View the SQL Server error log in SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
The SQL Server error log contains user-defined events and certain system events you can use for troubleshooting.
View the logs
In SQL Server Management Studio, select Object Explorer. To open Object Explorer, select F8. Or on the top menu, select View, and then select Object Explorer:
In Object Explorer, connect to an instance of SQL Server, and then expand that instance.
Find and expand the Management section (assuming you have permissions to see it).
Right-click SQL Server Logs, select View, and then choose SQL Server Log.
The Log File Viewer appears (it might take a moment) with a list of logs for you to view.
For more information, see MSSQLTips.com's helpful post Identify location of the SQL Server Error Log file.