLE

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2012 through current version).
CONTROL SERVER
ALTER RESOURCES CONTROL SERVER
ALTER SERVER STATE CONTROL SERVER
ALTER SETTINGS CONTROL SERVER
ALTER TRACE CONTROL SERVER
AUTHENTICATE SERVER CONTROL SERVER
CONNECT ANY DATABASE

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2014 through current version).
CONTROL SERVER
CONNECT SQL CONTROL SERVER
CONTROL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE ANY DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE
CREATE AVAILABILITY GROUP

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2012 through current version).
ALTER ANY AVAILABILITY GROUP
CREATE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION
CREATE ENDPOINT ALTER ANY ENDPOINT
CREATE SERVER ROLE

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2012 through current version).
ALTER ANY SERVER ROLE
CREATE TRACE EVENT NOTIFICATION ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION
EXTERNAL ACCESS ASSEMBLY CONTROL SERVER
IMPERSONATE ANY LOGIN

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2014 through current version).
CONTROL SERVER
SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2014 through current version).
CONTROL SERVER
SHUTDOWN CONTROL SERVER
UNSAFE ASSEMBLY CONTROL SERVER
VIEW ANY DATABASE VIEW ANY DEFINITION
VIEW ANY DEFINITION CONTROL SERVER
VIEW SERVER STATE ALTER SERVER STATE

Remarks

The following three server permissions were added in SQL Server 2014.

CONNECT ANY DATABASE Permission
Grant CONNECT ANY DATABASE to a login that must connect to all databases that currently exist and to any new databases that might be created in future. Does not grant any permission in any database beyond connect. Combine with SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES or VIEW SERVER STATE to allow an auditing process to view all data or all database states on the instance of SQL Server.

IMPERSONATE ANY LOGIN Permission
When granted, allows a middle-tier process to impersonate the account of clients connecting to it, as it connects to databases. When denied, a high privileged login can be blocked from impersonating other logins. For example, a login with CONTROL SERVER permission can be blocked from impersonating other logins.

SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES Permission
When granted, a login such as an auditor can view data in all databases that the user can connect to. When denied, prevents access to objects unless they are in the sys schema.

Permissions

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted. Members of the sysadmin fixed server role can grant any permission.

Examples

A. Granting a permission to a login

The following example grants CONTROL SERVER permission to the SQL Server login TerryEminhizer.

USE master;  
GRANT CONTROL SERVER TO TerryEminhizer;  
GO  

B. Granting a permission that has GRANT permission

The following example grants ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION to SQL Server login JanethEsteves with the right to grant that permission to another login.

USE master;  
GRANT ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION TO JanethEsteves WITH GRANT OPTION;  
GO  

C. Granting a permission to a server role

The following example creates two server roles named ITDevAdmin and ITDevelopers. It grants the ALTER ANY DATABASE permission to the ITDevAdmin user-defined server role including the WITH GRANT option so that the ITDevAdmin server role can reassign the ALTER ANY DATABASE permission. Then, the example grants the ITDevelopers the permission to use the ALTER ANY DATABASE permission of the ITDevAdmin server role.

USE master;  
CREATE SERVER ROLE ITDevAdmin ;  
CREATE SERVER ROLE ITDevelopers ;  
GRANT ALTER ANY DATABASE TO ITDevAdmin WITH GRANT OPTION ;  
GRANT ALTER ANY DATABASE TO ITDevelopers AS ITDevAdmin ;  
GO  

See Also

GRANT (Transact-SQL)
DENY (Transact-SQL)
DENY Server Permissions (Transact-SQL)
REVOKE Server Permissions (Transact-SQL)
Permissions Hierarchy (Database Engine)
Principals (Database Engine)
Permissions (Database Engine)
sys.fn_builtin_permissions (Transact-SQL)
sys.fn_my_permissions (Transact-SQL)
HAS_PERMS_BY_NAME (Transact-SQL)