SharePoint 中的資訊管理和控管Information management and governance in SharePoint

摘要:了解如何規劃有效的資訊架構,以確保 SharePoint 解決方案符合您的業務需求。Summary: Learn how to plan effective information architecture to ensure that your SharePoint solution meets your business needs.

您將如何控管組織中的資訊,例如文件、清單、網站及網頁?您如何讓資訊達到最大的可用性和可管理性?誰可以存取哪些資訊?您如何讓資訊可供內部和外部使用以及誰可以使用?How will you govern the information in your organization, such as documents, lists, websites, and webpages? How do you maximize the information's usability and manageability? Who has access to what information? How are you making information available internally and externally, and to whom?

什麼是資訊架構?What is information architecture?

資訊架構會決定該網站或解決方案中的資訊 (即網頁、文件、清單及資料) 組織和呈現給網站使用者的方式。資訊架構的記錄形式通常是內容、搜尋關鍵字、資料類型與其他概念的階層清單。Information architecture determines how the information in that site or solution—its webpages, documents, lists, and data—is organized and presented to the site's users. Information architecture is often recorded as a hierarchical list of content, search keywords, data types, and other concepts.

請評估貴組織的資訊架構,盡量使其有效率:完整評估貴組織的資訊架構有助於您識別可提高效率之處,例如:Assess your organization's information architecture to make it as efficient as possible: A comprehensive assessment of your organization's information architecture can help you identify efficiencies, such as the following:

  • 使用中繼資料,讓搜尋及比較相關的資料與內容變得更容易進行。Use metadata to make it easier to search for and compare related data or content.

  • 管理版本和記錄,確保您可以分清哪個版本的文件是授權版本。Manage versions and records to ensure that you can tell which is the authoritative version of a document.

  • 適當將資訊分門別類及儲存,讓決策者可以找到並倚賴正確的資料。Catalog and store information properly so decision-makers can find and rely on the right data.

  • 設計導覽並呈現資訊,讓使用者可以找到重要的網站與資訊。Design navigation and present information so that users can find important sites and information.

  • 將您的資訊架構與您環境的搜尋策略整合,讓使用者可以找到正確資訊。資訊架構包括架構與網站地圖、搜尋和導覽、受管理中繼資料標記以及內容類型。Integrate your information architecture with your environment's search strategy, so your users can find the right information. Information architecture includes the wireframe and site map, search and navigation, managed metadata tags, and content types.

  • 定義發佈策略:分配編寫工作並使用跨網站發佈,以控制網站設計與內容顯示。Define a publishing strategy: distribute authoring tasks and use cross-site publishing to control the design of the site and display of the content.

良好的資訊架構可支援下列目標:Good information architecture supports the following goals:

  • 可管理 IT 小組是否可以有效實作及管理資訊?Manageable Can the IT team effectively implement and manage the information?

  • 符合需求 資訊架構是否符合法規需求、隱私權需求及安全性目標?Meets requirements Does the information architecture meet regulatory requirements, privacy needs, and security goals?

  • 提升商業效率 架構是否可增進貴組織的效率?Increases business effectiveness Does the architecture add to your organization's effectiveness?

設計網站或解決方案時,需要自問的問題如下:Questions to ask when you design a site or solution:

問題Question 詳細資訊More information
如何呈現資料?How will data be presented?
Plan for business intelligence in SharePoint 2013Plan for business intelligence in SharePoint 2013
網站使用者如何瀏覽?How will site users navigate?
SharePoint Server 中的網站導覽概觀Overview of site navigation in SharePoint Server
如何設定及最佳化搜尋?How will search be configured and optimized?
SharePoint Server 的搜尋架構概觀Overview of search architecture in SharePoint Server
可以如何組織內容,讓搜尋傳回有用的結果?How can you organize content so that searches return useful results?
針對 SharePoint Server 中的搜尋來組織內容的最佳做法Best practices for organizing content for search in SharePoint Server
網站上將存放何種類型的內容?What types of content will live on sites?
Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013規劃 SharePoint Server 的網際網路、內部網路及外部網路發佈網站Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013 and Plan for Internet, intranet, and extranet publishing sites in SharePoint Server
如何標記內容和管理中繼資料?How will content be tagged and how will metadata be managed?
在 SharePoint Server 中規劃受管理的中繼資料Plan for managed metadata in SharePoint Server
網站上是否有任何內容具有獨特的安全性需求?Does any of the content on the sites have unique security needs?
SharePoint Server 中的網站和內容權限規劃Permissions planning for sites and content in SharePoint Server
詞彙的授權來源為何?What is the authoritative source for terms?
Plan terms and term sets in SharePoint Server 2013Plan terms and term sets in SharePoint Server 2013
如何針對特定對象顯示相關資訊?How will information be targeted at specific audiences?
選取目標對象及內容規劃 (SharePoint Server 2010)Audience and content targeting planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
網站是否需要有語言特定或產品特定版本?Do you need to have language-specific or product-specific versions of your sites?
SharePoint Server 中的變化概觀Variations overview in SharePoint Server
誰將撰寫網站內容?您將使用何種方法來發佈該內容?Who will write content for the site and what method will you use to publish it?
在 SharePoint Server 中發佈至網際網路、內部網路及外部網路網站的功能概觀Overview of publishing to Internet, intranet, and extranet sites in SharePoint Server

資訊存取Information access

設計解決方案和網站時,務必要考量內容的存取。這會與您考量整個環境時的 IT 控管重疊。請自問下列問題:Be sure to consider access to content when you design your solution and sites. This overlaps with IT governance as you consider your entire environment. Ask these questions:

資訊管理:權限和對象Information management: permissions and audiences

問題Question 詳細資訊More information
網站中的權限該採什麼樣的結構?How do I structure permission in a site?
Overview of site permissions in SharePoint 2013Overview of site permissions in SharePoint 2013
如何針對特定對象顯示相關內容?How do I target content to a specific audience?
選取目標對象及內容規劃 (SharePoint Server 2010)Audience and content targeting planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
是否應該使用資訊版權管理 (IRM) 來保護內容?Should I use Information Rights Management (IRM) to protect content?
規劃資訊版權管理 (SharePoint Server 2010)Plan Information Rights Management (SharePoint Server 2010)

IT 控管:存取IT governance: access

問題Question 詳細資訊More information
如何讓此內容可供外部使用者使用?How do I make this content available to external users?
SharePoint Server 設計範例:公司入口網站及外部網站SharePoint Server design samples: Corporate portal and extranet sites
如何確保僅授權予有需要的人?How do I make sure that only people who need access have it?
Security and permissions (SharePoint 2013)Security and permissions (SharePoint 2013)

資訊管理工具Information management tools

請使用資訊管理工具來控管資訊,包括下列工具:Govern your information by using tools for information management, including:

工具Tool 詳細資訊More information
針對文件中心和網站頁面使用工作流程與核准機制,只要是有存放官方文件的位置都要。Use workflows and approvals for Document Centers and site pages—wherever official documentation is stored.
Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013
針對發佈網站使用核准機制以控制頁面。Use approval for published websites to control pages.
規劃 SharePoint Server 的網際網路、內部網路及外部網路發佈網站Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013Plan for Internet, intranet, and extranet publishing sites in SharePoint Server and Plan content types and workflows in SharePoint 2013
使用版本歷程記錄和版本控制來維護歷程記錄和主控文件。Use version history and version control to maintain a history and master document.
Plan document versioning, content approval, and check-out controls in SharePoint 2013Plan document versioning, content approval, and check-out controls in SharePoint 2013
使用 [內容組合管理] 來管理文件庫。Manage libraries by using the Content Organizer.
設定 [內容組合管理] 以傳送文件Configure the Content Organizer to route documents
使用網站原則來管理網站集合生命週期。Use site policies to manage site collection life cycles.
SharePoint Server 的網站原則概觀Overview of site policies in SharePoint Server
使用 [資訊版權管理] 和稽核,保護及稽核重要的公司資產和任何含有機密資訊的網站。Use Information Rights Management and auditing to secure and audit important corporate assets and any sites that contain sensitive information.
將資訊版權管理套用至清單或文件庫設定網站集合的稽核設定Apply Information Rights Management to a list or library and Configure audit settings for a site collection

決定的規則或原則所需的下列類型的項目: 頁面、 清單、 文件、記錄、 多元資產、 部落格與 wiki、摘要、 匿名意見、 匿名存取、字詞與字詞組、 與外部資料 (Business Connectivity Services)。Determine the rules or policies that you need for the following types of items: pages, lists, documents, records, rich assets, blogs and wikis, feeds, anonymous comments, anonymous access, terms and term sets, and external data (Business Connectivity Services).

良好的資訊管理作法是考量下列因素之間的平衡:As a good information management practice, consider the balance among the following factors:

  • 可用性 內容必須可供使用者隨時隨地取用。Availability Content needs to be available when users need it and where they can get to it.

  • 存取 考量誰可以存取該內容。是否需要加上安全保護?Access Consider who has access to the content. If it should be secure, is it?

  • 重複性 共用複本可減少重複性,並提供單一版本的文件。Redundancy Shared copies reduce redundancy and provide one version of a document.

思考下列問題,想想您覺得不同內容該有的優先順序:Consider your priorities for different content by thinking through questions like these:

  • 對於各內容類型,以上因素當中何者具有最高優先順序?Which of these factors is the highest priority for each type of content?

  • 可用是否比存取還重要?Is availability more important than access?

  • 存取是否比重複性還重要?Is access more important than redundancy?

  • 什麼因素會讓使用者覺得使用困難,而想改用其他解決方案?What would make it so difficult for users that they would be tempted to use a different solution?

  • 可以做或想要做哪些取捨?What trade-offs are possible or desirable?

資訊結構規劃資源Resources for planning information architecture

下表列出的資源可協助資訊架構師規劃 SharePoint 解決方案的資訊架構。The following table presents resources that are available to help information architects plan the information architecture of your SharePoint solution.

資訊架構資源Information architecture resources

若要規劃 …To plan … 請參閱 …See …
網站與子網站的結構The structure of sites and subsites
在 SharePoint Server 中規劃網站和網站集合Plan sites and site collections in SharePoint Server
文件庫Document libraries
Plan document libraries in SharePoint 2013Plan document libraries in SharePoint 2013
導覽Navigation
SharePoint Server 中受管理導覽的概觀Overview of managed navigation in SharePoint Server
SharePoint Server 中的網站導覽概觀Overview of site navigation in SharePoint Server
中繼資料Metadata
Plan managed metadata (OLD)Plan managed metadata (OLD)
搜尋Search
在 SharePoint Server 規劃搜尋Plan search in SharePoint Server
內容到期Content expiration
在 SharePoint Server 2013 中規劃資訊管理原則Plan for information management policy in SharePoint Server
頁面的發佈與管理Publishing and managing pages
規劃 SharePoint Server 的網際網路、內部網路及外部網路發佈網站Plan for Internet, intranet, and extranet publishing sites in SharePoint Server
範本Templates
網站類型:WebTemplate 和網站定義Site Types: WebTemplates and Site Definitions
內容核准Content approval
Plan document versioning, content approval, and check-out controls in SharePoint 2013Plan document versioning, content approval, and check-out controls in SharePoint 2013
規劃內容核准及排程Plan content approval and scheduling
資訊管理原則Information management policies
在 SharePoint Server 2013 中規劃資訊管理原則Plan for information management policy in SharePoint Server
社交運算Social computing
在 SharePoint Server 中規劃「我的網站」Plan for My Sites in SharePoint Server
在 SharePoint Server 中規劃商務用 OneDrivePlan for OneDrive for Business in SharePoint Server