Copy and transform data from Hive using Azure Data Factory

APPLIES TO: Azure Data Factory Azure Synapse Analytics

This article outlines how to use the Copy Activity in Azure Data Factory to copy data from Hive. It builds on the copy activity overview article that presents a general overview of copy activity.

Supported capabilities

This Hive connector is supported for the following activities:

You can copy data from Hive to any supported sink data store. For a list of data stores that are supported as sources/sinks by the copy activity, see the Supported data stores table.

Azure Data Factory provides a built-in driver to enable connectivity, therefore you don't need to manually install any driver using this connector.

Prerequisites

If your data store is located inside an on-premises network, an Azure virtual network, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud, you need to configure a self-hosted integration runtime to connect to it.

Alternatively, if your data store is a managed cloud data service, you can use Azure integration runtime. If the access is restricted to IPs that are approved in the firewall rules, you can add Azure Integration Runtime IPs into the allow list.

For more information about the network security mechanisms and options supported by Data Factory, see Data access strategies.

Getting started

To perform the Copy activity with a pipeline, you can use one of the following tools or SDKs:

The following sections provide details about properties that are used to define Data Factory entities specific to Hive connector.

Linked service properties

The following properties are supported for Hive linked service:

Property Description Required
type The type property must be set to: Hive Yes
host IP address or host name of the Hive server, separated by ';' for multiple hosts (only when serviceDiscoveryMode is enabled). Yes
port The TCP port that the Hive server uses to listen for client connections. If you connect to Azure HDInsights, specify port as 443. Yes
serverType The type of Hive server.
Allowed values are: HiveServer1, HiveServer2, HiveThriftServer
No
thriftTransportProtocol The transport protocol to use in the Thrift layer.
Allowed values are: Binary, SASL, HTTP
No
authenticationType The authentication method used to access the Hive server.
Allowed values are: Anonymous, Username, UsernameAndPassword, WindowsAzureHDInsightService. Kerberos authentication is not supported now.
Yes
serviceDiscoveryMode true to indicate using the ZooKeeper service, false not. No
zooKeeperNameSpace The namespace on ZooKeeper under which Hive Server 2 nodes are added. No
useNativeQuery Specifies whether the driver uses native HiveQL queries, or converts them into an equivalent form in HiveQL. No
username The user name that you use to access Hive Server. No
password The password corresponding to the user. Mark this field as a SecureString to store it securely in Data Factory, or reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. No
httpPath The partial URL corresponding to the Hive server. No
enableSsl Specifies whether the connections to the server are encrypted using TLS. The default value is false. No
trustedCertPath The full path of the .pem file containing trusted CA certificates for verifying the server when connecting over TLS. This property can only be set when using TLS on self-hosted IR. The default value is the cacerts.pem file installed with the IR. No
useSystemTrustStore Specifies whether to use a CA certificate from the system trust store or from a specified PEM file. The default value is false. No
allowHostNameCNMismatch Specifies whether to require a CA-issued TLS/SSL certificate name to match the host name of the server when connecting over TLS. The default value is false. No
allowSelfSignedServerCert Specifies whether to allow self-signed certificates from the server. The default value is false. No
connectVia The Integration Runtime to be used to connect to the data store. Learn more from Prerequisites section. If not specified, it uses the default Azure Integration Runtime. No
storageReference A reference to the linked service of the storage account used for staging data in mapping data flow. This is required only when using the Hive linked service in mapping data flow No

Example:

{
    "name": "HiveLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "Hive",
        "typeProperties": {
            "host" : "<cluster>.azurehdinsight.net",
            "port" : "<port>",
            "authenticationType" : "WindowsAzureHDInsightService",
            "username" : "<username>",
            "password": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<password>"
            }
        }
    }
}

Dataset properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for defining datasets, see the datasets article. This section provides a list of properties supported by Hive dataset.

To copy data from Hive, set the type property of the dataset to HiveObject. The following properties are supported:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the dataset must be set to: HiveObject Yes
schema Name of the schema. No (if "query" in activity source is specified)
table Name of the table. No (if "query" in activity source is specified)
tableName Name of the table including schema part. This property is supported for backward compatibility. For new workload, use schema and table. No (if "query" in activity source is specified)

Example

{
    "name": "HiveDataset",
    "properties": {
        "type": "HiveObject",
        "typeProperties": {},
        "schema": [],
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<Hive linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        }
    }
}

Copy activity properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for defining activities, see the Pipelines article. This section provides a list of properties supported by Hive source.

HiveSource as source

To copy data from Hive, set the source type in the copy activity to HiveSource. The following properties are supported in the copy activity source section:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the copy activity source must be set to: HiveSource Yes
query Use the custom SQL query to read data. For example: "SELECT * FROM MyTable". No (if "tableName" in dataset is specified)

Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromHive",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<Hive input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "HiveSource",
                "query": "SELECT * FROM MyTable"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

Mapping data flow properties

The hive connector is supported as an inline dataset source in mapping data flows. Read using a query or directly from a Hive table in HDInsight. Hive data gets staged in a storage account as parquet files before getting transformed as part of a data flow.

Source properties

The below table lists the properties supported by a hive source. You can edit these properties in the Source options tab.

Name Description Required Allowed values Data flow script property
Store Store must be hive yes hive store
Format Whether you are reading from a table or query yes table or query format
Schema name If reading from a table, the schema of the source table yes, if format is table String schemaName
Table name If reading from a table, the table name yes, if format is table String tableName
Query If format is query, the source query on the Hive linked service yes, if format is query String query
Staged Hive table will always be staged. yes true staged
Storage Container Storage container used to stage data before reading from Hive or writing to Hive. The hive cluster must have access to this container. yes String storageContainer
Staging database The schema/database where the user account specified in the linked service has access to. It is used to create external tables during staging and dropped afterwards no true or false stagingDatabaseName
Pre SQL Scripts SQL code to run on the Hive table before reading the data no String preSQLs

Source example

Below is an example of a Hive source configuration:

Hive source example

These settings translate into the following data flow script:

source(
    allowSchemaDrift: true,
    validateSchema: false,
    ignoreNoFilesFound: false,
    format: 'table',
    store: 'hive',
    schemaName: 'default',
    tableName: 'hivesampletable',
    staged: true,
    storageContainer: 'khive',
    storageFolderPath: '',
    stagingDatabaseName: 'default') ~> hivesource

Known limitations

  • Complex types such as arrays, maps, structs, and unions are not supported for read.
  • Hive connector only supports Hive tables in Azure HDInsight of version 4.0 or greater (Apache Hive 3.1.0)

Lookup activity properties

To learn details about the properties, check Lookup activity.

Next steps

For a list of data stores supported as sources and sinks by the copy activity in Azure Data Factory, see supported data stores.